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A    I.BOBND    OF   THE    NORTH; 


BY 


ESAIASTEGNl^R,  ,    ,         ^ 


Bishop  of  WcxiS  in  Sweden. 


Translated  from  the  Original  Swedish 
by 

G.  S. 


/  4/ 


WjVA  XFII  Engravings  J  XII  Musical  Accompaniments, 
and  various  other  Addenda. 


STOCKHOLM: 
A.  BONNIEB. 

LONDON: 
BLACK   AND   ABMSTBONG, 

Booksellers  to  the  Qneen. 


MDCCCXXXIX, 


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STOCKHOLM: 

Printed  by  G.  H.  Nordstrom. 


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TO 

ESAIAS   TEGNER, 

WHOSE  GENIUS  IS  THE  UNITIltG  GLOBY 
THE    B09IE-LAND    OF    FRITHIOF  S    SAGA  , 

anb   of  f^e    ^^«<J^   ^2|)<^<*^^3   <^f 
STTDDSSU I 

THE    HOME-LAND    OF    FRITHIOF  S    BARD, 

THIS    TRAISSLATION 

of  §(5  jmf^^t  wr^ 

IS,    WITH  PROFOUxVD  RESPECT, 

most  affectionately/ 
INSCRIBED. 


ivi747063 

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V  if  a(  in 

lEGNi:R9  whom  a  Swedish  Author  has  magnificently 
denominated  **that  Mighty  Genie  who  organizes  even  disor- 
der/' "^  has  in  no  production  more  distinguished  himself 
than  in  the  work  of  which  the  following  pages  are  a 
Translation.  If  his  fame  is  to  be  measured  by  the  rule 
of  Madame  de  Stael  —-  *  ^translations  are  a  present  im- 
mortality^'  —  then  it  will  not  soon  perish  from  the  re«» 
£ord's  of  —  the  Great, 

Fully  aware  of  the  horror  every  distinguished  Poet 
must  feel,  at  having  mangled  versions  of  his  finest  lays 
sent  out  from  distant  lands »  —  the  Translator  early  re- 
solved not  to  publish  this  Work,  unless  it  met  with  the 
approbation  of  the  Author  himself.  This  he  has  been 
fortunate  enough  to  obtain,  accompanied  by  corrections 
and  communications  of  the  highest  value.  To  the  ^Intro- 
ductory Letter,'**  in  particular,  we  would  refer,  as  con- 
taining explanations  indispensable  for  understanding  the 
Original  Design  of  the  Poem.  It  would  be  superfluous  to 
add,  that  we  express  our  deepest  gratitude  for  both  the 
kindness  itself  which  the  Bishop  has  hereby  showed  us, 
and  for  the  manner  in  which  it  was  done,  —  to  an  m/z- 
Tcnown  and  undistinguished  Student. 

Our  thanks  are  also  especially  due  to  the  individuals 
who  have  variously  contributed  to  the  elucidation  and 
adornment  of  our  pages.  The  *'Life"  by  the  distinguished 
Poet  and  Patriarchal  Christian  franzen,**  —  the  "De- 
scription   of  Ingeborg's    Arm-Ring"  **    by    flie    profound 

*  It  is  difRcult  to  give  at  once  both  the  alliteration  and  the  terseness  of 
the  original:  -—  den  ^'starke  anden  som  ordnar  sjelfva  oordningen.n 
Cruun$toIpes  uSkildringar ,«  —  De  narvarande ,  p.  496. 

*  *  In  order  that  these  new  and  valuable  Documents  may  not  be  lost  to  the 


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VI 

Anliquarian  and  gentlemanlj  Scholar  HILDEBRAND  —  for, 
thank  God,  pedantry  is  fast  ceasing  to  he  the  mark  of 
erudition ,  —  and  the  Musical  accompaniments  by  the  late 
distinguished  composer  crUsell*,  and  by  the  Countess 
MONTGOMERY,  now  GYLLENHAAL,  —  are  all  precious  ad- 
denda to  the  work  itself  and  deserve,  as  they  will  receive, 
the  thanks  of  the  European  Public. 

Conceiving  it  necessary  to  a  proper  appreciation  of 
the  Poetic  Legend,  we  have  appended  a  Translation  of 
the  Prose  Icelandic  Saga,  in  itself  one  of  the  most  beauti- 
ful in  the  whole  Cycle  of  Icelandic  Literature.  The  in- 
cidents relating  to  the  Hero,  Frithiof  the  Dauntless^  oc- 
curred previously  to  the  close  of  the  Vlllth  Centuiy  of 
our  Era,  though  they  were  probably  not  transferred  from 
the  oral  to  the  written  circle  of  tradition  till  3  or  4  cen- 
turies later. 

As  to  the  ^Frithiof  of  Bishop  tegner  we  cannot  do 
better  than  quote  from  a  beautiful  Notice  of  the  Bishop's 
Poem  inserted  in  the  "North  American  Review"  No.  XCVI ; 
the  Author  is,  we  believe,  the  learned  and  talented  Pro- 
fessor Longfellow,**  whom  we  remember  having  seen 
in  this  Capital  during  his  Northern  Tour:  — '*We  consider 

Northern  Pnblic  we  have ,  wilh  the  permission  of  the  Authors ,  pub- 
lished the  Swedish  Originals  as  an  ^Appendix  to  Frilhiofs  Saga.» 
One  great  favour  .and  advantage  we  have  enjoyed  —  the  Translations 
of  these  three  communications  have  all  been  read  and  approved  by  the 
gentlemen  to  whom  we  owe  them. 

*  It  is  his  surviving  Family  who  have  granted  us  permission  to  re-print 
some  of  the  very  popular  airs  which  he  wrote,  and  which  are  sung 
in  Scandinavia  in  every  dwelling ,  from  the  palace  to  the  cottage. 

*  *  Our  quotation  begins  at  p.  151.  The  «Revicw«  in  question  reached 
us  while  this  Translation  was  going  through  the  press.  The  fragments 
translated  by  the  Professor  surpass  any  we  have  hitherto  seen  in 
Englisli. 


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VII 

the   "Legend   of  Frilhiof"   as  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
productions    of  the  age.     It  is  an  Epic  Poem,  composed 
of  a  series  of  Ballads  ...     It  seems  to  us  a  very  laudable 
innovation^    thus    to    describe   various    scenes    in   various 
metre ,  and  not  employ  the  same  for  a  game  of  chess  and 
a  storm  at   sea.  •  .     The  reader  must  bear  in  mind,  that 
the    work  before   him  is  written  in  the  spirit  of  the  past; 
in   the    spirit   of  that    old  poetry    of  the  North,  in  which 
the    same    images    and    expressions  are   oft  repealed,  and 
the  sword  is  called  the  Lightning's  Brother,  —  a  Banner, 
the   Hider  of  Heaven;  gold,  the  Day-light  of  Dwarfs,  and 
the    grave,    the    gi'een   gate    of  Paradise.     The  old  Scald 
smote    the    strings    of  his   harp,  with  as  hold  a  hand,  as 
the   Berserk    smote    his   foe  ...     He  lived  in  a  credulous 
age ;  in  the  dim  twilight  of  the  past.     He  was 

"The  sky-lark  in  the  dawn  of  years. 
The  poet  of  the  mora." 

" We   must  visit,   in   imagination  at  least,  that 

distant   land   [Scandinavia],   and  converse  with  the  genius 
of  the  place.  It  points  us  to  the  Past;  to  the  great  mounds, 
which    are    the    tombs   of  kings.     Their  bones  are  within ; 
» skeletons    of  warriors   mounted   on   the   skeletons  of  their 
steeds;  and  Vikings  sitting  gaunt  and  grim  on  the  plankless 
ribs    of  their  pirate    ships.  ...  In  every  mysterious  sound 
that  fills  the   air,    the  peasant  still  hears  the  trampling  of 
Odin's  steed,  which  many  centuries  ago  took  fright  at  the 
sound    of  a    church   bell.     The   memory   af  Balder  is  still 
preserved  in   the   flower  that  bears  his  name ,  and  Freja's 
Spinning-wheel    still    glimmers   in  the  stars  of  the  constel- 
lation   Orion.     The    sound   of  Stromkarl's  [the  Mer-man's] 
flute^is  heard  in   tinkling  brooks,  and  his  song  in  water- 
falls.    In   the   forest,  the  Skogsfrun,  of  wondrous  beauty. 


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vm 


leads  young  men  astray ;  and  Tomtgubbe  [little  Puck]  ham- 
mers and  pounds  away,  all  night  long,  at  the  peasadt's 
unfinished  cottage.  Almost  primeval  simplicity  reigns  over 
this  Northern  land,  —  almost  primeval  solitude  and  stillness.** 

In  translating  the  work  thus  commented  upon,  we 
have  preserved  the  same  metre  and  the  same  number  of 
lines  in  XXII  (or  strictly  XXIII  for  the  Ilnd  Canto  differs 
little  from  the  Swedish  ,  if  printed  in  4  lines  instead  of  8), 
out  of  the  XXn^  Cantos.  *  Willingly  would  we  have  done 
so  in  the  two  remaining  Songs  also,  but  found  it  impos- 
sible without  sacrificing  the  spirit  to  the  form.  We  wish 
any  future  Translator  belter  success.  The  Translation  was 
commenced  and  almost  finished  before  we  met  with  any- 
one of  the  Versions  which  have  preceded  it,  and  not- 
withstanding their  general  merit,  the  present  pages  will 
perhaps  be  acceptable  to  all  who  wish  to  examine  TEG- 
NiER  *  *  in  faithful  echoes ,  instead  of  in  a  Paraphrase ;  — 
though  the  latter  is,  of  course,  a  far  easier  task  for  the 
Versifier. 


*  "We  perfectly  agree  -with  Professor  Longfellow,  p.  159,  in  ihe  style 
of  Translation  always  to  be  adopted:  —  ««There  are ,«  says  Golhe , 
two  maxims  of  Translation ;  the  one  requires  that  the  author  of  a 
foreign  nation  be  brought  to  us  in  such  a  manner  that  we  regard  him 
as  our  own;  the  other,  on  the  contrary,  demands  of  us  that  we  trans- 
port ourselves  over  to  him,  and  adopt  his  situation,  his  mode  of 
speaking.  Ids  pecnliarilies.t  We  recognize  only  one  of  these  maxims 
of  translation,  —  the  last.^*  — 

**  The  following  pages  chant,  in  noble  measures,  a  victory  of  the 
Religious  principle  over  youthful  arrogance ,  and  apparently  indomi- 
table hardihood  .  .  .  they  detail  a  glorious  conquest  of  the  sense  of 
female  dignity  and  patriotic  duty,  over  fervent  and  deep-rooted  af- 
fection, in  a  bosom  which  «young  Astrildw  had  chosen  for  his  fa- 
vourite shrine.«    Bt-r.  Mr.  Strong'$  Trans,  of  Frilhiof,  Fref.  p.  XII. 


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IX 

The  Notes  and  Index  have  been  reduced  into  as  short 
a  compass  as  possible,  consistent  with  a  tolerably  clear 
explanation  of  the  different  subjects  on  which  they  treat. 
There  is  little  that  is  original  among  them,  our  object 
haying  been  to  use  the  picturesque  descriptions  of  the 
Ancient  North  in  preference  to  modern  paraphases.  Many, 
it -is  true,  will  think  them  much  too  diffuse;  but  our  own 
persuasion  af  the  low  state  of  Scandinavian  Literature  ge- 
nerally in  Great  Britain ,  induces  the  idea  that  the  majority 
of  our  readers  will  thank  us  for  our  otherwise  thankless 
trouble.  It  will  be  observed  that  a  large  number  of  ex- 
tracts are  from  the  notes  appended  to  the  Translation  of 
the  Rev.  Mr  Strong,  — but,  undoubtedly,  both  the  reader 
and  that  gentleman  himself  will  acquit  us  for  avoiding 
the  stupid  and  pedantic  vanity  of  again  doing  what  had 
been  so  well  done  before.  The  field  of  mind,  of  litera- 
ture, of  the  ennoblement  and  civilization  of  our  race  is 
so  large,  so  immense,  that  the  "few  labourers''  who  cul- 
tivate it  have  all  of  them  more  than  they  can  possibly 
accomplish  —  without  wasting  their  time  and  strength  by 
doing  things  twice  over  when  once  is  suflScient. 

Lastly,  if  this  work  has  any  merit,  —  let  the  honour 
fall  where  it  is  due.  —  It  is  to  my  dear  and  distinguished 
Brother,  the  Rev.  J.  R.  Stephens,  the  tribune  of  the 
POOR,  that  I  am  indebted  for  having  my  attention  turned 

"from  sounds  to  things;" 
and  he  it  was  who  recommended  to  my  eager  study  the 
literature  of  the  North  in  general,  and  Frithiofs  Saga 
in  particular  —  which  he  unrolled  before  me  by  an  oral 
translation  —  at  a  time  when  far  away  from  the  shores  of 
the  North ,  and  when  the  work  was  altogether  unknown 
in  England. 


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But  the  faults  of  this  Performance  are  so  numerous, 
and  so  well  aware  are  we  of  the  great  degree  in  which  it 
falls  short  of  the  beautiful  Original  and  of  our  own  Ideal  — 
that  it  is  only  with  all  the  modesty  becoming  youth  and 
comparative  inexperience,  that  we  venture  to  lay  it, 

*'With  all  its  imperfections  on  its  head," 
before  an  enlightened  and  indulgent  public.  One  thing 
we  must  entreat,  —  that  every  thing  weak,  inferior,  or 
unexpressive  will  be  attributed  to  its  proper  source  —  the 
pen  of  the  Translator  —  not  the  "immortal  plume"  of 
the  illustrious  Author.  Do  not  let  the  Master  suffer 
for  the  faults  of  his  Disciple.  —  Should  these  pages  be 
received  with  favour,  it  is  our  intention,  at  some  future 
period,  to  present  to  our  countrymen  a  volume  contain- 
ing a  choice  series  of  the  *'Beauties  of  tegn^r,"  most 
of  them ,  whether  in  prose  or  poetry,  unabridged.  In 
the  mean  time,  should  Criticism  —  seated  on  the  throne 
of  the  Thunderer,  and  wielding  the  God's  own  bolts  — 

Hurl  its  indignant  lightnings  at  our  head, 
and  annihilate  a  work  vainly  hoping  for  subsistence  —  our 
consolation  will  be,    ^^non   omnia  possumus  omnes^^  and 
we  shall  abandon  the  field  to  some  more  gifted  champion. 

Stockholm,  June  21st.  1839. 

a.  s. 


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LIFE    AND   CAREER 


or 


ESAIAS     TEGNfSR. 


BT 


F.    M.    FRANZEN. 


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SKETCH  OF  THE 

LIFE    AND    CAREER 

of  the 
AUTHOR  OF  'FRITHIOF'S  SAGA: 

By 

F.   M.    FRANz£n, 
Bishop  of  Hernosand,  Sweden. 


Translated  from  the  Original  Swedish, 


X  hree  of  tlie  Provinces  of  Sweden  vie  with  each  other  in  claiming  to 
thcmselTcs  the  name,  so  glorious  for  the  whole  kingdom,  so  hcloved  by 
the  whole  nation,  —  tegner.  The  first  is  the  iron-veined  H^ermlandj 
where  the  great  Bard  was  horn  and  grew  in  years.  The  second  is  the 
fruitful  Shane  (Scania),  at  whose  famed  University  he  suddenly  sprang 
forth  an  accomplished  Teacher ,  instead  of  what  he  had  been  —  an  extra- 
ordinary and  for  the  most  part  a  self-taught,  pupil ,  —  and  whence  his 
poetical  renown  flew  through  the  whole  of  Sweden,  and  soon  through 
Europe  itself.  The  pleasant  (trejlig)  Smdland  is  the  third;  here,  as  the 
Chief  of  its  Diocese  and  the  guardian  of  its  Educational  Institutions,  he 
has  gained  yet  greater  consideration  and  yet  fresher  honours.  Indeed  he 
belongs  originally  to  this  Bishopric,  partly  through  his  Father  who  was 
born  there,  and  partly  by  his  Name  which  his  Ancestors  took  from  the 
village  of  Tegna  {Tegnahy)  —  at  present  a  part  of  the  Diocese-Estates. 
Thus  his  vciy  name  seems  to  have  announced  to  tegit^r  his  future  station. 
His  Father,  who  was  also  called  esaias  tegner,  and  who  was  a  good 
Preacher,  a  cheerful  Companion,  and  an  active  Agriculturalist,  had  been 


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XII 

nominated  to  the  Rectoi^y  of  MillesyiV.  It  was  while  he  was  yet  waiting 
till  he  could  occupy  the  Parsonage,  and  was  living  at  the  house  of  the 
Assistant-Minister  at  Kyrkerud  in  the  Living  of  By,  that  his  Spouse, 
whose  maiden  name  was  S.  M.  Seidclius,  hore  him,  on  the  13th  of  No- 
vember 1782,  his  fourth  Son  —  Esaias. 

While  not  yet  9  years  old  he  lost  his  father,  and  for  want  of 
means  —  his  elder  Brothers  having  all  to  be  supported  as  Students  — 
was  compelled  to  seek  some  other  path  for  his  future  livelihood.  The 
Assessor  Branting,  a  Sm&land-man,  consequently  from  the  same  Province, 
and  probably  also  a  near  friend  of  his  father,  took  the  lad  into  his 
House,  and  he  was'  brought  up  there  to  be  his  Assistant  in  the  Baillie- 
Office-room  (Fogde-Konloret).  He  soon  acquired  whatever  belonged  to 
his  employment,  and  accompanied  his  Foster-father  to  all  the  meetings 
for  the  collection  of  the  Taxes.  As  the  Bailliwic  was  extensive,  these 
jom'nies  taught  him  to  know  and  admire  the  beauty  with  which  this 
Province  reflects  its  woods  and  mountains  in  its  many  lakes.  A  proof 
of  this  we  find  in  his  fine  Poem  *To  my  Home-region*  ('Till  min  Hem- 
byggd'  *),  the  first  which  introduced  him  to  the  notice  of  the  Public. 

Tegner  cannot  himself  remember,  when  he  first  began  to  write  verse. 
While  yet  a  child,  he  sang  of  every  event  at  all  remarkable  in  his  uniform 
life.  Nay,  he  even  undertook  a  considerable  Poem  under  the  name  of 
*Atle,*  the  subject  of  which  was  taken  from  "Bjorners  Kiimpadater,"  — 
thus  the  Same  collection  of  old  Sagas  in  which,  at  a  more  mature  age> 
he  found  the  rough  sketch  of  his  'Frithiof.' 

The  Northern  Sagas  were  among  his  first  and  dearest  acquaintances, 
at  a  time  when  —  ignorant  of  every  language  but  his  mother-tongue  — 
he  read  every  thing  he  could  meet  with,  particularly  in  History  and  the 
Belles  Lettres.  He  sat,  with  a  book  in  his  hand,  wherever  he  happened 
to  find  himself,  sometimes  on  a  stone,  and  sometimes  on  a  ladder;  — 
and  one  day,  during  harvest,  when  he  should  watch  a  field-gate,  he 
altogether  forgot  his  task,  so  swallowed  up  was  he  in  what  he  was  read- 
ing, and  -let  the  cattle  wander  through  into  the  yet  unmown  meadow! 

Thus  grew  he  up,  like  a  Wild-Apple-tree  in  the  forest,  till  he  was 
14  years  of  age.  Then  it  was  that  Branting ,  who  had  long  remarked  his 
passion  for  reading,  accidentally  discovered  the  profit  he  drew  from  it. 
One   evening,   as   they  were   traveling  home  from  Carlstad  and  the  stars 

*  Pablisbed  io  1802,  in  "Stockbolms-posten."     Q,  S, 


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XIII 

were  shining  bright  above  them,  his  fostcrfathcr,  who  was  a  pious  man 
of  the  good  old-fashioned  School ,  took  occasion  to  speak  of  the  handi- 
works of  God,  and  of  the  evident  omnipotence  and  wisdom  he  had  dis- 
covered therein.  The  boy's  answer  showed  a  knowledge  of  the  System 
of  the  World  and  of  the  Laws  for  the  motions  of  the  heavenly  Bodies, 
at  which  the  old  man  was  astonished.  *How  do  you  know  that/?  he 
enquired.  *1  have  read  about  it  in  "Bastholms  Philosophic  for  Olarde*** 
(Philosophy  for  the  unlearned)  —  he  replied.  Bran  ting  was  silent;  but 
some  days  after,  he  observed,  —  *You  must  become  a  Student*  —  How 
decisive  were  these  words!  How  important  not  only  in  the  Life  of  TEGNEa, 
but  in  the  Literature  of  his  Country,  in  which  his  name  has  created  a 
new  epoch.  And  how  manifold  is  the  good,  both  in  the  Church  and  in 
the  Schools  of  Sweden,  which  must  have  been  lost  had  it  not  been  for 
that  one  sentence  1  It  was  on  that  expression  depended  all  the  renown 
and  pleasure  which  his  Works,  translated  as  they  have  been  into  so 
many  languages,  have  excited  throughout  Europe.  Well  does  the  memory 
of  the  honourable  Branting  deserve  the  distinction,  to  be  handed  down 
to  Posterity  conjoined  with  the  name  of  his  immortal  Foster-son !  —  But 
was  it  his  work  alone?  —  Though  we  cannot,  it  is  true,  regard  it  as 
direct  inspiration  that  he  should  begin  talking  about  the  Stars  to  the 
simple  office-boy  in  whose  mind  lay  concealed  so  great  a  subject,  —  still , 
in  the  whole  of  this  circumstance  generally,  we  must  acknowledge  the 
guiding  hand  of  l^ovidence,  that  hand  so  evident  but  so  oft  unseen  in 
the  life  of  the  Individual  no  less  than  in  the  History  of  the  World! 

To  study,  had  long  been  the  secret  longing  of  the  boy,  but  he  had 
not  dared  to  represent  his  wishes.  And  even  now,  however  great  his 
joy  at  this  glimpse  of  unexpected  light  he  could  not  help  objecting  •^ 
his  want  of  means.  <God  will  provide  for  the  sacrifice;'  answered  Bran- 
ting,  'you  arc  born  for  something  better  than  what  you  can  become  with 
me;  you  must  go  to  your  eldest  Brother,  he  will  guide  your  studies > 
and  I  shall  not  forget  you'. 

This  promise  he  fulfilled,  not  only  by  considerable  sums  to  assist 
iji  keeping  him  at  the  University,  but  by  a  fatherly  sympathy  in  all 
that  regarded  him.  And  this,  notwithstanding  he  was  now  compelled  to 
abandon  the  hope  he  had  long  secretly  cherished,  of  being  able  in  time 
to  leave  him  his  Place  —  together  with  his  youngest  daughter. 

In  the  month  of  March  1796,  Esaias  removed  to  his  Brother  Lars 
Gustaf,  who  was  then  a  Candidate  of  Philosophy ,  and  was  living  in  Werm- 


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XIV 

land.  The  latter,  a  man  already  distinguished  for  uncommon  learning, 
and  who  at  the  University-Promotion  was  the  rival  of  his  younger  Bro^ 
ther  for  the  first  degree,  and  who  as  many  thought  ought  to  have  gained 
the  preference,  now  hecame  the  tutor  of  the  youngest  The  wonderful 
progress  which  he  made,  is  a  proof  what  determined  resolution  united  to 
commanding  talents  can  accomplish,  especially  in  the  warming  season  of 
impetuous  Youth. 

After  nine  month's  instruction  from  his  Brother,  who  employed  the 
old  solid  method  of  teaching,  he  was  able  to  study  for  himself.  He  novs 
during  the  course  of  1797,  made  himself  familiar  with  a  multitude  of 
Latin  Authors,  particularly  the  Poets.  The  latter  fixed  themselves  so 
firmly  in  his  uncommonly  strong  memory,  that  he,  to  this  day,  can 
repeat  large  extracts  from  their  works.  In  Greek  also,  and  in  French,  he 
advanced  rapidly  without  any  assistance. 

So  early  as  the  following  year,  however,  when  he  had  not  yet  com- 
pleted his  16lh  winter ,  the  Youth  was  compelled  to  undertake  the  instruction 
of  others,  in  order  to  find  means  for  his  own  further  education.  The  Iron- 
Master  (Bruhspatron  J  Owner  of  Iron-Works,)  Myhrman,  who  was  after- 
wards Councillor  of  Mines  (Bergsrdd)  invited  him  to  become  the  Tutor 
of  his  Children.  In  this  also  was  a  special  dispensation ,  which  influenced 
not  only  his  private  and  immediate  circumstances,  but  also  his  future 
happiness.  The  spot,  too,  at  which  he  resided  was  distinguished  for  a 
wild  but  imposing  scenery.  It  belonged  to  those  extensive  wood-lands  to 
which  "Yfvakarl,"*  as  Karl  the  IXth  is  still  called  in  this  District, 
summoned  his  colonists  from  Finland.  The  owner  of  the  Works  was  an 
intelligent  and  persevering  Iron-Founder,  but  at  the  same  time  a  man 
uncommonly  educated  for  his  employment.  Being  himself  well  versed ,  not 
only  in  several  modern  Languages,  but  also  in  the  Latin  Tongue,  his  Li- 
brary contained  even  several  Greek  Classics.  Among  these  was  a  Folio,  which 
soon  became  the  object  of  the  poetical  stripling's  most  zealous  researches. 
It  was  a  —  Homer.  Notwithstanding  all  the  difficulties  thrown  in  his  way 
by  the  many  anomalous  Dialects,  and  by  his  own  still  imperfect  know- 
ledge of  the  Language  as  a  whole  and  of  its  various  peculiarities ,  —  he  was 
not  to  be  dismayed.  Even  then,  the  great  characteristic  of  his  mind  was  — 
never  to  give  way;  besides  which  it  exhibited  all  that  enei'gy  which  distin- 
guishes a  great  genius.  With  Zenophon  also,  and  with  Lucian,  he  became 

*  Karl  th€  Ortal,  (CharlemagDe)  —  a  Wermland  Provincial itm.     G.  S. 


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XV 

familiaar.  But  the  Bard  who  principally  divided  his  time  and  attention 
with  old  Homer,  was  —  his  Horace;  and  here  it  was  he  first  became  ac- 
quainted with  his  writings.  In  the  midst  of  all  this,  he  by  no  meant 
neglected  the  Literature  of  France ,  whose  most  classical  productions  richly 
adorned  this  Gentleman's  shelves.  —  Thus  it  was  that  he  was  even  now 
laying  the  foundations  of  that  Independence  with  which  he  afterwards 
withstood  all  one-sided  or  narrow-minded  judgements  over  the  Literature 
both  of  antic^uity  and  of  modern  times.  But  as  he  did  not  find  a  single 
Grerman  Poet  in  this  Library  and  only  learned  that  Language  through  the 
medium  of  common  elementary  books ,  he  acquired  a  prejudice  against  it  which 
was  long  before  it  was  entirely  dissipated.  With  English,  on  the  contrary, 
he  became  poetically  acquainted  through  Macpherson's  Translation  of 
Ossian.  This  work  produced  such  an  effect  upon  his  imagination,  that  he 
learned  the  language  without  any  help. 

In  the  usual  pleasures  and  amusements  of  youth ,  and  in  Society  in 
general,  he  mixed  little  if  at  all.  Nor,  indeed,  did  he  miss  them;  for 
his  books  gave  him  full  employment.  He  even  seldom  allowed  himself 
time,  at  this  period,  to  write  verses.  A  report,  however,  of  Buonaparte's 
death  in  Egypt,  occasioned  his  composing  a  Lyric  Poem  which  gave  Myhr- 
man  who  exceedingly  admired  the  French  Hero,  great  hopes  of  the  youth- 
ful minstrel.  But  the  Production  thus  grounded  on  so  false  a  rumour, 
has  never  yet  been  published. 

Having  now  reached  his  17th  year,  he  repaired  to  Lund,  in  the 
autumn  of  1799,  and  commenced  his  Academic  course.  His  object,  at 
first,  was  only  to  prepare  for  his  entrance  into  the  Royal  Chancery. 
Still  he  would  give  a  public  proof  of  his  proficiency  in  the  Greek  and 
Roman  Languages,  and  accordingly  wrote  a  Latin  Treatise  on  Anacreon. 
Armed  with  this  Document,  he  hastened  to  Doctor  Norberg,  a  Scholar 
famous  for  his  Oriental  erudition,  and  to  whose  Professorship  the  Lite- 
rature of  Greece  also  belonged  at  that  time.  This  interview  produced  a 
never-changing  impression  on  the  mind  of  the  promising  young  student, 
not  only  through  the  encouraging  ^kindness  with  which  he  had  received 
him,  but  through  his  whole  bearing  and  manners,  which  united  the 
charms  of  original  genius  with  a  naive  and  innocent  simplicity.  From 
the   beautiful    picture  *   which   tegner  has  prefixed  to  the  Poem  dedicated 

•  The  Introduction  —  as  Dedication  —  'To  Norherg.*     Q,  9. 


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XVI 

to  him  —  'Natlvardsbarncn*  *  —  we  may  be  at  least  allowed  to  copy  the 
following  features: 

Yes!  the'  East's  fast  Friend  art  Thou,  the  North's  proud  glory, 

A  man  of  Fable's  vanish'd  days  of  gold , 
And  speech  and  manners  hast  of  Patriarchs  hoary , 

And,  —  wise  as  Eld  —  the  Child's  pure  heai't  dost  hold!  ** 

Norberg  is  one  of  those  men  who  have  had  the  greatest  influence 
on  tegner's  career.  By  counseling  him  to  change  his  studies  at  once 
from  the  civil  official-examination  to  the  degree  of  M.  A.  —  he  kept  him 
at  the  University,  fixed  him  to  literary  pursuits,  and  prepared  the  way 
for  him  to  the  station  which  he  now  occupies  in  the  pale  of  the  Swedish 
Church. 

Norberg  offered  him  gratis  instruction  in  Arabic.^  But  the  learning 
of  the  East  had  no  attractions  for  the  young  Scald.  The  great  Oriental- 
ist was  also  a  perfect  master  of  the  Roman  Tongue,  and  contended  for 
the  palm  with  Professor  Lundblad,  whose  Latin  School  was  then  in  itff 
highest  lustre.  The  style  of  the  former  resembled  that  of  Tacitus,  in 
shortness,  expressiveness,  and  antithetic  pregnancy  of  diction.  The  latter, 
on  the  other  hand,  who  had  studied  in  Leipzig  and  had  there  formed 
himself  on  the  model  of  Ernesti,  had  introduced  his  Ciceronianism  into 
Sweden.  To  this  School  it  was  that,  both  by  example  and  by  precept, 
he  strictly  kept  the  young  men  who  were  under  his  charge.  To  choose 
between  these  two  'Masters  of  their  Art,*  was  not  so  easy  for  a  stripling- 
student.     Tegn^r  decided  for  the  Lundblad  Party;  being  induced  to  take 

*  In  a  Poem  f  recited  at  the  Promotion  to  Master  of  Arts,  at  Luod,  in  1829, 
where  Tegner  succeeded  Bishop  Faxe  as  Yice-Cbancellor  of  the  UuiTersity , 
and  where  Oehlenschlager  was  present,  and  received  the  Laurel  and  his  D(* 
ploma. —  f(*The  Children  of  the  Sacrament/  an  exceedingly  beautiful  Poem, 
not  yet  translated  into  English,  and  something  in  the  same  style  as  Gold- 
smith's Clergyman  in  *The  Deserted  Village.')     O.  S. 

*  *   From  the  Yllth  Stanza  in    the  abave-mentioned  Dedication.    The  original 

lines  are  as  follows:  • 

**Du,  Orientens  van,  du  Nordens  heder, 

Du  man  frfin  fabelns  glomda  dar  af  gull, 
Med  patriarkcrs  sprftk ,  med  deras  seder, 
Som  ftldren  vis,  som  barnet  oskuldsfull !" 
Tegners  Samtade  Dikter,  p.   1 3a.     Q.  S, 


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XVII 

thai  step  by  his  Brother  Elof ,  who  was  then  Reader  (Doccns)  at  the  Uni- 
versity and  was  considered  one  of  the  very  finest  pupils  Lundhlad  had 
produced. 

But  it  was  naturally  to  be  expected  that  the  other  Professors  also 
should  have  their  attention  fixed  on  a  Student  of  such  distinguished  qua- 
lities. He  himself  acknowledges  the  encouragement  he  received  from 
Munthe  and  from  Lidback.  The  former,  who  was  Professor  of  Moral 
Philosophy  and  a  zealous  Kantian ,  is  represented  by  tegner  *  in  a  most 
charming  sketch,  as  one  of  the  noblest  men  who  have  ever  adorned  any 
Academic  Chair.  With  the  latter,  who  had  just  been  created  Professor 
of  ^Esthetics,  and  had  attempted  Poetry  without  any  very  great  success, 
he  came  into  a  relation  which  cannot  be  better  expressed  than  by  the 
following  verses  composed  by  tegner: 

He,  who  latest  has  left  us. 

Gave  me  his  fatherly  care,  and  taught  me  the  Scale  of  the  Muses 
While,  yet  young,  I  requir'd  his  counsel.    Nor  would  he  grow  angry 
If,  ofttimes,  I  obey'd  him  but  badly  —  trying,  as  rash  Youth 
Will,  my  pinions  in  regions  not  his.     Yes!  nobly  he  acted  I"*' * 
In    the  Mathematical  Sciences  he  had  read  little  or  nothing  before  he 
came  to   the   University.    But,   being   now   engaged  in  preparing  for  his 
degree,   his   clear    understanding  enabled   him   to  make  rapid  progress  in 
this   Department   also,   and   almost   without   any    assistance.      The    only 
Lectures  he  attended  were  those  on   Physics  and  on  the  Differential-Cal- 
culus,  and  his   Notes  on  these  occasions  were  afterwards  a  standing  loan 
among  bis  acquaintance,  and  were  highly  spoken  of  for  lucidity  and  pre- 
cision. Thus  at  the  University,  also,  he  continued  to  be  an  avro^i^axtog , 
althougb    through   the  medium  of  books.     He  commonly  worked  from  18 

*  Id  liis  **MiDneD"  (RecolIectioQs),  which  constitute  so  beantifal  a  group  in  his 
Poems ,  and  which  do  so  much  honoar  to  his  heart  no  It-ss  than  to  his 
genius.  (See  Tegnirt  Smdrre  DAter ,  p.  a33.) 

** "Ed  som  sednast  bar  bortgfttt 

Tog  mig  t  faderlig  vftrd,  och  larde  mig  Skalan  till  Singen, 
Nar  jag  var  nng  och  behofde  bans  rftd;  och  baa  harmades  icke, 
Om  jag  ej  foljde  dem  jemt,  meo  forsokte,  som  ynglingar  plaga , 
Yiugaroes  kraft,  i  rymder  ej  bans:  det  var  adelt  af  bonom." 
The  above  lines  were  written  at  the  Promotion  ia  Lund  1829.     G,  8. 


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XVIII 

to  20  hoars  a  day,  sleeping  as  little  as  possible.  He  seldom  partook  iA 
the  pastimes  which  belonged  to  his  age ,  or  in  the  Life  of  a  Student 
generally;  this  gained  him  the  character  of  a  bashful ,  awkward  and 
singular  young  man. 

Who  could  believe  this  of  so  lively  a  genius,  so  cheerful,  playfully- 
wilty,  and  so  amiable  a  Society-man  as  at  a  later  time  he  has  been 
found  to  be?  —  But  this  was  the  only  w&y  by  which,  within  so  short  a 
time,  the  could  acquire  such  various  and  such  solid  erudition. 

Through  the  assistance  of  Myhrman  and  of  Branting,  he  had  been 
enabled  to  pass  near  a  year  at  the  University,  without  being  compelled 
to  break  off  his  own  studies  by  instructing  others.  But  his  scrupulousness 
would  not  permit  him  any  longer  to  take  advantage  of  their  generosity, 
without  some  effort  to  obtain  his  own  subsistence.  He  therefore  applied 
for  and  obtained  a  University  private-tutorship  in  the  family  of  Baron 
Leyonhufvud,  at  Yxkullsund  in  Smiland.  His  pupil,  the  Baron  Abraham 
Leyonhufvud,  who  has  since  risen  to  be  President  of  the  High  Justiciary 
Court,  is  —  of  all  the,  individuals  he  has  instructed  —  the  one  he  has 
most  esteemed  and  loved.  And  this  feeling  has  remained  unchanged 
during  a  course  of  30  years.  His  habits  of  life  at  Yxkullsund  were  the 
same  as  at  the  University  —  laborious,  lonely,  and  averse  to  company. 
But  after  he  had  written  some  French  verses,  on  the  occasion  ofafamily- 
f^tc-day,  — the  awkward  and  gloomy  Student  began  to  be  remarked  with 
wonder  and  esteem. 

After  having  passed  the  summer  of  1800  at  this  Seat,  he  returned 
to  Lund,  accompanied  by  his  pupil.  Here  Professor  Lidback  appointed 
him  Extraordinary  Amanuensis  to  the  University  Library,  of  which  the 
Professor  was  the  Manager.  To  this,  it  is  true,  no  salary  was  attached; 
but  it  was  an  uncommon  distinction  for  a  youth  of  18,  who  had  not 
yet  taken  his  degree. 

That  he  might  accomplish  this  he  now  prepared  himself  with  increas- 
ing zeal,  mostly  studying  Philosophy,  partly  in  the  Dialogues  of  Plato, 
and  partly  in  the  Writings  of  Kant  and  a  few  by  Fichte.  He  has  himself 
declared  that,  with  his  concrete  mind,  he  was  not  disposed  for  these 
abstract  speculations ,  and  that  he  grew  tired  of  pursuing  a  long  systematic 
Deduction  which  allowed  no  foot^hold  for  the  Fancy.  His  Academic 
Treatises,  however,  show  that  he  easily  penetrated  and  clearly  understood 
Philosophical  questions.  —  What  more  especially  drew  him  to  the  critical 


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XIX 

School  of  Kant  was^  its  originally  sceptical  nature  and  ils  great  result*, 
which  stops  short  at  a  something  —  unknown  and  never-to-be-fathomed! 

At  the  Examination  for  Degrees,  which  he  passed  in  two  divisions 
— '.  the  autumn  of  1801  and  the  spring  of  1802  — -  he  obtained  'laudatur  / 
the  highest  Certificate,  from  all  the  Professors  except  Norberg.  This  was 
altogether  unexpected,  especially  as  tegniIr  was  acknowledged,  in  Greek, 
which  then  belonged  to  the  same  Professorship  as  the  Oriental  Languages, 
to  be  the  most  accomplished  of  all  the  promovendL  —  But  Morberg  fixed 
a  higher  value  on  the  latter  Literature,  in  which  also  he  had  gained 
Continental  celebrity. 

With  such  high  testimonials,  tegner  was  of  course  the  unopposed 
primus  at  the  Promotion ,  and  was  to  answer  the  Magister-Question.  But 
in  the  meantime  an  event  occurred,  which  threatened  to  banish  him  for 
«ver  from  the  University,  to  destroy  all  his  prospects  there,  and  to  give 
his  destiny  quite  another  object. 

LundagSrd  is  the  name  of  an  Academic  Promenade,  shaded  by  aged 
trees,  beneath  whose  murmur  the  Students  are  accustomed  to  pass  the 
most  innocent  of  their  evening  hours ,  —  if  not  exactly  in  Socratic  Dia* 
logues ,  at  least  with  somewhat  Platonic  feelings  of  the  beautiful.  One 
evening,  however,  a  transaction  took  place  there  which  was  not  altogether 
so  innocent.  Without  being  aware  of  anything  at  all  extraordinary, 
TEGiTER,  alone  as  usual,  was  hastening  thither  to  refresh  himself  after  the 
day*s  hard  toil.  He  then  found  assembled  there  a  very  large  body  of  the 
Students,  all  armed  with  branches  cut  from  the  old  and  venerable  trees. 
They,  howev<^,  had  hewed  down  not  a  single  bough;  it  had  been  done 
by  order  of  the  Consistory,  to  promote  the  growth  of  the  Trees  and 
make  their  tops  more  leafy.  This  intention  the  young  men  misunderstood , 
supposing  that  all  this  maiming  foreboded  the  destruction  of  their  fa* 
▼ourite  Lundagard,  and  the  more  so  as  they  found  that  whole  Trees  had 
been  felled.  These,  however,  were  old  and  naked  trunks  which  it  was 
thought  ought  to  make  room  for  younger  stems.  The  rising  discontent 
was  principally  directed  against  the  University's  then  ofEciating  Rector 
Magnificus,  who  was  by  no  means  loved,  and  who  was  believed  to 
have  been  alone  concerned  in  planning  all  this  ruin,  tegnibr,  whom  the 
eager  crowd  surrounded  immediately  on  his  arrival ,  with  shouts  of  -^ 
'Primus  must  go  with  us'  —  made  representations  but  in  vain  against 
the  tumult.  Clamoured  down,  and  armed  like  the  rest  with  a  branch,  he 
was   obliged  to   accompany   them.     The  procession  took  the  route  to  the 


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Rector's  House,  which  was  first  saluted  with  a  thundering  cry  of  — 
'Pereat  Rector j  vivat  Lundagdrd.^  —  Then  all  the  houghs  were  thrown 
in  a  heap  hcfore  the  entrance,  completely  blocking  up  the  door.  After 
this,  they  went  tumultuously  up  the  street,  giving  hurrahs  to  several  of 
the  Professors.  For  the  Theology-Professor,  Hylander,  vivat  was  not 
shouted  but  chaunted  in  chorus.  On  their  return,  when  the  Rector  was 
once  more  saluted  with  a  'Pereat/  it  was  very  near  happening  that  they 
proceeded  to  break  his  windows  also.  This,  however,  was  prevented  by 
TEGNER  and  the  Magislcr  Wallenberg,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Linkoping; 
but  only  by  the  argument  that  ladies  were  residing  in  the  rooms  that 
faced  the  street. 

The  next  morning  tegn^r  was  summoned  before  him  by  the  Rector 
to  undergo  a  private  hearing,  and  he  there  gave  a  faithful  statement  of 
the  whole  event,  without  at  all  denying  what  was  culpable  in  his  own 
conduct.  But  His  Magnificence^  paid  no  respect  to  this  openness  or  to 
tegner's  efforts  to  prevent  the  uproar.  *You  are  already,'  said  he,  *an 
officer  of  this  University;  you  have  been  nominated  primus  at  the  en- 
suing promotion,  and  might  expect  great  success  in  your  profession  here. 
All  this  now  is  past.  The  Academic  constitutions  clearly  direct,  that  you 
must  '^relegari  cum  infamid/*  Sorry  indeed  I  am,  that  your  good  for- 
tune should  thus  be  thrown  away.  Still,  it  might  be  possible,*  he  added, 
after  a  pause,  *that  all  might  be  helped  and  arranged,  if  you  would  only 
tell  me  the  names  of  the  Ringleaders  in  the  riot.*  —  tegner,  incensed 
at  this  question,  replied  with  some  warmth,  that  however  it  went  with 
himself  he  would  not  play  the  Informer  against  his  own  comrades.  *We 
were,'  he  concluded,  *two  or  three  hundred  altogether;  and  there  were 
few  among  them  whom  I  knew;  but  those  few  I  never  will  betray  I' 

In  the  meantime,  the  whole  affair  gradually  died  away;  for  all  the 
other  Professors  valued  too  highly  the  uncommon  qualities  of  a  youth 
who  was  also  so  irreproachable  in  his  manners,  not  to  rescue  him  from 
the  misfortune  with  which  he  was  threatened  by  a  man  whom  even  his 
companions  could  not  esteem. 

At  this  period  tegner  received  the  sorrowful  intelligence,  that  his 
eldest  Brother,  who  was  only  30  years  of  age,  had  just  expired.  He  was 
universally  lamented  as  an  excellent  Preacher,  and  in  all  respects  a  pat- 

*   The   Rector  of   a    Swedish   Uoirersity   is  called  *Rcclor  Magoificvs'  or  'His 
MagoificcDce.' 


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XXI 

tern  for  his  class.  Esaias  felt  himself,  at  his  death,  again  an  orphan. 
r(ot  only  was  it  from  him  he  had  obtained  the  first  elements  of  that 
learning,  for  which  he  was  now  about  lo  receive  the  laurel-wreath "^^ 
-—  foremost  among  40  —  but  at  his  yerj  entrance  on  the  dangerous 
years  of  yi)uth,  it  was  his  Brother  who  had  confirmed  him  in  those 
principles  of  religion  and  of  morals,  in  which  while  yet  a  child  he 
had  been  instructed,  but  which  he  had  not  enjoyed  any  opportunity  of 
reducing  to  practise.  —  Deeply  aifected  by  this  loss,  he  made  it  the  sub- 
ject of  an  Elegy,**  which  was  rewarded  with  a  prize  by  the  Literary 
Society  of  Gothenbourg.  This  'Lament,*  together  with  the  before-men- 
tioned Poem  *Till  min  Hembygd*  (To  my  Home-District)  which  he  had 
composed  at  the  same  period,  first  began  to  attract  the  general  attention 
of  the  People  to  this  rising  Bard. 

After  the  Promotion,  he  traveled  to  Wermland,  on  a  visit  to  his 
Mother  and  to  his  Benefactors  Branting  and  Myhrman.  A  virtuous  young 
man  can  undoubtedly  enjoy  no  greater  pleasure  from  the  success  of  his 
exertions,  than  that  of  delighting  his  Parents,  and  those  who  have  cared 
for  him  with  a  father's  or  a  mother's  tenderness.  But  scarcely  less,  nay 
perhaps  even  greater,  is  their  satisfaction  when  their  efforts  have  been 
crowned  with  such  results  as  was  now  the  case. 

This  visit  to  Myhrman  changed  the  childish  friendship  which  had 
already  subsisted  between  his  daughter  and  tegn^r,  to  a  serious  obligation 
to  which  her  Parents  gave  their  consent.  Four  years,  however,  elapsed 
before  circumstances  allowed  them  to  enter  into  the  married  State. 

It  was  on  this  journey  that,  for  the  first  time,  he  beheld  —  resid- 
ing with  his  Father  at  Ransater  in  Wermland  —  an  individual  after- 
wards so  famous  as  a  Poet,  an  Historian,  and  a  Thinker,  the  illustrious 
Geijer.  He  was  at  that  time  only  a  Student  at  Upsala,  but  had  even  then 
gained  the  great  prize  of  the  Swedish  Academy  for  his  Panegyric  over 
Slcn  Slure.    tegner  himself  has  made  the  following  observations  *  *  *  con- 

•  The  Masters  of  Arts  arc  adorned,  at  the  Swedish  Universities,  with  a  Wreath 

of  Laarel  on  the  day  of  their  Promotion.     G,  S, 
**  Found  in  ^'Gotheborgska  Yettenskaps-  och  Yitterbets-Sallskapets  Handlingar 

i8oa."    G.  8. 
*♦♦  The  above,   together  with  snch  other  remarks  of  TBGNBR  as  occur  in  this 

Biography,  have  been  kindly  communicated  by  himself  to  the  Author,  in  a 

private  Epistle  on  the  circumstances  of  his  life. 


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XXII 

cerning  this  acquaintance.  ''Even  at  this,  our  very  first  meeting,  betrayed 
itself  that  great  divergence  in  our  views  of  life  and  literature,  which 
time  has  since  only  more  developed.  Our  whole  intercourse  was  a  con- 
tinued University- Act,  though  without  any  bitterness  or  unfriendliness. 
£ven  at  this  early  period  I  learned  to  value  him,  as  one  of  the  most 
talented  and  noble  natures  in  our  land.*' 

On  his  return  to  Lund,  tegnea  was  appointed  by  Lidback  reader 
(Docens)  in  iEsthctics.  He  was  permitted,  however,  to  leave  the  Univer* 
sity  for  a  time  and  reside  in  Stockholm,  whither  he  repaired  in  the  be- 
ginning of  1803,  being  received  as  Tutor  into  the  House  of  the  Chief- 
Director  Slrtibing.  This  family  lived  in  first-rate  style;  but  the  manners 
of  Teon^b  were,  as  in  Lund,  retired  and  £at  himself.  It  was  then  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  Poet  Choraeus,  whom  he  found  a  cheerful 
witty  and  amiable,  but  somewhat  singular,  man.  They  communicated  to 
each  other  their  poetical  efforts,  and  although  Choraeus  was  far  inferior 
to  Tegn^r  in  genius  he  yet,  according  to  the  latin's  own  statements, 
could  —  as  older  and  more  experienced  in  the  exercise  of  'the  divine 
art*  —  assist  him  with  valuable  counsel.  They  corresponded  for  some 
time  after  tegner  had  repaired  to  Lund,  to  which  place  he  was  accom- 
panied by  his  pupils. 

fiut  having  long  since  been  betrothed,*  he  wished  to  obtain  soon 
some  fixed  Establishment,  and  therefore  applied  for  the  place  of  Gymnasii- 
Adjunct  at  Garlstad.  The  Consistory  did  not  appoint  him;  but  he  ob- 
tained the  place  by  appealing  to  the  King,  who  then  resided  in  Baden. 
Being  shortly  afterwards,  however,  appointed  Adjunct  at  the  University 
of  Lund,  he  never  entered  upon  his  duties  in  Garlstad.  As  Assistant- 
XiCcturcr  {Adjunct^  Vice-Professor,)  in  Esthetics,  he  was  for  a  whole 
year  at  the  head  of  the  Professorship  in  this  Science,  during  the  Rectoratc 
of  Professor  Lidback  as  well  as  on  many  other  occasions. 

The  manner  in  which  he  had  enabled  his  hearers  to  see  and  under- 
stand for  themselves  all  that  Beautiful  of  which  Lidback  had  only  talk- 
ed and  produced  the  opinions  of  various  critics  —  made  the  difference 
between  them  only  too  remarkable.  ^Notwithstanding  this,  the  Teacher 
still  preserved  the  same  friendship  and  goodwill  for  the  Pupil  by  whom 
he  was  thrown  so  much  in  the  shade.  For  the  rest,  though  it  is  far  from 

*  It  is  still  geoeral  in  Sweden  to  go  tbroogb  a  form  of  /«#«/  BetroOuHt  as  ioti^- 
ductory  to  the  still  more  solema  Ceremooy  of  Marriage.    Q,  S, 


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XXIII 

our  meaning  to  undervalue  all  that  was  noble  in  the  sentiments  of  Lid- 
bact  any  more  than  all  that  was  solid  in  his  erudition,  —  we  cannot 
lielp  remarking,  that  tbgitkii's  peculiar  manner  of  thinking  and  acting 
makes  his  superiority,  nay  even  his  sarcastic  witticisms,  pleasing  and 
pleasant  eyen  to  those  who  are  their  objects. 

There  was  in  Lund  another  individual  who  found  in  Tsoireii  a  dan- 
gerous rival.  It  was  Ling,  who  was  not  less  famous  for  his  Northern 
Bfinsti^elsy  than  for  his  System  of  Scientific  Gymnastics.  To  them  both, 
"•^  not  less  than  to  Geijcr,  who  harped  for  us  the  beautiful  'Song  of 
the  Viking,**  and  who  invoked  (living  as  before!)  «The  last  Champion** 
and  'The  last  Scald**  from  their  ancient  Barrows,  —  belongs  the  glory, 
as  Oehlenschlager  and  Grundtvig  had  done  in  Denmark,  of  having  in- 
spired a  new  life  into  the  Swedish  Literature  by  employing  once  more 
the  Scandinavian  Myth  and  Saga.  But  if  the  Bard  of  the  'Asar'**  has, 
like  Grundtvig,  made  us  more  familiar  with  the  raw  force  and  wild 
greatness  of  the  olden  Champions,  —  the  Chaunter  of  'Frithiof*  has,  with 
Oehlenschlager,  attracted  more  general  attention  to  the  forms  and  images 
of  Antiquity,  by  investing  them  with  the  milder  features  of  the  poetical 
ideal.  Even  before  that  period,  when  the  views  and  efforts  of  both  were 
developed.  Ling  and  TEoirea  could  not  harmonize.  It  is  curious  enough, 
that  the  Gymnastic  Fencing-Master,  who  presented  his  naked  breast  to. the 
stabs  not  of  foils  but  of  the  points  of  swords,  possessed  a  temperament 
far  more  irritable  and  sensitive.  But  in  spite  of  all  their  momentary 
misunderstandings,  the  honourable  truefast  and  open-hearted  character  of 
both,  caused  them  always  to  retain  a  firm  and  mutual  friendship,  and 
to  acknowledge  uninterruptedly  each  other's  worth  and  merits. 

In  the  year  1806,  when  he  added  the  office  of  Under-Librarian  to 
his  Assistant-Lectureship  in  ^Esthetics,  besides  being  Notary  in  the  Phi- 
losophic Faculty,  •—  he  was  enabled  to  compleat  his  Nuptial-Contract 
with  Miss  Anna  M.  G.  Myhrman,  who  added  domestic  happiness  to  his 
literary  honours.  It  was. owing  to  her  care  and  skill  as  the  Head  of  the 
Household,  together  with  his  professional  industry,  that  —  although 
his  income  never  exceeded  60  Barrels  of  grain***  —  they  still  were  pos- 
sessed of  a  comfortable  subsistence. 

*  Titles  of  some  of  Geijer's  finest  and  most  popalar  Ballads.    6.  5. 

••  Ling's  principal  and  longest  work  is  entitled  *Asarne/  (The  Asar).     6.  S, 

*•♦  The  income  of  many  public  fanctioDarics  in  Sweden,  but  especially  of  the 


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XXIV 

At  this  period  a  number  of  the  younger  Officers  in  the  University 
formed  a  sort  of  Club,  called  the  'Herberge/  and  of  which  tegncr  was  a 
member.  It  had  no  political  tendency,  and  scarcely  any  Regulations.  They 
conversed  on  Literature  in  general ,  and  of  the  government  of  the  Uni- 
versity in  particular.  "Here,**  writes  tegncr,  "was  found  the  pith  of  views 
and  sentiments  which  were  afterwards  not  without  their  influence  on  the 
University.  They  played  at  ball  with  ideas  and  witticisms,'  —  children 
of  the  moment  which  might  well  have  deserved  to  have  been  more  gener- 
ally known.**  But  among  them  all,  the  man  who  was  most  willingly  lis- 
tened to  both  for  his  striking  mots  and  his  amiable  character  was  — - 
tegncr:  now,  no  longer  compelled  to  exert  himself  for  his  studies,  and 
passing  an  agrcahle  family-life,  —  he  had  become  a  cheerful  and  sociable 
companion.  Many  of  the  individuals  visiting  this  Club  have  gained  con- 
siderable renown,  as  Teachers  at  the  University  or  in  the  Church.  TEONea, 
as  a  Poet,  and  Agardh  as  a  Savan,  both  enjoy  foreign  celebrity.  Three 
are  Bishops,  tegncr  in  Vcxio,  Agardh  in  Carlstad,  and  Heurlin  in  Visby. 
The  last  is  also  Acting  Secretary  of  State  for  Ecclesiastical  Affairs  and 
the  Department  of  Public  Instruction.  Both  Heurlin  and  Agardh  have  also 
distinguished  themselves  at  the  Diets,  and  possess  a  political  importance 
which  TEGNCR,  although  esteemed  for  his  independence,  has  never  endeav- 
oured to  acquire. 

Through  several  Lyrical  Pieces  which  displayed  a  genius  of  a  lofty 
order,  tegncr  had  already  gained  an  increasing  reputation  as  a  Poet,  •— 
when  his  Poem  Svea,  which  received  the  great  Prize  of  the  Swedish  A- 
cademy  in  1811,  excited  a  universal  sensation  by  its  patriotic  spirit  no 
less  than  its  poetic  beauty.  Among  those  things  which  make  this  Poem 
remarkable,  is  the  change  of  form  which  occurs  towards  its  close.  From 
Alexandrines  distinguished  for  that  refined  strength  and  measured  and 
well-preserved  harmony  which  this  kind  of  verse  demands,  the  Scald,  in 
a  sudden  transport,  is  carried  away  to  a  Dithyrambic  Song  whose  various 
tones  arc  in  unison  with  the  richly-varied  changes  of  its  subject.  This 
is,  —  a  poetical  vision,  in  which  the  Mythological  images  of  the  antique 
poesy  shadow  forth  what  the  Swedish  nation  at  the  present  moment  thought 

Clergy,  is  generally  reckoned  io  'tanDor  spaanemftl,*  barrels  of  grain,  (half 
rye  and  half  corn),  which  is  also  paid  in  kind.  The  average  value  of  each 
barrel  is  regulated  annually.  It  is  commonly  equal  to  lo  R:dr  Bgs. ,  about 
half  a  guinea.     G.  S. 


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XXT 

aad  foU,  experioioed  and  hoped.  IlTeii  although  aoch  ahoold  not  have  faeea 
the  ioteDtion  of  oiur  Bard,  BtUl  the  imion  of  these  two  different  atylee  ahowB 
His  opiaions  in  reference  to  the  great  Schism  then  arising  in  the  Swedish 
Literature. 

Withont  at  all  degrading  the  Belles  Lettres  of  the  older  School,  He 
himself  was  bnilding  np  the  new.  Bat  he  nerer  went  over  to  onr  Fhospho- 
rism^  which  was  so  called  from  "Phosphoros/*  a  Literary  Beview  which  was  to 
annonnoe  a  new  dawn  on  the  Swedish  'Parnassus'  Mount.'  On  this  subject 
he  himself  writes  as  follows:  "The  German  Theories  and  the  fashionable 
'Garbnnele-Poetiy' *  I  coald|not  bear.  It  is  true,  I  thought  a  change  waa 
aecessarj  in  our  Swedish  Verse;  but  it  could  and  ought  to  be  brought  about  in 
a  more  independent  manner.  The  New  School  seemed  to  me  too  negative,  and 
ita  critieal  Crusade  too  unjust.  I  therefore  did  not  mix  myself  up  in  the 
contest,  with  the  exception  perhaps  of  a  few  pleasantries  which  I  wrote  or 
spoke." 

As  Lord  Byron,  in  spite  of  the  disrepute  into  which  his  enchanting 
Poems  brought  the  older  Bards,  himself  did  them  justice,  —  and  among  the 
rest  especially  valued  Pope,  just  that  Author  whom  his  own  admirers  parti- 
cularly despised,  —  so  tei^n^s  also  in  the  most  solemn  terms  protested  against 
the  efforts  of  the  Phosphorists  to  degrade  our  older  Poets,  —  and  especially 
Leopold,  whose  serious  verse  rivals  Pope's  in  depth,  —  and  whose  more  playful 
mose,  although  She  never  composed  so  charming  a  Song  as  'The  Bape  of  the 
Lock,'  has  notwithstanding  surpassed  the  English  Satirist  in  a  flow  of  light 
lively  Voltaire-resembling  wit. 

At  the  commencement  of  1812,  tegn^b,  during  a  visit  in  Stockholm, 
made  the  personal  acquaintance  of  Leopold,  Rosenstein  and  other  Members  of 
the  Swedish  Academy.  Already  had  he  gained  their  admiration;  he  now  added 
also  their  most  faithful  friendship  and  esteem. 

Besides  the  Phosphoristic  Coterie,  which  could  in  some  respects  be  com- 
pared with  'The  Poets  of  the  Lake'  in  England,  and  among  whom  Wordsworth 
may  be  considered  as  having  some  resemblance  in  depth  of  thought  and  feeling 
to  Atterbom,  there  arose  one  other  Literary  Union  under  the  name  of 
'Gother'  (the  Goths).  Their  object  was  the  knowledge  and  employment  of 
the  Ancient  Northern  Myth  and  Saga  in  the  Fine  Arts.    The  Author  of  'Svea' 

*  'Karfonkel-poesie,'   a   term  borrowed  from  the  German,   might  not  inappro- 
priatdy  be  paraphrased  by  'Namby-pamby  glimmer-and-glitter  School.'  (?.  S. 

a 


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XXVI 

wu   incited   to   become   a  member,  and  in  its  Magazine,  'Idana/  first  appeared 
Specimens. of  'Frithiof/  wbich  immediately  excited  great  expectations. 

In  the  year  1812,  a  new  field  was  opened  for  the  activity  of  tegk^e 
at  the  University  of  Lund.  It  was  then  that  the  Greek  Literatore,  which  had 
hitherto  belonged  to  the  same  Professorship  as  the  Eastern  Languages,  was 
erected  into  a  separate  Chair.  The  Oriental  Department  remained  under  the 
care  of  Norberg,  and  it  was  at  his  recommendation  that  tegn^b  —  as  a  ge- 
nerally acknowledged  Hellenist  without  a  rival  at  the  University  —  was 
proposed  by  its  Chancellor  von  Engestrom  (then  first  Cabinet-Minister),  and 
was  nominated  by  his  Majesty  without  the  usual  routine,  to  the  Professorship 
of  Grecian  Literature.  He  received,  on  his  appointment,  the  Living  of  StaQe  as 
his  Prebend. 

Thus  he  entered  the  Ecclesiastical  Order,  and  wrote  in  consequence  'Prest- 
vigningen'  *  ('The  Consecration  to  the  Priesthood'),  a  Poem  beaming  with 
heavenly  beauty.  But  as  his  actual  occupation  lay  within  the  sphere  of  the 
University,  he  principally  devoted  —  and  that  with  extraordinary  zeal  and 
energy  —  his  time  and  labour  to  that  departement.  Naturally  enough,  (and 
the  remark  is  almost  superfluous)  he,  with  his  poetical  mind,  was  sure  to  direct 
the  attention  of  his  youthful  hearers  to  the  Beauties  of  Greek  Literature,  the 
surest  method  to  win  them  over  to  the  Language.  But  at  the  same  time,  a 
thing  we  should  not  have  expected  from  a  Poet,  he  united  thereto  severe 
demands  for  a  solid  acquaintance  with  its  grammatical  organization  and  brought 
the  study  of  Greek  to  a  height  and  splendour  hitherto  unknown  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Lund. 

Norberg,  who  had  for  his  sake  resigned  this  branch  of  his  public  duties, 
neither  showed  nor  felt,  (for  all  that  he  felt  he  showed!)  any  vexation  at  being 
thus,  perphaps,  surpassed  by  his  successor.  Their  friendly  relation  to  each 
other,  was  not  disturbed  for  one  instant. 

In  the  meantime,  the  fame  of  tegn^k  as  a  Poet  was  continually  on  the 
increase.  This  was  partly  grounded  on  a  multitude  of  Lyrical  Pieces  the  one 
surpassed  by  the  other,  although  all  were  of  the  most  various  kinds,  and 
partly  on  two  more  lengthy  compositions,  which  have  also  appeared  in  Foreign 
Translation,  'Axel'**  and  'The  Young  Communicants*  fNattvardsbarnen*)-  —  In 

*  TegfUrs  Smdrre  Dikter,  p.  155. 

*  *  The   finest   English   Translation   I  have    seen  of  this  magnificent  Poem  is 

an  anonymous   free   version,    in    Blackwood* s  Magazine  for  1826,  .CIX,  pp. 
184—195.    G.  8. 


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xxvn 

conteqnence  of  this,  the  Swedish  Academy  of  Eighteen  could  not  delay  snmmo- 
ning  him  to  their  Body.  He  was  elected  successor  to  Oxenstjerna,  whose 
Portait  (in  teon^s's  Inimguration-Speech)  has  a  beauty  inseparable  from  its 
object,  but  which  betrays  the  coloring  of  our  Poet's  Pencil! 

The  'Epilogue  at  the  Promotion  in  Lund  in  1829'  *,  together  with  many 
other  Occasional  Poems,  gave  him  individual  importance  as  a  liberal-minded 
clear-headed  and  deep-thinking  man,  who  followed  with  his  Time  without  being 
carried  away  by  its  illusions.  —  How  well  he  was  able,  if  he  pleased,  to  ima- 
gine and  execute  even  a  Mystic  Idea,  is  proved  by  his  'Address  to  the  Sun'  *  * 
('Sftng  till  Solen'}  which  Leopold,  although  still  less  than  tegn^k  a  lover  of  the 
mysterious  and  the  fantastic,  pronounced  the  very  first  of  his  Minor  Poems, 
both  in  the  light  and  lofty  flight  of  its  various  Thoughts,  and  in  a  purity  of 
expression  and  harmony  of  verse  which  are  kept  up  in  spite  of  the  most  diffi- 
cult of  metres.  But  it  is  especially  'Frithiof  which  has  raised  tegncr  to  the 
first  rank  among  the  Bards  of  modern  times,  spreading  his  fame  not  only 
around  all  Europe  but  even  to  other  regions  and  far  other  climes  f. 

In  the  same  year,  1824,  when  this  admirable  Poem  began  to  exalt  his 
character  as  a  Scald,  he  obtained  unexpected  Preferment  in  the  bosom  of  the 
Swedish  Church.  Although  he  had  enjoyed  no  opportunity  or  reasonable  occa- 
sion of  distinguishing  himself  as  a  Theologian,  yet  so  much  had  he  gained  the 
respect  of  the  Clergy  of  Sm&land,  as  Teacher  of  the  Academic  youth  and  as 
Member  of  the  Chapter  of  Lund,  that  on  a  vacancy  occurring  in  the  Bishopric 
of'Vexio  he  obtained,  almost  unanimously,  the  first,  place  on  the  list  proposed 
for  appointment,  f  f  Probably  his  Idyl  'The  young  Communicants'  (^Nattvards- 
hamen')  had  contributed  to  that  confidence  in  his  religious  feelings  which  such 
a  choice  presupposes  in  his  Brethren.  He  was  appointed  Bishop  in  1824,  and 
immediately  justified  this  Promotion  by  the  most  zealous  guardianship  of  the 
Educational  Institutions  of  his  Diocese.  His  Speeches  on  public  occasions  of 
importance  at  the  Gymnasium  and  the  Schools,  excited  an  extraordinary  sensa- 
tion.   In   these   he    developed,   in   the   talented  manner  peculiar  to  himself,  his 

*  Tegners  Smdrre  Dikter,  p.  164.     G.  8. 

••  Tegners  Smdrre  Dikter,  p.  199.     G,  S. 

f  See  Appendix  —  'Prithiof  and  its  Literature.' 

tf  The  National  Church  of  Sweden  is  vastly  superior  to  the  Episcopal  Sect 
of  England  and  Ireland  in  purity  and  freedom.  The  disgustiog  Cong4 
d^dire  is  unknown;  the  majority  of  votes  propose  a  list  of  three,  one  of 
whom  the  King  must  nominate.    G.  S. 


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•nUghtencd  viewi  on  ike  qa«8tioii8  •£  the  iMj  nlmtife  to  the  Reformi  proposed 
in  the  Ettablithamite  of  Bdaettion.  TheM  Speeches  hiTe  nbo  been  spread  in 
forugn  lands,  by  n  German  Translation.  •»  How  he  fulfils  his  duties  as  one  off 
the  Chie&  of  the  Church,  we  may  see  in  the  remarkable  Boenment  belonging 
to  the  Assembly  of  the  Clergy  in  Vexio  in  1836.  They  have  not,  as  nsoal, 
been  confined  within  the  limits  of  the  Diocese  or  the  Cloth,  but  have  also 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  Fablic  at  large,  *  and  have  convinced  all  classes 
that  he  does  not  less  deserve  his  consideration  as  a  Theologian  a  Priest  and  a 
Gaardian  of  Religion  and  Ecclesiastical  mle,  than  as  an  accomplished  and  inde* 
fatigable  gaide  of  all  the  Edacational  Departements. 

He  has  not,  it  is  trae,  been  particularly  active  at  the  Diets,  which  he  is 
boond  to  attend  in  his  capacity  of  Bishop:  bat  as  often  as  he  has  raised  his 
voice,  the  listening  expectation  of  something  at  onoe  solid  and  ingenions,  has 
found  itself  not  only  satisfied  but  surprised. 

While  yet  Professor  he  had  been  adorned  with  the  Order  of  the  North 
Star,  which  has  noto  become  a  commoii  distinction  for  Swedish  Literati  of  merit. 
Bat  on  the  breast  of  one  Scald  far  shining  from  the  North,  it  reminds  os  of 
its  original  signification.  Immediately  after  his  advancement  to  the  Episeoptl 
Chair,  be  was  nominated  Knight  Commander  of  the  same  Order. 

Whether  it  is  that  his  office,  although  it  has  not  exhausted  all  his  time, 
has  turned  away  his  attention  from  the  art  of  the  minstrel,  or  whether  the 
cause  may  be  that  his  weak  health  has  somewhat  darkened  his  changingly 
cheerful  and  melancholy  disposition,  —  true  it  is  that,  since  the  publication 
of  Trithiof,'  he  has  only  occasionally  struck  the  chords  of  a  Lyre  which  haa 
suffered  no  change  in  the  tones  with  which  it  is  wont  at  onoe  to  charm  and  to 
astonish.  We  hope,  however,  that  he  will  yet  finish,  among  other  more  consi- 
derable Poems,  one  which  has  been  long  impatiently  expected  and  of  which  he 
has  given  delightfal  specimens  under  the  name  of  'Gerda.'  As  for  himself  iu'- 
deed,  he  requires  for  his  glory  no  more  than  he  already  enjoys  as  one  of  the 
most  magnificent  geniases  of  modern  times. 

The  Author  of  this  Biography  will  not  venture  a  Characteristique  of 
TEGN^B  as  Poet;  nor  indeed  does  it  necessarily  belong  to  the  task  he  has 
chosen.  But  the  opinion  of  that  Bard  himself  as  to  the  causes  of  his  own 
popularity  must  doubly  tend  to  •  excite  our  attention,  as  characteristic  both  of 
his  Muse  and  of  Himself.  — -  I  hasten  therefore  to  insert  his  own  observations 
on  this  subject:  — 

*  They  have  been  translated  into  the  German  Language  by  Mohnike. 


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"The  Swede,  like  the  Fmiehnuin,  prefers  in  Poetry  the  light,  the  eleat 
BBd  the  transperent.  The  profound,  indeed,  he  demands  and  Tilnee  alio;  hot  it 
most  be  a  depth  that  is  peUooid*  He  wishes  that  he  may  see  the  gold-iande 
at  the  bottom  of  the  wave.  Whatever  is  dark  and  mnddy»  so  that  it  cannot 
gifve  him  any  distinct  image  —  let  it  be  as  far-fetched  as  it  may  —  he  cannot 
snfEer.    He  believes  that 

Th*  obscurely  utter'd  is  th*  obscurely  thought,* 

and  clearness  is  a  necessary  condition  for  whatever  shall  produce  any  effect  upon 
him.  In  'this  he  differs  widely  from  the  German,  who  in  consequence  of  his 
contemplative  nature  not  only  suffers  but  even  prefers  the  mystical  and  the 
nebulous,  in  which  he  loves  to  foresee  something  deeply  thought.  He  has  more 
"Gemiith"  and  gloomy  seriousness  than  the  Swede,  who  is  more  superficial  and 
more  frivolous.  This  is  the  source  of  those  Mystical  feelings  and  Hemorrhoidal 
eensations  (Hemorrhoidal-kanningame)  in  the  German  Poetry,  for  which  we 
Imve  no  taste. 

"As  regards  the  Spirit  itself  and  the  views  of  the  world  in  the  Poet's 
own  breast,  —  we  iove  best  the  life-enjoying,  the  fresh,  the  bold,  yes  —  even 
the  overdaring! 

"This  is  also  trne  of  the  Swedish  National  Character.  However  weakened, 
fimrolona,  or  degenerate  the  People  may  be,  —  a  Viking-vein  stiU  lies  at  th« 
bottom  of  the  National   Temperament,  and  willingly  will  we  reoogniae  it  also 

*  From  the  remarkable,  ^358  lines   long,   'Epilog   vid   Magister-Promotionen  i 
Lund  1820.'    The  whole  passage  is  as  follows:  I.  156—161. 
"I  Febi  verld,  i  vetande  som  dikt, 
Ar  allting  klart,  klart  str&lar  Febi  sol, 
Klar  var  bans  kalla,  den  Kastaliska. 
Hvad  du  ej  klart  kan  saga,  vet  du  ej; 
Med  tanken  ordet  fods  p&  mannens  lappar: 
Bet  dunkelt  sagda  ir  det  dunkelt  tankU." 

In  Phoebus'  world,  in  knowledge  as  in  Song, 

All,  all  is  clear  1  Clear  shines  Apollo's  Son, 

Clear  was  his  Fountain,  that  of  Castaly: 

Thou  knowst  not  what  thou  canst  not  clearly  say; 

Man's  lips  give  birth  to  thoughts  and  words  together, 

Th'  obscurely  ntter'd  is  th'  obscurely  thought,    (r.  S. 


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XXX 

in   the  Bard.    The   race   of  Fornjoter  *   is   not  yet   extingoished.     Something 
Titanic  fend  fall  of  defiance  runs  throagh  the  People  like  a  national  feature. 

Northland's  Strength  defies,  and  never 

Death  can  Conquest  from  ns  sever; 

For,  e'en  should  we  fall  at  last, 

Life  in  Battle's  sport  was  past. 

Roars  the  Storm  —  how  willing  dare  we 

Wrestling  beard  himl  Willing  bare  we. 

Thunder  mocking,  hairy  breast  — 

There  his  arm  can  strike  ns  best!  ** 
The  proper  natural  image  of  the  Northern  disposition  is,  a  cold  and 
clear  but  fresh  winter-day  which  steels  and  braces  all  the  energies  of  man  to 
contend  against  and  to  conquer  a  hard  climate  and  unwilling  soil.  Wherever 
this  clear  breeze  is  found,  wherever  this  fresh  spirit  blows,  —  the  Nation 
recognizes  its  own  inward  Life,  and  for  its  sake  pardons  other  poetic  faults.  — 
I  know  no  better  explanation." 

All  whom  tegni6r*s  works  have  made  acquainted  with  his  noble  genius 
know  however  another  explanation,  together  with  the  above,  which  is  undoubtedly 
both  correctly  and  ingeniously  thought,  and  has  a  great  effect  not  only  upon 
his  Swedish  popularity  but  also  upon  his  European  fame.  But  notwithstanding 
all  that  is  Northern  in  the  spirit  and  in  the  subject  of  his  productions,  his 
Poetry  has  all  the  richi^ess  and  luxurious  Beanty  of  the  South.  Indeed  as 
respects  his  fresh  bright  colouring,  and  the  ever-springing  wealth  of  his  thoughts 
and  images,  —  he  may  be  compared  to  the  verdant  crown  of  an  Orange-tree, 
whose  strong  and  pure-beaming  green  is  adorned  with  full-ripe  fruit  side  by 
side  with  the  newly-opened  blossoml 

*  The  founder   or   representative   of  the  aboriginal  Giant  (Mountaineer)  occu- 
pants of  old  Scandinavia.    G.  8. 

*  *  "Nordens  kraft  ar  trots,  och  falla  Stormar  det,  ban  gema  brottaa 

Ar  en  seger  for  oss  alia;  Emot  stormen,  gema  blottaa 

Ty,  om  ock  man  foil  till  slut,  Ludet  brost,  att  Iskan  m& 

Pick  man  andl  kampa  ut.  Vela  hvar  hon  bast  kan  sll." 

Gerda,  Stanza  L 


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ZXXI 

APPENDIX. 

Frithiof  and  its  Literatube. 


The  first  compleat  Edition  of  Frithiof  s  Saga,  hj  Bishop  T£ON^r,  appeared 
in  Stockholm,  in  1825.  The  2nd  Edition  was  published  in  the  same  year;  the 
3rd  in  18271  the  4th  in  1828;  the  5th  in  1831,  and  the  6th  will  be  published 
shortly.  Every  Edition  has  been  2  or  3,000  strong,  so  that  from  12  to  15,000 
copies  must  have  been  distributed. 

I.     Translations. 

A.  —  Compleat, 

German.    1.  Ludolf  Schley,  Upsala  1826.  —  Reprinted  in  Vienna,  1827. 

2.  Amalie  von  Hdwig,   geborne   Freyinn  von  Imhoff,   Stuttgart,   1826; 
—  2nd  Edition,  1832. 

3.  GotUieb  Mohnike,  Stralsund,  1826;    —   2nd  Ed.  1830;   —  3rd  Ed. 
Leipzig,  1836. 

4.  JE.  J,  Mayerhoff;  Berlin,  1835. 

Banish.    5.  H.  Foss,  Bergen,  1826.  ^  2nd  Ed.  Christiania,  1827. 

6.  J.  P,  Miller,  Ejobenhamn,  1836:   In  this  Translation,  'Rings  Drapa' 
is  from  the  pen  of  Finn  Magnusten, 

7.  A»  E,  Boye,  Ejobenhamn,  1838. 

French.    8.  M:lle  R.  du  Puget,  Paris,  1838.  —  This  Translation  is  in  Prose. 
English.  9.  Rev,  Wm,  Strong,  London  and  Leipsig,  1833. 

10.  Anonymous,  several  hands  (ff.G,,  W.  E,  F,,  and  R,  C.)  Paris  and 
London,  1835. 

11.  R.  G.  Latham,  M.  A.  London,  1838. 

12.  6.  S.,  Stockholm  and  London,  1839. 

B.  —  Partial.    (In  Periodicals,  ReTiewa  etc.) 

1.  K,  Lappe,  in  Prose,  in  Wiener  Zeitschrift  fiir  Kunst,  Litteratur  nnd 
Theater. 

2.  C.  A.   Valentiner,   in   Originalien   aus   dem   Gebiete   der  Wahrheit, 
Kunst,  Laune  und  Phantasie.    Jahrg.  1832.    No.  29. 

3.  Wah.  V.  Souhr,  in  Das  Morgenblatt,  No.  149—151. 

4.  Herman  v.  Pommer  Ephe,  in  Sundine,  1834. 

5.  J.  J,  Amph'e,  'Ingeborgs  Klagan'  (Lament).    See  Litterarische  Blat- 
ter der  Bdrsenhalle,  1832. 


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xxxn 

6.  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magtsiiie,  Feb.  1828. 

7.  Foreign  Qaarterlj  Review;  No.  V.  Sept.  1828. 

8.  Prof,  Ijongfellow,  North  American  Review,   Boston   and  New-York, 
No.  96.    July  1837. 

IL    Musical  Accompaniments. 

1.  Tolf  Singer  ur  Frithiofs  Saga,  af  B.  Crusdl;   Stockholm,  1826.  — 
Republished  in  Leipsig,  1827. 

2.  S&nger   ur  Frithiofs   Saga   af  CruseU,    arrangerade  f5r  Gnitarre,  af 
EUdebrand;  4  Parts. 

3.  Tre  Singer  ur  Frithiofs  Saga,  af  OrefVinnan  Bedda  Wrangd,  Stock- 
holm, 1828. 

4.  S&nger  ur  Frithiofs  Saga,  satte   i  Musik  af  P.  C.  Boman.    Stock- 
holm, 1828. 

5.  Fyra   S&nger  ur   Frithiofs  Saga,   componerade   af  Adolf  Sandberg, 
Stockholm  1829. 

6.  Tre   S&nger  ur   Frithiofs  Saga,   satte  i   Musik   af  8.  M.  Zanders, 
Stockholm,  1830. 

7.  Schwedische  Lieder  aus  Axel   nnd   Frithiof,   in  Musik  gesetzt  Ton 
Caroline  Ridderstolpe,    Stockholm,  1829. 

8.  Yikinga-Balk   (XV  Gesang   aus    Frithiofs   Sage)   voa  Joseph  Panny* 
Mainz,  Paris,  Antwerpen,  1822. 

9.  Drey  Lieder  aus  der  Frithiofs  Sage,  von  F.  SUcher,  Tiihingen,  1836. 

10.  XII  Songs  to   Frithiofs   Saga   (4  unchanged  from  CruseU)  in  the 
English  Translation  by  G,  8. 

m    Engravings. 

1.  Baron  JET.  HamUtons   Tjugnfyra  Teckningar  till    Frithiofs   Saga,  4 
Parts.    Stockholm,  1828. 

2.  Franmis  och  Balestrand,  Frithiofs  och  Ingeborgs  hem,  m&lade  af  C. 
J.  FaMcrantz,  lithografiorade  af  M.  J,  Ankarsvdrd*  Stockholm,  1828. 

3.  Holmbergssona  XXIV  (unsuccessful)  Teckningar.  In  the  5th  Edition. 
Stockholm,  1831. 

4.  II  Lithographs  in  Strong's  Translation,  (from  Mohnike), 

5.  XVI  Original  topographical  and   Antiquarian   Engravings  on  Stone, 
in  the  last  English  Translation  (by  G.  8,) 


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DESCRIPTION 


OF 


Ingehorgs    Arm-Ring. 


BT 


BROB   EM.   HILDEBBAND. 


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DESCRIPTION 

or 


BY 


BROR  EM.   HILDEBRAND, 

Royal  Antiquarian  etc.  etc.  of  Sweden. 


Translated  from  the  Original  Swedish. 

^ur  Poet,  abandoning  the  simple  words  of  the  ancient  Saga,  has  described 
this  precious  Jewel,  in  his  Ilird  Canto,  in  terms  perfectly  agreeing  with 
the  spirit  of  antiquity.  It  is  founded  on  one  of  the  Chaunts  in  the  Elder 
or  Poetic  Edda,  Grimnismal,  Grimner's  Song  j  in  whose  description  of 
the  XII  Castles  or  Dwellings  of  the  Grods  it  has  been  not  unreasonably 
supposed,  that  we  find  an  allegorical  representation  of  the  knowledge 
possessed  by  the  olden  North  respecting  the  Zodiac,  and  the  Sun's  annual 
course  through  its  XII  Constellations,  called  by  the  Scald  Sun-houses, 
Those  who  are  not  acquainted  with  the  above-mentioned  Eddaic  Chaunt, 
will  perhaps  find  acceptable  a  short  statement  of  its  contents,  so  far  as 
our  present  subject  is  concerned,  together  with  a  few  explanatory  remarks 
upon  the  whole. 

In  Gothaland  ruled  a  King,  Gejrod  by  name,  who  made  away  with 
his  brother,  and  thereby  succeeded  to  the  government  after  his  father.  — 
Now  there  came  up  to  his  court  an  unknown  man  who  called  himself 
Grimner^  and  who  would  give  no  farther  information  respecting  who  he 
was,  although  he  was  questioned  thereupon.  The  King  had  been  warned, 
hy  FuUa  the  messenger  of  Frigga,  to  guard  against  a  man  versed  in  magic 
«rls  who  had  lately  come  into  that  land.  The  description  gifen  of  him 
agreed  with  Grimrier's  person,  and  Gejrod,  disregarding  the  laws  of 
hospitality,  commanded  the  stranger  to  be  set  between  two  fires,   that  he 


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XXXIV 

might  be  compelled  to  give  up  his  real  name.  Grimner  accordingly  was 
tortured  in  this  manner  during  YIII  nights,  and  the  fire  had  already 
begun  to  take  hold  upon  his  cloak  >  without  any  one  appearing  to  have 
pity  on  him.  Then  came  A^nar  forward ,  the  son  of  Gejrod,  and  now 
ten  years  old.  His  father's  cruelty  he  liked  not,  and  reached  the  sufferer 
a  Horn  full  of  li(pior,  that  he  might  refresh  himself.  Grimner,  who  was 
eventually  found  to  be  no  other  than  Odcn  himself,  thanked  the  young 
Prince  by  chaunting  to  him  a  Song  which  received  the  name  of  Grimm's- 
mal  (Grimner *s  Song)  from  his  adopted  appellation,  and  which  is  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  among  all  the  mythical  fragments  to  be  found  in 
the  £dda.  —  After  having  described  his  torture,  from  the  continually 
increasing  heat,  he  praises  Agnar  for  the  compassion  he  had  showed,  and 
promises  that  he  shall  one  day  be  sole  Lord  over  all  the  district  of 
Giithaland. 

He  then  chaunts  the  XII  Residences  of  the  Gods,  as  follows: 
I.  Y-DALiR  (Rain-vallics,  or  Hunting -vallics)  where  Uller  had 
caused  his  Hall  to  be  built.  Uller,  a  son  of  Sif  and  the  step-son  of  Thor, 
was  the  God  of  winter.  Beautiful  he  was  to  look  upon,  and  so  skilled  in 
the  long-bow  and  in  skaiting,  that  no  one  could  be  compared  to  him. 
Uller's  Castle  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Archer  in  the  Zodiac,  and  from 
this  date  —  about  the  21st  November  —  the  old  Scandinavians  reckoned 
the  commencement  of  the  winter  or  the  year. 

II.  aLFHEiMR  (Home  or  World  of  the  Light-Fairies)  was  the  dwelling 
of  Frcy.  This  he  had  got,  in  the  beginning  of  time,  on  cutting  his  first 
tooth  (som  tandgafva,  at  tannfe)*  Frey,  the  son  of  Niord,  was  one  of 
the  clvicfcst  among  the  Gods;  he  was  called  the  wise^  and  ruled  over 
rain  and  sunshine;  to  him,  therefore,  offered  they  for  good  harvests. 
Alfhcimr  answers  to  the  Zodiacal  sign  Capricorn,  from  the  20th  of  Dec. 
to  the  20th  of  January.  The  Yule-Feast,  which  occurs  within  this  period, 
was  properly  consecrated  to  him. 

III.  VALASKiaLF  (Vale's  in-air-hovering  palace)  was  a  splendid  and 
lofty  Castle,  with  a  roof  of  shining  silver,  which  Vale  in  the  dawn  of 
time  had  selected  as  his  dwelling.  He  was  the  son  of  Odin  (heaven)  and 
Rinda  (the  hard-frozen  earth)  and  was  a  symbol  of  the  victory  of  light 
over  darkness.  His  month,  in  consequence  of  this,  was  called  Lidsberi 
(Lucifer,  Light-bearer)  and  festivals  were  held  to  celebrate  the  increasing 
daylight.  The  Catholic  Festum  candetarum  (Kyndelsmessa ,  Candlemas, 
Feb.  2)   had  thus  its  source  in  heathenism,  although  Christianity  gave  it 


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XXXV 

another   meaning.     Valaskjalf  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Water-Beai'er, 
(about  from  the  20  Jan.  to  the  19th  of  February). 

IV.  socKVABECKR  (ihc  dccp-streaming  beck)  over  which  were  alway 
breaking  the  cold  billows  of  the  sea,  was  inhabited  by  Saga,  the  Goddess 
of  History,  whom  Odin  daily  visited,  drinking  with  her  mead  from  out 
a  golden  bowl.  The  Myth  seems  to  relate  to  the  ascent  of  the  Sun  from 
the  billows  of  the  sea,  which  now  begin  to  be  loosened  from  their  icy 
chains.  Sockvabcckr,  accordingly,  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Fishes, 
from  about  the  19th  of  Feb.  to  the  21st  of  March. 

V.  GLADSHEiMR  (thc  Homc  of  Gladucss,  or  light)  was  the  fifth  Castle. 
Within  its  circuit  stood  the  magnificent  and  gold-adorned  Valhall,  whose 
halls  were  covered  with  lances  and  hung  with  shields,  and  whose  benches 
were  overdrawn  -with  coats  of  mail.  A  wolf  stands  bound  by  thc  door 
towards  the  west,  and  an  eagle  hovers  over  the  entrance.  There  silteth 
Hropter  (one  of  Odin's  many  names)  selecting  for  himself  those  who  have 
fallen  in  battle.  Gladsheimr  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Ram  —  from 
about  the  21st  of  March  to  April  20  —  during  which  time  commenced 
the  naval  expeditions. 

VI.  {)RYMHEiMR  (the  Thundcr-liomc)  was  inhabited  by  the  Giant 
Thiasscj  who  was  killed  by  Thor  as  he  flew,  in  the  shape  of  an  eagle, 
to  Asgard  that  he  might  recover  Idun.  Assisted  by  Loke's  cunning,  he 
had  once  before  earned  her  oJOf;  but  Lokc  had  taken  her  back  again  at  the 
command  of  the  Gods.  Thiasse's  daughter,  Skadij  came  armed  to  Asgard, 
to  revenge  her  father's  death;  she  however  permitted  herself  to  be  appeased, 
and  became  the  spouse  of  Niord.  With  him  she  should  have  lived  in 
Noatun,  by  the  sea-side;  but  she  could  not  bear  the  screaming  of  the 
sea-fowl,  only  remained  there  3  nights  at  once,  and  then  retired  to 
^rjrmheimr  her  father's  mountain-hold,  to  hunt  and  slide  on  scate-shoes. 
Here  she  remained  for  9  nights,  returned  thereupon  to  her  husband,  and 
in  this  manner  continued  to  change  her  abode,  "prj-mheimr  answers  to 
the  Sign  of  the  Bull,  —  from  the  20th  of  April  to  the  21st  of  May  — 
when  the  transition  commences  from  spring  to  summer. 

VII.  BRETOABtiK  (the  Widc-shimmcring)  was  the  Homc  of  Balder, 
where  nothing  unclean  could  enter.  The  Myth  of  Balder,  thc  Type  of 
all  that  is  fan*  and  noble,  and  his  fall  by  blind  Hoder's  arrow  and  by 
Lokc's  cunning,  (darkness  it  is  which  overcomes  the  light)  is  too  well 
known  for  it  to  be  necessary  to  repeat  it  here.  It  is  the  glory  of  the 
Mythology    of    the   North,    and   no   heathen    people    has    anj'thing    mo»e 


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XXXVI 

beautiful  to  present  us.  Brcidablik  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Twins, 
from  May  21  to  June  21,  when  the  Sun  reaches  its  zenith  in  the  heavens, 
till  at  last,  on  entering  the  next  celestial  Sign,  it  again  begins  its 
downward  course  in  the  firmament. 

VIII.  himinbiSrg  (Heaven-hill)  stood  at  the  end  of  heaven,  where 
Heimdal,  the  Warder  of  the  Gods,  lived  to  guard  their  Bridge  Bifrost 
(the  Rainbow),   so   that   the   Giants    should  not  pass  over  it.     So  sharp- 

^  sighted  is  he,  that  he  can  see  hundreds  of  miles  round  about  him;  his 
hearing  is  so  fine,  that  he  hears  the  grass  grow  on  the  ground,  and  the 
wool  on  the  back  of  the  sheep.  When  Muspel's  sons,  the  giant-monsters, 
advance  to  the  final  contest  (Ragnarok)  bloweth  he  in  his  Trumpet  (Gjallar- 
horn),  the  sound  of  which  is  heard  all  the  world  about,  to  give  warning 
to  the  Gods  and  summon  them  to  arm  for  the  battle.  His  Castle 
answers  to  the  Zodiacal  Sign  of  the  Grab  —  from  the  21st  of  June  to 
the  23rd  of  July  —  when  the  sun  begins  to  return  from  its  highest 
point  in  the  heavens. 

IX.  F^LK-vaNGR  (Folk-steppe,  plain  of  the  Peoples)  is  inhabited  by 
Frcya,  the  daughter  of  Niord  and  Spouse  of  Oder.  She  was  the  Venus 
of  the  Northern  mythology,  and  receives  in  her  halls  the  one  half  of 
the  heroes  who  fall  in  battle,  Odin  receiving  the  other  half.  Folkvang 
answereth  to  the  Constellation  the  Lion  —  from  July  23rd  to  August 
23rd  —  the  dog-days,  when  the  greatest  heat  rages. 

X.  GLiTNiR  (Bright-gleaming)  was  the  tenth  Castle,  whose  silver 
roof  was  supported  by  pillars  of  gold.  Here  dwelled  ForsetCj  a  son  of 
Balder  and  IVanna,  and  the  most  righteous  among  Gods  and  Men,  he 
from  whose  Doom-seat  all  disputants  return  reconciled.  His  Castle  answers 
to  the  Sign  of  the  Virgin  (from  the  23rd  of  August  to  the  24th  of 
September)  a  period  which  ends  with  the  Autumnal  Equinox,  when  both 
day  and  night  are  equal,  and  the  Sun  advances  into  the  Sign  of  the 
Scales.     The  Northern  Autumn-Ting  was  held  in  this  month. 

XI.  n6atun  (the  blameless  Niord*s  Home)  stood  on  the  sea-shore, 
Niord  was  of  the  race  of  the  Vaner,  but  was  given  as  a  hostage  to  the 
Asar,  and  afterward  was  adopted  among  them.  He  was  the  God  of  the 
air  and  the  water,  and  on  this  account  sacrifices  were  offered  him  for 
good  fortune  on  the  sea.  From  these  sacrifices,  this  month  was  formerly 
called  Blot^  or  offer-month.  Noatun  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the  Scales 
—  from  the  24th  of  Sept.  to  the  22nd  of  October. 


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xxxvu 

XII.  LANOvioi  (the  wide-stretched  District)  was  a  great  plain  ^  over* 
grown  with  grass  and  underwood.  There  dwelled  Vidar,  the  son  of  Oden, 
and  the  silent  God.  Next  to  Thor  he  is  the  strongest  among  the  Asar, 
and  at  the  destruction  of  the  world  shall  slay  the  Fenris-wolf,  after  it 
has  been  the  bane  of  Oden,  his  Father.  It  answers  to  the  Sign  of  the 
Scorpion  in  the  Zodiac  —  from  the  22nd  of  Oct.  to  the  22nd  of  Nov, 
and  was  the  last  month  of  the  year,  according  to  the  computation  of 
the  old  North. 


After  Grimncr  has  thus  sung  the  XII  Castles  of  the  Deities,  or 
the  twelve  celestial  Signs,  he  proceeds  to  other  subjects  in  the  Mythology 
of  the  North,  and  finishes  with  an  anathema  against  King  Gcjrod  for 
his  cruel  crime.  —  But  when  the  king  observed  that  it  was  Odin  himself, 
his  own  fosterfather,  whom  he  had  tormented,  he  springeth  hastily  up  to 
free  the  God  from  his  bands;  therewith,  however,  he  stumbles,  and  fallcth 
dead  upon  the  point  of  his  own  Sword.  Odin  then  disappeared,  and 
Agnar  became  long  king  in  that  land. 


More  detailed  explanations  of  these  XII  Houses  of  the  Gods,  and  of 
their  astronomical  signification,  will  be  found  in  the  Danish  Translation 
of  the  Elder  Edda,  Copenhagen,  1821—1823;  in  the  «Edda-la;re ,'*  Co- 
penhagen 1824  —  1826;  and  in  the  Mythological  Lexicon  to  the  Eddas, 
appended  to  the  3rd  volume  of  "Edda  Ssemundar  bins  Froda,"  Copen- 
hagen, 1828:  all  these  three  works  are  by  the  learned  Professor  Finn 
Magnussen.  Compare  also  MonCj  "G^schichte  des  Heidenthums  in  nordl. 
Europa,"  Vol.  I,  pp.  387  etc.  Leipzig  und  Darmstadt,  1822.  Ling, 
"Eddornas  Sinnebilds-Lara ,"  Stockholm,  1819;  Geijer,  "Svea  Rikes  Haf- 
der,"  Upsala,  1825,  pp.  347  etc.;  and  Studach,  "Saemunds  Edda  des 
Weisen,"  1st.  Abth.    Nurnberg,  1829,  pp.  75  etc. 


Besides  the  above  Edda-chaunt,  many  other  proofs  might  be  advanced 
of  the  knowledge  respecting  the  path  of  the  Sun  through  the  Zodiac, 
possessed  by  the  ancient  Scandinavians.  We  may  instance  the  XII  names 
of  Odin,  which  seem  to  refer  to  the  same  astronomical  fact;  and  the 
express  testimony  of  Jordanes  to  the  learning  of  the  Gothic  priests.     He 


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XXXVIIi 

at   the   same    time   separately   distinguishes    thcix*  Jinow ledge   of  the   XII 
Zodiacal  Signs,  and  of  the  course  of  the  planets  through  them  etc. 

To  this  day  we  meet,  among  the  common  people  in  Sweden,  in- 
stances of  a  familiar  acquaintance  with  many  astronomical  Constellations. 
This  seems  to  have  been  perpetuated  from  the  earliest  times;  and  according 
to  Jordancs  the  Goths  knew  and  named  346  stars.  With  this  knowledge 
the  Swedish  Peasant  even  now  helps  himself  forward  in  many  districts, 
so  as  to  reckon  the  course  of  the  Hours,  to  determine  his  farming  oper- 
ations, and  to  find  his  way  over  the  sea.  From  the  very  oldest  times, 
the  Northman  had  his  own  Perpetual-Calendar,  carved  with  Runes  and 
other  marks,  commonly  upon  a  flat  board  or  upon  a  stick  or  staiF.  It 
was  therefore  usually  called  Rune-StafF  or  Prim-Staff,  from  the  word 
Prim  J  which  means  the  same  as  what  in  Catholic  Calendars  is  called 
the  Golden  Letter.  We  sometimes  find  employed  for  this  purpose  thin 
slips  or  leaves  of  wood  or  bone,  and  more  lately  parchment-leaves  which 
folded  up  like  a  book.  Not  seldom  these  marks  were  inscribed  upon 
weapons,  tools,  furniture  and  ornaments,  —  for  instance  on  the  lance- 
staff,  axc-shaft  and  slight  boxes  etc. 

Such  Rune-Calendars  or  Rune-staves  arc  preserved  in  great  numbers 
in  the  Public  Collections  of  the  three  Northern  kingdoms,  and  are  often 
enough  found  in  the  possession  of  private  individuals,  even  among  the 
common  people,  —  and  their  general  use  only  slowly  began  to  give  way 
at  the  commencement  of  the  17th  century,  in  consequence  of  the  supplies 
furnished  of  the  Annual  Almanachs. 

Although  we  do  not  know  of  the  existence  of  any  Rune-Staff  which 
can  certainly  be  assorted  to  have  belonged  to  the  days  of  heathenism, 
we  may  yet  from  the  use  of  Runes  in  reckoning  time,  and  from  several 
of  the  tokens  occurring  among  the  oldest  of  them,  as  well  as  from  other 
reasons,  —  conclude  that  the  use  of  the  Rune-calendar  was  known  in 
the  North  before  Christianity  and  its  computus  ecclesiasticus  were  in- 
troduced among  us.  —  As  this  is  a  circumstance  altogether  peculiar  to  the 
Northern  nations,  the  Translator  imagined  he  should  confer  much  pleasure 
on  such  readers  of  this  Saga  as  are  not  Scandinavians,  by  communicating 
'  the  Drawing  of  a  Rune-Calendar  designed  by  the  late  Royal  Antiquarian, 
Professor  J.  G.  Liljegren,  —  such  as  we  might  imagine  it  was  engraved 
on  ingeborg's  arm-ring.  —  In  order  to  make  its  use  more  clearly  under- 
stood, and  in  consequence,  as  we  have  before  remarked,  of  there  being 
no  heathen  rune-staff  remaining  to  be  employed  for  the  purpose.  Professor 


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XXXIX 


Liljcgren  belieycd  he  might  venture  an  anachronism  —  by  adorning  thi« 
ancient  ornament  with  a  rune-calendar  of  more  modern  form,  and  some 
of  whose  signs  refer  to  the  saints  and  feasts  of  the  Christian  faith. 


The  construction  of  the  Rune-Calendar  was  simple,  but  perfectly 
suited  for  the  purpose.  It  was  divided  according  to  the  XII  months  of 
the  year.  In  order  to  mark  out  the  days  of  the  week,  were  employed 
the  7  first  runes  in  the  Alphabet:  —  \f^  (answering  to  our  F  and  called 
J^rej),  VJ  (U— £/r),  |>  (the  English  TK  — Thorn),  +  or  *  (O  — O*), 
R  (K  —  Reder)j  V  (JL^Kon)^  and  ;f^  (K  —  Hagel)  —  one  for  every  day 
in  the  week.  These  runes  are  repeated  in  the  same  order,  for  all  the  .365 
days  in  the  year,  in  the  same  manner  as  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  are 
employed  for  the  samQ  purpose  in  the  Christian  Calendars  of  the  middle 
ages  and  even  of  later  times.  Consequently  when  one  knew  on  what 
day  the  year  be^an,  it  necessarily  followed  that  the  rune  (y  marked  out 
the  same  day  of  the  week  all  the  year  through.  That  rune  which  dis- 
tinguished the  Sunday  was  called  Sondags-runa  {Sunday-rune)  or  Sondags- 
bokstaf  {Sunday-letter)  —  the  litera  dominicalis  of  the  Roman  Eccle- 
siastical Calendar.  —  Every  fourth  year,  or  in  what  are  called  Leap- 
Years ,  on  the  24th  of  February  there  was  inserted  a  day  which  was  not 
marked  on  the  Rune-Staff,  (skottdag  — dies  hissextilisj  intercalary  day)^ 
from  which  it  followed  that  in  Leap- Years  there  were  two  Sunday-runes , 
the  first  of  which  was  counted  up  to  the  24th  of  February,  after  which 
the  rune  immediately  preceding  became  the  Sunday-rune  till  the  end  of 
the  year.  As  these  changes  of  the  days  of  the  week  are  renewed  every 
28  years,  such  a  period  of  28  years  was  called  a  Sun-circle  or  Solar- 
cycle;  and,  by  a  particular  method  of  calculation,  one  could  at  any  time 
find  the  Sunday-rune  for  any  particular  year.  —  See  "Liljegrens  Rune- 
lara,"  Stockholm,  ia32,  p.  196. 

Under  the  above-mentioned  line  of  runes  for  the  days  of  the  week, 
the  Runc-staif  has  another  rune-row,  consisting  of  19  runes  or  signs:  — 

r,  n,  K  +,  R,  p,  *,  I  (i-«),  i  (A-^r),  h  (s-^o/),  "i  (T 

—  Txr),  B  {^—Birkal),  h  (L  —  Lager),  Y  (M.r-Mader),  /K  (O  when 
a  vowel,  R  when  a  consonant  —  Or  or  Stupmader)^  'f  (AL — Almaga)^ 
m  (Tvemaga  or  Tvimader),  9  (Belgthor),  —  called  Prim  oy  Primstnves, 
answering  to  the  19  cyphers  or  so-called  Golden  numbers  of  the  Church- 
calendar,  pointing  out  the  periodical  changes  or  revolutions  of  the  Moon, 


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XL 

which  after  the  lapse  of  19  years  fall  upon  the  same  days  again.  The 
method  of  finding  the  Prim  or  Golden  Number,  consisted  in  a  simple 
calculation,  which  may  be  seen  in  the  work  of  Liljegren  quoted  above, 
page  198. 

For  the  several  annual  Feasts  occurring  on  certain  definite  days 
every  year,  there  were  placed  over  the  line  of  runes  for  the  days  of  the 
week,  certain  signs  reminding  of  the  feasts  themselves.  For  instance,  at 
Yule  (Christmas)  there  ^as  a  child  in  swaddling-clothes;  on  New- Year's 
day,  a  Knife  (Circumcision);  on  Twelfth-Day  a  Star;  on  the  Days  of 
the  Virgin  Mary,  a  Crown  etc.  What  are  called  the  Moveable  Feasts, 
such  as  the  Chief  days  in  Lent,  Pentecost  etc.  were  governed  by  Easter- 
day  which  took  place  differently  for  different  years  —  just  as  the  Advent- 
Sundays  depended  upon  Christmas  day  —  for  which  reason  these  feasts 
could  not  be  marked  on  the  rune-staff. 

But  besides  all  these,  we  have  other  Signs  also  occurring  on  the 
Rune-staff  which  relate  to  the  changes  of  the  Seasons  or  of  vegetation 
and  other  similar  natural  circumstances,  or  to  the  labours  and  occupa- 
tions belonging  to  the  different  periods  of  the  year  etc.  —  Professor 
Liljegren  has  placed  a  number  of  these  tokens  on  his  drawing  of  Ingeborg*s 
Armring;  although,  in  order  to  give  the  whole  a  more  symmetrical  ap- 
pearance, they  could  not  be  stationed  exactly  over  the  particular  days 
to  which  they  belonged. 

We  now  proceed  to  the  explanation  of  this  Design. 


Along  the  upper  part  are  the  present  usual  names  of  the  months, 
and  beneath  these  the  XII  Signs  of  the  Zodiac,  such  as  they  are  com- 
monly represented,  placed  within  an  arabesque  composed  by  the  Designer 
of  twisting  ornaments  and  fantastical  figures  in  the  antique  northern 
style.  The  four  small  vignettes  on  the  upper  space  give  us  images  of  the 
scenery  of  the  north,  during  the  different  seasons  of  the  year.  In  Fe- 
bruary we  see  a  cottage  and  some  fir-trees  covered  with  snow,  while  the 
sun  can  scarcely  lift  itself  above  the  ice-bridged  sea.  In  May  the  in- 
spiring Spring-sun  is  shining  over  a  bay,  which  is  shaded  by  leafy  trees; 
along  the  coast  a  boat  is  sailing  forward.  In  August  we  see  the  corn-harvest, 
the  hot  dog-days  now  fierce  raging.  In  November  we  have  again  a  more 
than  half-stripped  landscape,  the  rays  of  the  sun  being  hardly  able  to 
penetrate  the  down-streaming  showers  of  rain. 


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XLI 

Lowest  along  the  dra:wiug  are  given  the  ancient  names  of  the 
Months:  —  f^RRI  (J)uri,  ThojTc,  Thor*s month);  mi  (Gui,Groje-month); 
^M|)|  (Blidhi,  miid  month);  ntRiit"  (Varant,  also  called  Astar-month 
after  a  Goddess  of  this  name);  ^^R^MkII  (Hraisi,  Journey -month); 
B^nYli'^RI  (BlumstW,  nower-month);  HHYRI  (Sumri,  Summer- 
month);  iit'll^R  (Antidhr,  Harvest-time);  ♦♦Hli'M  (Hausti,  Autumn- 
month);  BhntI  (Bluti,  OlFering  or  Home-killing  month);  HlitRI 
(Vinlri,  Winter-month);  ^^IRM  (Hiuli,  Yule-month);  which  has  some- 
times been  called  KhPlKI  (Glugi,  Window-hole-month),  either  because 
the  window  (glugg)  of  the  sun  seemed  as  it  were  closed «  or  because  of 
the  intercalation  here  of  those  days  which  exceed  the  360  or  XII  months , 
reckoning  30  days  to  every  month. 

Above  the  ancient  names  of  the  months ,  the  waxing  and  waning  of 
the  Moon  ^  during  ils  circle  of  28  days  and  nights  —  is  exhibited  hy  light 
and  shade.  At  the  same  time  a  figure  is  inserted  referring  to  the  name 
of  every  month ,  or  to  those  expeditions  which  belonged  to  the  same ,  etc. 
—  1.  An  ancient  Doom-Seat,  consisting  of  a  flat  stone  resting  upon  three 
stump-like  blocks,  as  a  mark  of  the  Winter-Ting;  together  with  two 
Drinking-horns,  which  refer  to  the  still  continuing  Yule-feast.  2.  A  holy 
Ring,  referring  to  the  Disar-Sacrifice.  3.  An  Egg;  hens  lay  at  this  time. 
4.  A  Serpent,  awakened  from  its  winter-trance.  5.  A  Doom-Seat  for  the 
Summer-Ting;  also  a  Stork,  which  bird  removes  about  this  time  to 
Southern  Sweden.  6.  A  Milk-pail,  in  consequence  of  this  being  the 
time  when  the  cattle  are  led  to  pastui^e  in  distant  grass-lands  and  meadows 
in  the  woods.  7.  A  Flower,  under  the  high-beaming  midsummer-sun  ^ 
(the  summer-solstice).  8.  A  ray-darting  Sun,  marking  the  beat  during 
the  dog-days.  9.  A  Doom-seat  for  the  Autumn-Ting;  and  a  Bee-hive, 
betokening  the  time  for  collecting  the  honey  of  the  bee,  which  was  so 
necessary  in  the  preparation  of  mead  —  the  favourite  drink  of  the  North- 
man. 10.  An  Ox  and  a  slaughtering-Axe;  the  time  for  killing  meat. 
11.  A  G^ose,  referring  to  St.  Martin's  feast.  12.  A  Wheel,  the  sun's 
tropic,  winter-solstice;  together  with  a  dormer-light  or  window,  referring 
to  what  has  before  been  said  regarding  the  Yule-month. 

Above  this   line   is  the  row   of  runes   for   the  days  of  the  week, 

answering  to  the  cyphers  under  the  lower  edge  of  the  arabesques.  Between 

these  two   lines  we  find  a  part  of  the  signs  occurring  on  the  Rune-StaiT, 

and   the  object  of  which  has  been  described  above.    Their  signification  is 

as  follows:  — 

5 


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XLII 

I.  1.  Two  Drinking-horns  J  crossed;  (Jan.  1).  The  New- Year's 
feast  and  the  continuing  Yule-Festivities,  when  the  Drinking-horns,  filled 
with  ale  and  mead,  went  incessantly  around  the  board. 

2.  A  rising  Sun;  (same  date).  The  commencing  year,  with 
the  increasing  day-light. 

II.  3.  A  Star;  (Jan.  6).  Twelfth-Day,  or  the  feast  of  the  3  Kings  ^ 
when  the  Star  stopped  over  the  manger  of  the  Saviour  in  Bethlehem. 

4.  A  Drinking  Horn,  (same  d.);  the  still  continuing  Yulc- 
festivltics. 

III.  5.  A  Down-turned  Horn;  (Jan.  13).  The  19th  Yule-day, 
Canute's  day,  when  the  Yule-Festivities  were  regarded  as  ended ^  accord- 
ing to  the  old  Proverh; 

"Tjugonde  dags  Knut  Knut's  nineteenth  day 

Kor  Julen  ut."  Drives  Yule  away. 

IV.  G.    A  JVhip;  (same  date).  Refers  to  the  driving  out  of  Yule. 
7.    A  Flail;  (Jan.  14).   The  time  for  the  farmer  again  to  com- 
mence his  labours. 

a     A  Doom-Stone^  (Jan.  19);  the  Winter-Ting. 

V.  9.  A  Fishing-Net  J  (Jan.  25);  the  time  for  winter-fishing  with 
a  net  under  the  ice,  —  what  is  called  the  ice-net» 

VI.  10.  A  Torch  ^  (Feb.  2);  C9iidi\e-m2iS-A^yy{festumcandelarum)' 
It  also  refers  to  a  more  ancient  heathen  Feast,  to  celebrate  the  increasing 
day-light,  as  has  been  remarked  before. 

11.  A  Blowing-horn  J  (Bldshornj)  (Feb.  3);  St.  Blasius*  day, 
probably  referring  to  the  name  Blasius  j  which  the  ignorant  might  have 
supposed  connected  with  the  word  blowing,  bldsa.  It  is  also  regarded  as 
connected  with  the  blasts  and  storms  which  occur  about  this  time,  for 
which  reason  Blasmassodagen  (the  mass  of  St.  Blasius),  was  regarded  by 
tlie  ancients  as  unfortunate. 

VII.  12.  A  Pair  of  Pincers,  (Feb.  6);  St.  Dorothea's  day,  this 
saint  having  been  pinched  with  red-hot  tongs.  It  sometimes  belongs  to 
the  9th  of  February,  St.  ApoUonia's  day,  in  consequence  of  the  teeth  of 
this  Saint  having  been  pulled  out  with  similar  pincers. 

13.  A  Shoe-sole,  (Feb.  10);  St.  Scolastica's  day.  The  figure 
seems  to  refer  to  the  name  of  the  Saint ,  which  in  the  language  of  the 
Northman  was  easily  corrupted  to  Shoe-sole  {skosula). 

VIII.  14.  A  Carpenter's  axe,  (Feb.  15);  pointing  out  the  time 
most  suitable  for  felling  trees  for  building-timber. 


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XLIll 

IX.  15.  A  Stone ^  (Feb.  24);  Malhiaa*  day,  the  time  for  the  com- 
mencement of  the  breaking-up  of  the  ice,  —  according  to  an  old  saw, 
^'MatU  kastar  keta  sten  i  sjon"  Mathia*  caats  hot  stones  into  the  lake. 
This  refers  to  the  very  natural  circumstance  that  the  ice  first  begins  to 
melt  around  stones  which  stick  up  out  of  the  water. 

X.  16.  J  beaming  Sun,  (March  1);  reminding  us  of  the  beautiful 
sun-shiny  days  which  usually  set  in  about  March.  Instead  of  the  Sun, 
we  often  sec  on  some  runc-stayes  the  head  of  an  old  man  with  a  long 
beard:  this  refers  to  the  same  fact,  according  to  an  old  Proverb:  — 

'*Mars  med  sitt  Unga  skagg       March ,  whose  beard  so  long  doth  fall , 

Lockar  barnen  utom  vagg.**       Tempts  the  bairns  to  leave  the  wall. 

XI.    17,  18.    An  Arm  and  a  Leg  (the  latter  improperly  engraved  — 

March  7);  St.   Perpetua*8  day.    She  was  thrown  to  wild  beasts  and  torn 

by  them  in  pieces. 

XII.  19.  A  Tree  without  leaves  j  (March  12);  the  time  when  the 
*tender  buds  of  trees  begin  to  swell. 

XIII.  20.  A  Plough  J  (March  21);  reminding  us  that  all  farming- 
implements  should  now  be  put  in  order. 

XIV.  21.  A  Bishop's  Cope,  (April  1);  the  day  of  the  Bishop, 
St.  Hugo. 

XV.  22.  A  Boat  under  sail,  (same  date);  the  water  is  now  open 
for  sea-voyages. 

XVI.  23.  A  Tree  in  leaf,  (AprU  14);  the  shooting  of  the  leaf. 
Tiburtius'  day;  it  is  also  called  Sumar  or  Sommarnatt  (Summer-night); 
because  it  was  from  this  day  that  the  beginning  of  summer  was  formerly 
reckoned. 

XVII.  24.    A  Shield,  (April  20);  St.  Victor's  day. 

25.  A  Spear,  (April  23);  St.  Goran's  (George's)  day,  referring 
to  the  spear  with  which  he  slew  the  Dragon. 

26.  A  Flag,  (same  date,  and  sometimes  the  2nd  of  May);  the 
commencement  of  the  Viking-expeditions;  also,  the  processions  of  later 
Catholic  times. 

XVIII.  27.    A  Bird  in  a  tree,  (April  25);  the  arrival  of  the  Cuckoo. 

XIX.  28.  A  Bird  lying  on  an  egg,  (1st  of  May);  Laying  or 
hatching-time,  when  all  birding  was  forbidden. 

XX.  29.  A  Swallow  flying  upwards  ,  (May  3);  the  time  when  this 
bird  airives.  The  Swallow  enjoys  a  kind  of  sanctity,  from  its  love  for 
th«  abodes  of  man;  and   respecting  this  bird  the  Swedish  Peasantry  still 


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XLIV 

believe   that  it  never  removes,  but  lies  in  a  wiuter-ti^ance  at  the  bottom 
of  the  water ,  till  the  warmth  of  spring  tempts  her  up  again. 

XXI.  30.  A  Bream  ^  (May  31);  the  breeding-time  of  this  sort 
of  Osh. 

XXII.  31.  An  Ear  of  corn,  (May  18,  according  to  others  May 
25);  the  time  when  the  winter-rye  begins  to  shoot  into  eai\  The  latter 
day  is  often  represented  by  some  flowers. 

.^2.  A  Pitch-fork^  (May  25,  according  to  others  June  12);  the 
season  for  manuring  the  ground,  when  this  implement  was  employed. 

XXIII.  33.  A  Gimlet  or  Borer,  (June  3);  the  period  proper  for  all 
sorts  of  repairs  and  joiners'  work,  before  the  hay-making  begins. 

34.  AMilk'pailj  (properly  the  31st  of  May);  milking  for  what 
was  called  May-butter;  —  the  time  when  the  cattle  were  diivcn  for 
pasturage  and  milking  to  the  woods. 

XXIV.  35.  A  young  Bird,  (June  5);  the  time  when  the  young 
of  forest-birds  begin  to  fly. 

36.    A  Fishing-rod,  (June  8);  Fishing-days. 

XXV.  37.  A  Turnip,  (June  17);  St.  Bololf*s  day  (the  old  Turnip- 
man)  when  turnips  began  to  be  sown. 

XXVI.  38.  The  Midsummer-pole,  or  as  it  is  usually  called  the 
May-pole,  (June  24);  the  day  before,  or  Midsummer-Eve,  the  young 
people  assemble  to  raise  a  high  pole,  adorned  with  leaves  flowers  and 
ribbands  etc.,  around  which  they  afterwards  dance  the  whole  night 
through  in  the  open  air. 

XXVII.  39.  A  Bunch  of  Flowers ,  (June  29);  the  time  for  collecting 
flowers  and  plants,  for  medical  or  magical  purposes. 

XXVIII.  40.  A  Bundle  of  leaves  ,  {inly  2)\  the  leaf-plucking  time, 
when  leaf-branches  are  collected  and  tied  in  sheaves,  to  be  dried  and 
kept  as  winlcr-f other  for  the  sheep. 

XXIX.  41.  -^^jScj-^Ae^  (July  8);  the  commencement  of  the  hay-harvest. 

XXX.  42,  43.  A  Hay-rake  and  the  outline  of  a  Barn,  (July  15); 
Hay-Making.  In  distant  meadows  small  Barns  are  erected,  where  the 
dried  hay  is  deposited  and  kept  till  the  winter,  when  it  is  much  easier 
to  transport  it  home  over  the  frozen  lakes  and  rivers. 

XXXI.  44.    A  Net,  (day  uncei*lain);  Fishing-time. 

XXXII.  45.  An  Acorn,  (July  25);  the  time  when  the  oak  begins 
to  set  its  fruit. 

46.    A  Corn'Crook,  (July  29);  St.  01of*s  day.  As  the  past  year's 


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XLT 

slock,  of  grain  and  other  articles  of  provision  begins  to  run  short  about 
this  time,  many  a  one  now  complains  of  Olsmassekroken ,  the  Crook,  of 
Olof 's  Mass. 

XXXIII.  47.  A  Flail  J  (Aug.  10);  the  grain  of  the  new  crops  is 
now  thrashed. 

XXXIV.  48.  A  Harrow  J  (Aug.  15);  the  season  for  preparing  th« 
ground  to  receive  the  autumn-seed. 

XXXV.  49.  A  Hop^plantj  climbing  round  a  pole,  (Aug.  24);  the 
hop-season,  for  ale-brewing. 

50.    A  Sword  J   (Aug.   29);  the  day  when  St.  John  the  Baptist 
was  beheaded;  it  is  also  represented  by  a  separated  head  lying  on  a  charger. 

XXXVI.  51,  52.  The  Sun  and  a  Crutch  j  (same  d.);  the  decline 
of  the  sun  or  the  day-light. 

XXXVII.  53.  A  Fruit-basket  J  (Sept.  8) ;  fruit  is  ripe  now  in  the  gardens. 

XXXVIII.  54.  A  Swallow  flying  downward^  (Sept.  14);  the  time 
for  Swallows  to  commence  their  departure;  or,  according  to  the  popular 
idea,  for  them  to  sink  to  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  to  pass  their  winter-trance. 

XXXIX.  55.  A  Boot  J  (Sep.  22);  the  rainy-season,  when  more 
protecting  covering  is  necessary  for  the  feet. 

XL.  56.  A  Level  J  (29  Sept.);  the  autumn  Equinox.  "We  commonly 
find  a  pair  of  scales,  to  denote  the  market-lime  in  certain  districts. 

XLI.    57.    A  Fishj  (Oct.  4);  the  sea  aulumn-fishing. 

XLII.    58.    A  ff^ool-Card,  (Oct.  7);  time  for  beginning  to  spin  wool. 

XLIII.  59.  A  leafless  Tree,  (Oct.  14);  the  fall  of  the  leaf;  Ca- 
lixtus*  day.  Is  also  called  Winter-night,  the  ancients  reckoning  the 
beginning  of  winter  from  this  day. 

XLIV.  60.  A  Bow  and  Arrow,  (Oct.  21);  the  day  of  the  eleven 
thousand  Virgins,  who,  according  to  the  Legend,  were  shot  to  death 
with  arrows.  This  day  is  also  marked  by  a  rollcd-up  banner,  to  denote 
the  end  of  the  military  expeditions  for  the  year. 

XLV.  61.  A  Boat  turned  upside  down,  (Nov.  1);  the  close  of 
the  Viking-expeditions  for  the  year,  and  other  voyages. 

XL VI.  Q2,  Fowls  flj-ing,  (Nov.  3);  the  departure  of  birds  of 
passage  (especially  the  Swan)  from  the  north. 

XLVII.  63.  A  Goose,  (Nov.  11);  Martin's  day.  To  the  proper 
celebration  of  the  feast  the  preceding  evening,  (for  anniversary  feasts 
commonly  belong  to  the  vigils  or  eve  before  each  high  day),  belongs  in 
almost  all  the  Swedish  provinces  —  a  roasted  goobc. 


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XL  VI 

XLVIIL  64.  A  Horse-shoe,  (Nov.  19);  a  warning  to  »hoc  the 
horaes  carefully ,  that  they  may  not  slip  on  the  ice  or  on  the  smooth 
roads. 

65.  Two  Snow-shoes,  (Noy.  23);  the  time  for  seating  on  snow- 
shoes,  and  for  hunting  game  hy  tracking  them  over  the  snow.  (The  day 
is  also  marked  by  a  Bow). 

XLIX.  66.  A  large  Shoe,  (day  uncertain);  it  is  now  needful  to 
provide  the  feet  with  better  covering  against  the  winter-cold;  it  may  also 
refer  to  the  Myth  respecting  Vidar,  who  is  said  to  have  worn  an  enorm- 
ous shoe. 

L.    67.    A  Sledge,  (Dec.  4);  Sledging. 

LI.    68.    A  Drinking-cctn,  (Dec  9);  time  for  brewing  the  Yule- ale. 

LII.    69.    A  Wheel,  the  Winter  solstice. 

7a  Two  Fir-Trees,  (Dec.  20);  The  old  Yule.  It  was  formerly 
customary,  and  is  still  so  in  many  districts,  to  place  two  Fir  or  Pine 
trees  on  Yule -Eve  at  the  entrance  of  the  house.  It  is  still  a  part  of  the 
Children's  Yule-sports,  that  a  small  pine  tree,  full  of  candles  fruit  and 
ornaments,  shall  be  set  on  their  table. 


The  Rune-Staff  has  gradually  undergone  many  changes,  in  consequence 
of  attempts  having  been  made  partly  to  arrange  it  after  the  New  Style, 
and  partly  to  make  it  more  accordant  with  more  modern  reckonings.  Its 
use  was  commonly  known  up  to  the  commencement  of  the  16lh  Century, 
but  was  supplanted  by  degrees,  as  has  been  already  observed,  by  the  annual 
and  therefore  more  convenient  Almanacks.  Notwithstanding  this ,  familiarity 
with  its  signs  was  long  regarded  as  so  important  that  King  Karl  XI,  by 
a  Royal  Letter  dated  July  5.  1684,  issued  at  the  request  of  the  College  of 
Antiquities,  ordered  —  that  all  such  persons  as  exhibited  the  greatest 
skill  in  carving  Rune-stares  and  inslructing  the  common  people  in  their 
use,  thus  persuading  them  again  lo  adopt  them  in  general^  should  enjoy 
freedom  from  all  payments  or  taxes  to  his  Majesty  and  the  Crown.  — 
They  are  now  preserved  as  mere  antiquarian  curiosities  and,  with  the 
exception  perhaps  of  some  distant  province  where  the  peasantry  may  still 
be  capable  of  understanding  them ,  —  their  explanation  has  fallen  within 
the  limits  of  Antiquarian  Research. 


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^U  Saga  of 


Translated  from  the 


By  «.   S. 


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Translated  from  the  Icelandic  text  in  "Bj^mcrs  KSmpa 
Dater/*  as  compared  with  a  MS.  in  the  Royal  Library  of 
Stockholm,  and  the  Danish  translation  by  Rafn,  Copenhagen. 


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le  Baqa  of 
J^viifiiof  tHe  ©oIH. 


5^6 


c|)U6rcn  an6  tf^elr  &eat|>» 


^^li  (ZdQa  teging  06  foriowg.  —  ^ing  »ctc  goDcrncb 
Syflna«fytfC|  in  tTortpayj  f^c  f^ab  tf)rec  d&ilbrcnj  -Jctgc 
wa«  f)i«  fir(?  fon,  rfalfban  l&isi  fcconb/  anb  ^18  t^irb  d^itb 
wa8  2(n(jc6or0/  a  baugl^fcn  2(n0cbor0  waS  fair  to  loof 
upon,  anb  of  great  unbcrjianbing,  anb  wa^  retfoncb  ftrp  anb 
bcjl  among  t^e  ropal  offfpring*  2()crc,  weff  of  t^e  frit^,  PrctcJ* 
eb  t^e  firanb,  anb  thereupon  jloob  a  conjtberabic  t)iHagc  caDfeb 
»al&cr*«  SdQe,  w^cre  wa8 a ©anctuarp anb  a  great  SEcmpfc, 
Jebgcb  rounb  about  xoit^  a  foftp  planf^worf*  ^erc  were  manp 
®ob»,  hut  Odalbev  wa*  t^t  mofi  Oonourcb  among  t^em  alTj 
anb  fo  jcalouS  were  t^ofe  ^cat^tn  men,  ti)at  t^ep  l&ab  forbibben 
anp  l^arm  being  bone  t^erc  to  eitfjer  man  or  beaflf,  nor  coulb  a 
male  t>at>e  anp  cont)erfe  n>t(b  a  rroman.  STt  SyrfJranb  waS 
tl)e  bireHing  of  t^e  ^'ing,  but  on  t^e  ot^er  ftbe  t^e  firt{>  n>a6  a 
Diaage  catteb  ScamnA^,  wl^ere  litjeb  tM  nian  ^ig^t  (Cf?  or  ft  en 
t^e  fon  of  Dlf  infl,  anb  })li  DiHage  lap  oppojite  t()e  rejtbence  of 
t^e  ^tng*  H  |>  or  ft  cn'«  fpoufe  bore  {)im  a  fon  caCeb  Sritf^iof, 


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xv^o  toa6  t^e  taffcjl  anb  flrongcjl  of  men,  anb,  from  ^i6  t)crp 
pouf^/  n?a6  j)crfeb  in  aff  manner  of  e;rj>Ioi«j  ^erebp  got  l^e  t^e 
name  Srit|^iof  tf^e  23ol&,  anb  wa6  fo  I)apw  in  l[)ii5  frienba 
tHt  alt  mm  migfjeb  {)im  weir» 

SE^e  ^ing'6  djilbren  were  fliff  poung,n?^en  t{)eir  mother  bieb. 
3n  Sogn  Iloeb  an  ^onouraMe  gjeoman,  caffeb  Silblnsi  l&e 
aflfeb  to  fofler  up  tl^e  baugl&ter  of  t()e  ^ing,  anb  ff)e  wa6  browgt)t 
«p  bp  {)im  mil  anb  carefuITp, anb  wag  f^ig^t  ^neehovQ  t^e 
Saiv.  S  V  i  t  f>  i  0  f  alfo  \va6  recei\)eb  a^  fofifcr^irb  6p  (^  1 1 6 1  n  g 
tl^e  gJeoman,  anb  3ngeborg  wa6  therefore  l^ia  fofler^fifer/ 
anb  t^ep  two  furpafeb  all  ot^cx  d^ilbren.  9^ow  Sing  23ele'« 
ric^eg  began  to  me(t  awap  from  I&i6  I&anb6,  for  l&e  wajreb  olb. 
Z^ovilen  ^ab  H)c  gimrbian^^ip  of  t^e  t^irb  part  off^iareafm, 
anb  t{)ig  xvaB  a  great  jlrengt^  to  t^e  Sing,  on  tl^at  fi'be  w|)ere 
Z^ovHen  (ioeb*  (C^orflen  rcceioeb  t^e  Sing  a6  l&iS  guep, 
anb  featleb  t)m  rigf;t  coflfp  et)erp  tl&irb  pearj  buttle  Sing  receioeb 
anb  feajleb  I^orflen  t^c  otI;er  pearS.  delge,  23ele'g  fon, 
foon  became  a  great  facriftcer  to  ^i5  @obgj  ^e  anb  ^i6  brotl&er 
were  but  little  frienbsfortunate,  Hf^oviien  ^ab  a  f^ip  nameb 
«lli6a/  w^id^  xoa^  roweb  bp  XV  men  on  ead^  fibej  ^igl^s 
bulwarfeb  anb  benbeb  were  it§  jlem  anb  flern,  jlronglp  waB  it 
buirt  rife  an  oceamf^ip  «0r  anb  itg  jtbe6  were  )lrengt{)eneb  witO 
trom  ©ud^  \va6  Sritf^iof*^  jlrengtf;  tOatl&e  roweb  t^e  two  oar§ 
at  «Ui6a'^  jlem:  eac^  oar  voa^  XIII  m  tong,  anb  otf^erwife 
requireb  two  men  to  puff  it.  Srif  ^lof  feemeb  to  ercel  air  t^e 
ot^er  poung  men  of  ^i6  time,  anb  t^e  Sing'8  fong  enoieb  I)im 
tHt  l&e  got  more  renown  t^an  t^ep.  Sing  aselc  now  feff  jtdP, 
anb,  a6  bia  fifrengtb  faileb  l;im  more  anb  more,  be  fummoneb 
bia  fong  to  bim  anb  faib:  <2;bi^  ftcfnef  will  be  to  mp  beatb;  3 
prap  poll  therefore  eoer  to  bcit)e  tbe  fame  frienbg  a6  3  l)a\>e  bab, 

*}  ©ecFcb  H^tU 


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for  pc  fecm  to  me  to  require  tfe  ^elp  of  bot^  father  anb  fort , 
Iborflen  anb  Srltf^lof/  in  roorb  anb  in  beeb»  2(  Sarron) 
f^air  pe  raife  oux  me/  23ele  t^m  tvv*ttt\>.  ilftex  t^i6  Cf^ors 
fien  alfo  fettftcf,  anb  fpofe  tf)ii^  to  Svit^iof  ^i^  fon:  'Xt)i^, 
mp  fon,  3  beg  of  t^ee,  t^at  t^ou  benbeft  t^p  biapofttion  to  t})at 
of  tl;e  fong  of  t^e  ^ing,  for  tf)t^  belong^  to  t^eir  r;onoiir  anb 
bignitp3  iiiUf  3  fnow  in  mp  minb  ti&at  t^ou  affo  toilt  be  ab^ 
oanceb,  2f  SBarrow  f^aft  t^oit  biiilb  me,  oppoftte  t^e  cairn  of 
Sing  :^elei  on  t^is  ftbe  ti)e  frit^  bown  bp  t^e  fea,  for  tijere 
can  we  befi  l^olb  counfel  xoitl)  ea^  otl^er  on  tibinga  from  afar/ 
S V i t ^ i 0 P«  fofiersbret^ren  were  ^ig^t  23)ornanb2I6mun&; 
great  men  were  t^ep  anb  ftrong*  2r  little  after,  (Cf^orflen  alfo 
bieb,  anb  .]^i6  aSarrow  wa^  raifeb  ooer  l&im  a6  ^e  r;ab  faib,  but 
Sritf^iof  toof  I^i6  lanb  anb  preciou6  goobS  after  ^im. 


d^a^.  11. 

^tii^ivf  fue^to  ^nf^ehotCi,  t^e  ftfler  of  tf>e  »rot|^er«» 

JCow  Svlff)iof  became  t^e  mojl  renowneb  of  men,  anb  in 
aff  manip  c;rercife6  anb  warlife  exploits  l&e  bore  ^im  weff. 
25jorn,  1&ia  fofiersbrotl&er,  regarbeb  r;e  tl&e  mojlj  2(^mun& 
fert^eb  t^em  bot^»  Z^e  W\p  ^lliba,  ti)c  mojl  precious  t{)ing, 
1)e  ^eireb  after  {)i6  father,  anb  another  mlmiU,  an  Sfrmring, 
w^ofe  life  roa^  not  founb  in  tlovroay^  ®o  generous  a  d^ief 
toa^  Srlt^iof,  tl&at  mofi  men  faib  b^  tva^  no  wap  inferior 
in  l^onour  to  tbe  two  brothers  tl^emfettjea,  e;rcept  in  fingfp  birtb^ 
gor  tbiS  caufe  the  Sing'g  fonS  bcib  feub  anb  enmitp  witb 
Sritf>iof,  bigbfp  refcnting  t^at  be  fboulb  be  calTeb  a  greater 
man  tban  tbep,  beftbeS  wbic5  tbep  fuSpecteb  ti)at  ^ngehoto 
anb  S  r  i  f  f>  i  0  f  bab  an  affection  for  ead^  otber.  5Wow  it  came 
to  paf  tW  tbe  Stint's  ®on6  bab  to  feef  tbe  bo^pitatitp  of  Sri« 


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6 

tpioff  t^elr  trihitarp,  at  SvatnnM,  anb/  accorbing  to  i}i^ 
ciijlottt/  l&c  fcaficb  t^em  aff  more  tttagniPccnttp  t|>an  (Jcp 
tab  been  accwftomeb  to.  Sfngcbotfl  wa«  alfo  t^erc^  onb 
talfeb  n)tt&  Stitf^iof  long^  'JE^at  ®olb:^8ling  of  pourt/  faib 
t^e  «ing'«  baug^ter  to  j^im,  *i8  l&eautiful/  'gtou  fap  true/ 
replieb  Svltf^iof.  3(fter  t^li,  t^e  fdvot^tri  journleb  l^ome, 
anb  t()eir  enop  againfi  Srif  f^iof  wa;reb  greater  attb  greater, 
©^ortrp after , great t>eapinep of l&eart fetjeb Stitf^iofj  »j4rn/ 
j)ia  fo|1er5brot()er,  quetlioneb  bJm  t^e  caufe  fiereof/  anb  $e  anfwereb 
|)im,  '3  am  minbeb  to  aff  for  Sngcborfli  for  t^ougl^  in 
bignitp  3  am  not  equal  to  l^er  brother*,  pet  ii  mp  power, 
met^infg/  not  lep/  '£et  u8  bo  fo/  faib  X^iotn,  anb  t^cn 
went  Srit|)lof,  wit^  bioer6  of  fiiS  foBowcrS,  to  meet  tfic 
J8rotf>era»  Zf}t  «ing8  fat  on  t^eir  fatter'6  Harrow,  Stitf^iof 
fpoFe  rigf)t  weff,  at  raff  aboancing  t>i8  requejl,  to  obtain  t^e  l&anb 
of  ^neehovg  t^eir  jtjier.  Z^t  «ing6  anfwereb  l^im,  *3t  i« 
not,  inbeeb,  wifelp  fought  of  tr;ee,  tl&at  we  ff^oiilb  gioe  ^er  to  a 
man  not  fprung  of  finglp  Woobj  we  now  fnffp  bi6mi^  t()p  fuit.* 
*a;tcn,'  faib  Sritf^iof,  'ig  mp  erranb  foon  ftnif()ebj  Int 
remember,  on  t^e  ot^er  f>anb,  tJ)at  3  wiff  neocr  gioe  pou  ^elp, 
t^oug^  pou  map  werf  require  it/  Sl^ep  repticb,  't^ep  f^oulb  neoer 
care  for  t^.'  SritI;iof  t^cn  wenbcb  l&ome  again,  anb  ti6 
glabnef  of  minb  returneb  unto  j^im* 


dfjap.  in. 

ain^  dttttg'd  war^&efxancc  againft  t^t  foni  of  JBele, 

^ing  xoaB  a  ^ing  f^igi^t  wbo  ruleb  ooer  Xin^farifc,  a  part 
of  aortpay.  ^e  wa6  a  rid&  anb  migl&tp  ^ing,  anb  of  goob 
prefence ,  t^oug^f  now  ab^anceb  in  pearS,    Z^ui  fpof e  ^e  to  ^t$ 


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man;  *3  ^i»c  founb  t^M  t^t  ®ona  of  35clc  t^  ^ng  ^a^ 
Iroten  t^elr  frtcnbf^tp  xolti}  Stritf^iof,  a  d^lcf  tcnowneb  abot^e 
all  ot^ert,  Slow  ^  «>iH  fe«b  mcfengerS  to  t^cfc  ^ingS/W^of^aB 
offer  t^cm  fttd^  conbitiona/i  tf^at  t^cp  f^aBf  fubmitto  mpautf^oritp 
mi  p(i9^  me  tribute,  or  tf)<tt  3  wlff  come  mitf)  a  great  armp 
agatnfl  tl^»  Slot  wlH  tfi*  be  bifficutt  to  bo  /  for  neither  r;aioe 
t^ep  force*  armeb  againfl  me,  nor  ^aoe  t^p  ftltt  anb  »i«bom , 
anb  it  mtilb  be  a  great  glorp  to  me  in  mp  olb  age  tl^ua  to 
fttbbue  t^ta  to  mp  ^anb/  Jpereujwn  went  me^nger*  to  ti&e 
brotJ&er^nngg  anb  t^tia  fpoFe:  «^ing  Jlin^  fenb*  «nto  poii  tl&i* 
mefage,  t^at  pe  ff^aa  fenb  tribute  unto  Utn,  or  t^at  ^e  miH 
ravage  anb  fop  wajie  pour  fingbom^'  SEJep  anfwereb,  *tl^pn)0ulb 
not/  in  t^ir  poung  bap8/  team  t^at  xoU^  t^ep  w>oulb  neijer 
fnow  vi>im  olb,  t^at  t^cp  fl^oulb  f|yamcfuttp  bo  l^im  fert>ice:  we 
miff  now  a^emble  aU  t|>e*  warrior*  we  can*'  Z^ii  voa6  bone* 
SBut  w^en  t^ep  faw  ti^at  t^eir  pg^ting^mcn  were  hut  few,  tffep 
fent  ^ilbin^,  ^iS  ji)jlerfat^er,  to  Svitf^iof,  )oraping  |^im 
to  come  to  t|e  ^tlp  of  tfye  pxittcei.  Svitf^iof  wa*  fitting  at 
6&ef  vsifyen  «5ll&lnff/t  coming  in,  O^n^  fpofe:  'Cur  JJing« 
fenb  anb  falute  tl&ee,  aiA  j^rop  t^at  t^ou  woulbefi  go  up  to  tl&eir 
^crp  to  iattU  againfl  ^ing  King,  w&o  wiff  t>iorentrp  anb 
unjufKp  attadP  t^elt  lanb.'  Srit^iof  anfwereb  I;im  not  one 
worb,  hut  faib  to  Sjorn,  wit^  wjom  f>e  wa8  plaping  — 
*SE^ere  i«  now  a  fquare,  fofierbrot^er,  between  tl&e  piece*,  anb 
t^at  pou  cannot  change  j.  but  3  wiff  dpoofe  tl^e  reb,  anb  fee  if 
it  can  e*capc/  j^ll&in^  t^cn  fpofe  again,  «3n  t^i*  manner 
^i^S  6^1  S^  prapeb  me  to  abbre^  t^ee,  Svitf^iof,  iW 
tfiou  f{)ouIbcfl  go  in  tl&i*  e;rpebition,  or  ti&at  a  terriWe  fatef^oulb 
befal  t^ee  w^cn  t^e  33rotl&er8  returneb  tl&erefrom/  »jorn  now 
crieb  out,  *S£5ere  i«  a  bouMe  game  Jere,  foller*brot^r ,  anb 
t^ere  are  tiro  wap*  of  plaping  xt:  Sr it |>iof  faib,  '^n  t\^at 
cafe  3  woulb  aboife  t^ee  to  bring  out  tje  JSing  to  hattU  5  t^ere 


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map  t^ctt  tviCingrp  6c  a  bonhU  pfap  for  tne/  SRo  ofi^er  finb  l)f 
fenfcncc  got  i^ilblnff  to  ^16  erranb,  but  beparteb  baflifp  badf 
again  to  meet  tbe  ^ingg,  anb  tofb  t^em  Sritf^iof^  anfttjen 
S;^cp  qiiefliioneb  •^il&ing  w^at  meaning  b^  migbt  braw  from 
Srlt^iof^  worbe??  ^ilbing  faib,  *2B^en  be  fpofc  of  t&c 
fquare  between  t^e  pieced,  r;c  mull  l&aoe  been  an;riou6  for  befap 
in  t^i^  erpebition  witb  pou;  hut  wl^cn  l^e  woulb  put  ^iS  Hnt> 
to  t^e  fair  6bef*piece,  be  mujl  (^aoe  t^oug^t  of:3n^cbor(y 
pour  jtffer,  guarb  anb  watd^  ber  tl&erefore  weK  anb  roifefp;  t^en 
vo^tn  2  t^reateneb  l^im  witb  pour  fierce  ret)enge,  »jorn  rc» 
garbeb  it  a$  a  bonhU  p(ap,  hnt  Sritf^lof  faib  t^at  t^e  Mn^ 
fboulb  ftrfi  be  brougl&t  to  action  /  anb  ti&at  fpoFe  l^e  of  ^ing 
Xing.'  Z^en  preparcb  t^ep  for  hattUr  hut  ftrjl  caufeb  3n* 
gcborff  togetber  witb  Vlii  of  ber  bamfeW  to  be  removeb  to 
05albev'i^6(ts^f  W^^&  tbat  Sri tf>i of  woulb  not  be  raf^ 
enougb  to  go  anb  meet  l^er  tfierc,  for  ti^at  no  one  bareb  profane 
tW  ©anctuarp*  SE^e  two  23rotl&er^  tl)cn  mard^eb  fout^warba  to 
3a6ar/  anb  founb  ^ing  Xin^  in  eofttcsfounb.  SB^at 
moft  enrageb  t^at  ?5rince  maeJ,  t^at  t^t  SSrotbcr^  bctbfaib  *t^cp 
were  af^ameb  of  ftgbting  wit^  a  man  fo  olb,  ti)at  i)t  coulb  not 
get  on  l)orfebadf  witbout  fome  ^elp/ 


€J}ap.  IV. 

S^tttl^iof  0oe«  to  malbet'i^^a^e. 

®o  foon  a«  tf)e  ^ing6  were  gone,  too?  Sritf^iof  upon  ^im 
]&i6  mofi  preciou6  breg,  anb  placeb  I;i«  ®ofb?9iing  t^e  ®oob  upon 
bi6  l^anb^  Sl^en  tf)t  fojlerbrot^erg  went  bown  to  t^e  feaftbe,  anb 
brew  fortb  «ni&a»   25j5rn  faib,  «w|)itl^er  fl^aff  we  now  bolb 


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ti6,  foflctbrotiiet?'  ^Xo  ajalbcr'^^^j^aac/  anfwercb  Sri* 
i^loft  'to  jefl  wit^  3nflcborg/  «3t  i«  not  wett  bone/ 
faib.  7&y6vn,  *to  bran?  bown  f^c  anger  of  t^e  Ooba  u}>on  «!♦• 
'Sl^at  f&att  now  be  friebj*  retiirneb  Srlt|^lof/  *b«t/  ^owe^er, 
3  rxdut  3 n^cb org'*  fat>or  more  t^an  asal&cr'*/  STfter 
t^t^f  t^ep  romeb  oDer  t^t  fxit^,  anb  xoetit  up  to  33alber'6'' 
{Ja0C|  anb  into  ^ngehovQ'i  SSowcn  ©Jie  fat  t^erc  wit& 
^er  VIII  poung  maib«/  anb  VIII  were  t{)ofc  affo  to^o  ^ab  now 
come  tl&lt^eri  anb  all  toa6  l^ung  about  wit^  pearW,  anb  tapejirieb 
wit^  airioii«Ip*wot)en  clotfi.  3nflcborg  t^n  floob  up  anb 
faib/  'SBJp  art  t^ou  fo  bolb,  Sritf^iof,  a«  to  come  ^it^er 
againfl  tf;e  miff  of  mp  Srot^era,  anb  bringing  bown  ti^e  wrat^ 
of  t&e  ©oba  upon  t^ec?'  Sri t|^ to f  anftoereb/ '^oweocr  tfyat 
map  be,  jlitt  3  oalue  more  tf;p  looe  tr)an  t^t  rage  oftI)c®ob6r 
nngcbotflr  faib,  «$£^ou  f^alt  be  welcome,  anb  all  t^p  mtn 
wit^  tl&ee,'  anb  t&en  mabe  @^e  room  for  ^im  to  ftt  bp  r;er  ftbe, 
anb  branf  to  l^im  in  t^e  f?ne|?  wine;  anb  fo  fat  t^ep  t^ere, 
;efling  merrilp  together*  JEj^en  faw  ^ngehove  t^e  beautiful 
Slittg  upon  I&i6  l&anb,  anb  ijuejlioneb  l&im  w^t{)er  ti^e  jewel  waS 
^i«  own?  Svitjflof  faib  it  wai,  anb  tl^en  praifcb  f^e  it 
eicceebingrp.  *3  wiff,'  faib  Sr it f^i of,  *git)e  tf)et  t^ig  3ting, 
if  t^ou  bojj  promife  net>er  to  part  t()erewit(),  but  wilt  fenb  it  to 
me  to^n  t^oxi  wift  feep  it  no  longer;  anb  wit^  it  wiff  we  plight 
our  trot^  witl&  ead^  otber/  ®o  were  tbcp  betrot^cb ,  d^anging 
9ling§  together.  Srltf^iof  waa  often  bp  nig^t  in  »al&cr'6* 
^agc/  anb  betoof  (^imfclf  t^it^er  ead^  bap  alfo,  to  jofe  wit^ 


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10 

C^ap.  V. 

©f  ^titkivf  anb  t^e  Son«  of  f8ele. 

JCoxo  ttittf}  we  f^af  of  t^e  fdm^txi,  ^om  tM  ll^ep  ftwiib 
^ing  Hiiifff  but  t^at  &e  &ab  a  far  Wronger  force  tlfan  l^cp* 
affefcngcrS  went  Utmetn  tf^em  therefore/  anb  tricb  to  arrange 
t^e  matter /  fo  t^iXt  no  ^ofiUttte«  f^oulb  occur*  Aing  Hitter 
n)a«  faib  to  it  xoiUins  to  meet  t^em  t^acefuflPf  on  condition 
tHt  t^ep  fubmitteb  to  l)\&  rule,  anb  gat>e  ^im  in  marriafle  t^etr 
ftffer  3nflcbor0  t^c  fair,  together  »it(>  t(>e  tfeirb  part  of 
air  t^eir  property.  SEo  t^e  things  t^t  AingS  agreeb,  for  t&es 
fan)  t^at  t^ep  ^ab  to  bo  n>tt^  t^etr  ooermatd^/  anb  aO  n>ae 
mabc  fafi  anb  ftrmfp  promifeb/  anb  t^e  marriage  wa*  to  tafe 
place  at  So(j nc,  wjiit^er  King  waS  to  go  to  meet  ^i«  be« 
trot^eb.  Slow  mard^  tj^e  SBrot^er«  ^omc  wit^  tl^eir  warrior*/ 
anb  are  to  t^c  utfermoil  enrageb.  SBut  xo^n  gritf^iof  t^ouQU 
it  lifelp  t^at  tt)e  ^rotf;er6  woulb  return,  ^t  t^ni  abbrcfcb  t^t 
baugl&ter  of  t^c  «ing :  —  'ajjea  anb  ^o6pita6rp  i&aft  tl^ou  receioeb 
u«,  anb  aSal&etr  our  ^ofi  ^atf)  not  been  bift)l<afeb  witb  u*j 
but  wl^cn  t^ou  flnbef!  tl&at  t^e  jiingg  are  come  ^ome,  fpreab 
fair  linen  cIot^«  over  t^e  ^alt  of  tbe  JDifar ,  for  t^at  i«  tf>€ 
big^ejl  in  tl)is  temple,  anb  we  fbaff  fee  t^m  from  our  \>iU%e** 
Z^e  ^ing'6  baug^ter  faib,  '2?e  bib  not  follow  tl&e  aboice  anb 
jubgement  of  ot^er^  w^en  pe  bib  t^i* ;  but  certaintp  mufi  we 
finblp  receive  our  fricnbS  wben  t^ep.b<iuc  come  to  u4/  StU 
t^iof  after  t^i^  betoof  bint  bome,  anb  nejtrt  morning  went 
earfpoutjanb  w^en  be  ^ab  returncb,  ^e  quob  tbi«  fong: 

«S£^i«  wirr  3  frP  our 
2Barrior3  all,  t^at 
?5Iainlp  are  ooer  tbofe 
?)Ieafant  failing^ ; 
gig^tingsmcn !  mount  not 


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g^r  now  ar€  t^e  f^eti  aU 
SB^t^elp  Bread^htg !' 

Z^tn  went  e^ep  out,  anb  air  faw  ti)at  t^e  ^att  of  t^c  ©{s^ 
far  n?a6  cooercb  witi^  n^ite  Hnem  Sjorn  aicb  ouf,  *5Woto  mujl 
t^c  Jtingi  it  tcturneb  l^omc,  anb  But  f^oxt  emns^  w^iDf  ^^^  time 
be  t^at  we  ff)att  jtt  in  peace;  it  woulb  be  fcejl,  ntct^infg/  to 
coffect  our  force* ;'  anb  fo  bib  ti^ep,  t^e  common  pcopfe  alfo  anb 
manp  firong  men  being  afembleb,  Z^e  a3rotf)er6  foon  learneb 
ttH  t^efe  acts  of  grlt^^iof,  anb  ro^at  ^16  force*  were*  ^ing 
gtlgt  foib  t^en,  *S3JonberfuI  3  beemit,  t^at  »al&er  f^oulb 
fiibmit  to  air  finb«  of  infult  from  Sritf>iof;  but  now  roitl 
we  fenb  me^cnger*  to  ^im,  to  fnow  w1)at  term*  ^e  witt  offer 
u6,  or  propofe  to  l^im  to  Icaoe  t^e  countrpj  for  3  fee  not  tHt 
we  ^aoe  fud^  flrengt^,  at  t^e  »>refent/  a*  t^t  we  f^oulb  be  able 
to  fig()t  againfi  i&im.'  Srit|>iof'S  frienb*  anb  i5il&in3# 
516  fojlerfat^er,  carrieb  therefore  t^e  fatutation  of  tt)e  ^ing*  to 
l^im  anb  ft^ofe  t^ii*:  —  •SS^  ?5rince*  wiB  be  reconcifeb  to  t^ee, 
Sritf^iof ,  if  t^ou  t>o(l  fetd&  from  t^e  (Dvfney*3«lan6«  t^e 
tribute  wjid^  ()a*.  not  been  paib  ftnce  ^ing  aselc  bieb;  for 
tl^ep  want  treafure,  being  ahout  to  gioe  (iw(i\)  In  marriage 
^iXQehotQ  t^eir  ftflfer  bowrieb  wit{) mu(^ weaUl^/  Svit^lof 
anfwereb/  *Dn[p  one  t^ing  can  leab  to  peace  between  u*/Our 
Dencrafing  t^e  fin*men  we  ^aoe  ^ab,  for  no  fait^  ^i^nt  3  in 
t^efe  25rot^er*»  £)n  one  conbition,  l^oweoer,  wiff  3  fJipufate 
quietf  tHt  aU  oinr  propertp  f^aff  rc)}  in  peace,  w{)ile  3  am 
abfent.'  5£^i*  roaS  promifeb,  anb  conprmcb  witj  oat&*»  Srls 
tf^iof  now  prepareb  fyim  for  ^i*  ejrpebition,  anb  ti^ofe  out  ^i* 
men,  aff  botb  anb  fit  for  war:  XVIII  were  t^ep  together.  5E^efe 
quejiioncb  Svlt^iof,  w^et^er  ^e  woulb  not  go  to  ^ing^clgc 
anb  be  r-econcileb  to  l&im,  anb  beprecate  t^  rage  of»aI6er? 
J^c  repUcbj  ^SE^i*  wiff  3fwear,not  to  aff  peace  offing  ^cl^c/ 


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Srfter  t^xt,  ^e  mnt  on  boatb  jetti&a/anb  faUeb  out  along 
QoQnUftit^^  —  Slow  ml^en  grit|?iof  ^ab  gone  from  ^li 
]&omc«Ianb,  Jling  rf a lf& an  frofc  t^u^  to  6^1 6^  \^^  brother: 
♦SKud^  more  energy  woulb  It  ^m  on  our  ftbe,  if  gritf^lof 
fiifercb  fome  })uni«^ment  for  l&i«  crime;  wc  xoxU  therefore  burn 
]^i«  t)iBage,  anb  ratfe  ftid^  a  fiorm  againji  ^im  anb  ^xi  xatn, 
tW  t^t\)  f^att  neper  profpcr.'  ^clgc  falb,  xt  f{M)wrb  fo  ht. 
iE^ep  t^en  burneb  up  all  t^e  oiffage  at  SramnA* ,  anb  plun* 
bereb  all  l&i«  property*  after  tbi«/  t^ep  fent  for  two»ittl^8/ 
^cl6c  anb  ^amglamu,  anb  gaoe  tl^em  prefentJ  tW  t&ep 
f^oiirb  fenb  fud&  a  l^orrible  tempefl  againfi  Sritf^iof  anb  l>i6 
fottowerS,  t^at  tl^ep  fl^oulb  all  peri«]&  in  t^e  fca*  5£^e  &agS 
accorbinglp  practifcb  aff  t()eir  witd&craft,  anb  votnt  up  to  a  |>ig& 
place  *)  wit^  manp  imprecation^  anb  incantation^^ 


^titl^tpf  d  Cjcpcbifion  to  t|>c  <DrFney«» 

-Jlort)  w^en  Srltf^lof  anb  ^i«  men  ^ab*  left  Sogni^frit^ 
bef;inb  t\)tvx,  tbere  arofe  a  great  tlorm  anb  a  migi&tp  winb/  fo 
t^at  t&e  n?aoe8  tofeb  eyceebinglp  anb  t^e  f^ip  n>a8  bripen  oiolentip 
along,  for  it  woS  unlaben  anb  a  ligbt  fwiftsfailing  oepel.  SJ^jiJ 
fong  t^^n  ^aunteb  grit^iof: 

<aKp  mUK(AV\>  f&ip  from  fiJogni 

geatlp  2  let  fail  forwarbj 

@ore^mourning,  maiben^  fat 

•SWib  »al6cr'«  SEemple^grooeJ^ 

♦)  9!B^en  mitd&c^  fj^oulb  fpac  mDftcricd  or  iinprecafc' curfew  on  ej>eir 
enemies  /  a  (offo  eittlng^ptace  ma*  coiiffracrcb  of  w^i*  tjet)  toof 
pofefton  n>irb  man^  magicat  ceremonte6t 


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13 

Xt^idf  xain^mtxi  now  faU  fafl,  hut  . 

g>c,  fair  ntaiM,  laug^  jlitt! 

g)e'b  lo^)f ,  e'en  f^oulb  «IU&a 

giff/  enb  fo,  anb  go  bown!' 
«SBea  tt>oulb  it  be/  fatb  » j5rn,  'if  t^ou  ^ab|}  fomet^ing 
better  to  bO/  t^an  ftnging  about  t^e  maibend  in  33atber'l< 
dagc/  'Slot  t^e  lef  woufb  it  be  for  tl)at,*  obferDebgrlff^iof* 
jpereupon  t^e  nort|>winb  brot)e  t()em  to  t^e  ©ounb,  near  t()e 
i«(anb$  caSeb  t^e  e6lun&er«3^ian&«*  Slf^en  ma<  tf)e  fbrm  at 
it«  &cigf;t»    Slow  fang  S  r  i  1 1>  t  o  f : 

«'®ainj]  t^e  ffp  now,  rowg^  biffow^ 

@wift  ba«^et&  t^e  fea; 

aB^irrb  bp  witcf;  fpea<ong«, 

2eaoe  jformswaoeS  t()eir  beb: 

SSotb  4glir  3  battle  not 

?fim  'mib  fu(5  breafer«^ 

£et  Solunfter  fb^ltcx,  labSj  — 

®wett  womemwaoe*  |>ere!* 
JC^en  bro«g(;t  t^ep  to,  unber  &6lnnbev  2Slt6f  intenbing 
tfiere  to  abibe^  58ut  t^t  weather  fubbenip  fatting  nearlp  calm, 
t^ep  ^angeb  t^eir  courfe  again,  anb  faileb.awap  from  t^e 
t«anb6.  ?Jlcafeb  were  tl;ep  now  wit&  t^eir.  oopage,  for  t()ep 
r;ab  a  favourable  breeje  awhile;  but,  w^en  t^e  winb  began  to 
f ref&en  more  anb  more ,  Svit^iof  quob : 

*gar  i^ence,  at  Svamnii, 

gormerlp  toai  ^f  — 

SWp  3n0Cborg  merrilp 

Slowing  to  mceti 

Slow  f^att  3  fail,  witb 

®weff«biffow«  ooer,  — 

Sigl&tlp  mp  long^bragon 

2eap  f^att  awap  V 


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14 

93ut  m^en  tl^p  ffob  come  far  etu  tofea^  tOe  ocean  taf^eb 
fttrtou6Ip  for  t^e  feconb  time/  imb  a  migi^tp  Oorm  arofe  toitf^  fo 
ntud^  fleet  anb  fnoxo  Hat  no  man  coidb  fee  tf^  ftem  of  t^e 
t>e^el  from  t^e  jlem  thereof.  SB^e  waoe*  olfo  U(U  ooer  t^e  f|)ip, 
fo  tHt  He  men  l^oleb  mit^ut  ceitftng.  2;r>en  reciteb  Srit^iof 
t^$  #aunt: 

'Sor  t0(a>t»  anb  for  wi^Hprung 

SBI^itUH^mS  nought  fee  we^ 

JSoIb  Sytfc^&eroe*  gong 

gar  on  t|>c  beejs 

J^ibb'tt  96Iunbei:  i^arbour*  — 

^ere  jianb  we  together, 

@ig^teen  men  baling 

Klliba  to  faoer 
23)6rn  remarfeb/  ^J^  meet6  nmnp  a   ^itibtance  m^o 
wanberet^  far!'  —  'SCrue  it  iS,  fojier brother/  f«ib  Svit^iof, 
anb  d^aunteb  tf)ui : 

••2i5  i^elflc  'galnii  ^timfaft 

eetM  ^r^in'tf  ftoeffing  baugl^ter6} 

J^ow  biff  rent  twf  hti^fyt  ©ribe'6 

a5at6ct^fcen  Wb&I  — 

SS^e  ^ing'l  foul  \v\Uf  anb  3ne'bore*< 

gonb  n)i^^/  fyxo  n>tbe  a))art! 

£)n  l^er  mp  foul  reiwfet^/ 

On  (>er,  mp  life,  mp  lope!' 
•St  map  weir  be/  fap«  »jorn/  HM  f^e  wif^et^  Hte 
better  t^n  *tiS  %txt,  hwt  eoen  t$i«  xi  not  to  be  complaineb  of/ 
—  '2Be  mufl  now/  anfweret^  Srlt^iof,  ^trp  wM  ^efp  our 
bolb  war^men  can  gioe  vA ;  btit  4mre  pleafant  wmtib  it  be  in 
Satber'i  ;>ade.'  Z^tn  *gan  t(>ep  prepare  rigfit  fbutlp 
againfl  tf»e  florm  /  for  goob  mm  anb  true  were  tf^ep  afembteb 
tf^ere  on  boarb,  anb  t(;eir  (ig^t  Hiip  xoai  t^e  befl  t^at  coulb 


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13 
ie  fnttA  in  all  t!^t  9t^t^*Sanb.   St^ereoftrr  fnget^  JSrit^iof 

'gor  fatt  m(n»€9  nmig^t  fee  tve^ 

J^ere  fatltng  far  wcfltoarb; 

mite,  life  to  af^eS/ 

S^ta'oeS  igit  afar! 

S3taow6  /  f^riir^foiinbing , 

&tDan^flie^t$  tafe  i^tfl^lpj 

»2Rib  ever^flerce  waoessebbic* 

«lll&a  i«  ^nrPb!^ 
SRow  fl&ep  f^ippeb  a  great  fea,  fo  tHt  a)erp  man  flfoob 
faHAailiriQ,    S  r  i  1 1>  i  o  f  fang  t]&i6  fong : 

^SeaS  pfebge  me  merrttp  I 

(gofrtwrb,  tbep'ir  mourn  —  f^oiilb  3 

@inf  'mib  Cwambreafer^  — 

SB^ere  fl^eet«  fap  w^ttc^bread&ing/ 
*S£(>infefl  t^ou,  t^en/  faib  »i6vn,  HHt  tfyefe  ®ogn« 
maiben*  rwnlb  let  manp  tcar«  faU  after  t^ce?'  *2)oubtIef  tf;cp 
woufb,  2  trow/  anfwereb  Srft|>{of.  S5ut  t^e  fea*flream« 
now;  /wept  fO/  tf;at  t()ep  pourefe^in  life  unto  torrents^  STtt  fioob 
fafff  ^owct)cr,  for  t^cir  f^ip  wa«  goob,  anb  rigl)t  ^arbp  were 
tf)e  mm  on  boarb  ^en    2^en  quob  »jorn  t^ni: 

*®ure  net>er  aU  tyott 

SBibow  fo  prebg'b  ^er  fooer; 

@ure  newr  bright  bribe  can 

JBib  t^ee  fo  to  ^er  ftbe,  man! 

aSrine  mp  epnc  brenc^e*/ 

®Mt^um  nought  queml^eS; 

Wfy  big  brawntarm  rtibt  meanip 

(Spe»IJb«  Mting  fo  feenfp!* 
3(6initn6  obferveb:  'no  great  ^rm  i8  t^ere  in  pour  ar;n« 
being  trieb  a  (ittle,  for  pou  ^ab  no  mercp  on  uS  xofy>  lap  rubbing 


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16 

our  cpcS  ft)  befl^airtnglp/  w^dt.  time  me  formerip  fioob  up  fo 
carrpln»atbcr'«i5a0c/>a3uftt)^pbofinoeftn9,!M«mun6?* 
faib  Srltf^lof,  ^Z^at  f^att  not  be  awanting'  fap«  2C«muii&/ 
anb  beginnctj)  t^i«  fong : 

*©()arp  failing  it  n)a«  ^cxe, 

Zf)e  f&ip/  —  fca6  fore  beating; 

a^/  one  man  'galnf!  eigfyt^  ^ 

jDn  boarb  ^ab  to  worf. 

SEo  t^e  women'*  bonder  bteaffafl 

SBore  3  more  (^atm'b/  t&an 

JClIiba  ^ere  bailing 

'SWib  ^ig()  |>orrib  waoe«  V 
*Zi)on  bofi  not  fap  lef  about  t^p  &elp,  ti^att  it  Wi  atu 
fcoexS  Stitf^lof  fmiting,  *bwt  pet  tl^ou  wentejJ  l^abfong  into 
t^e  race  of  t^taa« ,  w^en  t^on  woulbflt  perforce  labour  in  t^c 
fitd&en*/  Slow  rofe  t^e  fform  once  more,  fo  t^at  t^e  fierce  fnow^ 
mountain*  w^i^  brofe  anb  baf&eb  on  air  jibe*  againfi  t^e  f^ip, 
feemcb  to  aff  w^o  were  on  boarb  rather  to  lifcn  great  rodf*  anb 
enormou*  clip  tban  common  waoe**    Sl^cn  qupb  S  r  i  1 1>  i  o  f : 

'®at  3  carelef  on  cuf^ion* 

3n  »al6er'«  cool  temple, 

S£o  tf)C  «ing'«  baug^ter  boubtlep 

SDare  3  tea  w^at  3  fnomj 

Jlan'«  raoifbing  feasbeb 

SRigbt  quidf  3  afccnb  nottj; 

aSut  3ng'borfl'«/  fomc  ot^er 

gonb  fuitor  foon  tafc«r 

»i&tn  faib/  «@ore  forrow  r;aoe  we  now  at  banb,  fofier* 

brother,  anb  beSpair  ^afl  t^ou  in  t^p  worb*.;  tbi*  i*  but  iff 

bone  in  fo  goob  a  bero!'  •SReitber/'  anftoeretb  Sritf^lof,  'i8 

it  from  be«pair  nor  from  forrow  tbat  3  Oaoe  fpofe.n  of  our  olb 

pleafaunt 


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17 

j^cafaunt  d^aunce*;  it  ma^  toett  6e,  trulp/  t^at  t^ep  toenoftenex 
mentioneb  tH^  was  nccbebj  int  mofl  men  moufb  t^inf  f^emfetotf 
furcr  of  beat^  tJ&an  lifc^  if  f^ep  mere  fo  i^avb  come  a«  wc. 
©tia  wiU  3  anfwr  t^cc  fomew^at/    Zf>cn  d^aiinteb  f^e: 

•®o  fortune  Ja8  faoor'b  — 

(gcatg  t{>ou  canfl  not  Boajl  of) 

SEl^at  'mong  eigl^t  wefc'ming  ^anbmaib* 

SBfiUe  3nfl'borfl3  woo'b* 

Sn  »al&cr'«  courts  d^ang'b  toe 

6^a8'b  atrm^rlngg  together  j  — 

SJB^erc  t^cn,  prap,  n)a«  Ulgli 

^alf&an*«  t'anb'6  rocttd^ful  ©pirit?' 
•aaBe  mufl  he  content/  faib  asjorn/  *wtt^  t^at  iD^idEl  ^a« 
been/  S;^en  (rofe  fud^  a  fea  ooer  tf}emf  t^t  t^e  damps  fprang 
anb  t|yc  two  fleets  were  thrown  foofe,  anb  IV  men  were  firudf 
ooerboarb,  all  of  wjom  pertf^eb  in  t^e  fea.  Zfycn  d^aunteb 
Srit^iof  t^u6: 

*2;^e  faU»f^eet6  bot&.6urjI, 

•aWib  t^e  big<weaing  iittowSi 

©wain*  four,  too,  fanf  bown 

3n  t^e  bottomree  fea.* 
*aRet^inf6  now/  fait(>  S  r  it  |>  I  of,  H^at  fome  among  our 
men  wiff  r;aoe  to  journep  bown  to  21  a  n  a ,  anb  we  f ^aff  foof 
hut  poor  ambafaborS  xoJ)m  we  come  t^itfjer,  unfcp  we  ^olb 
ourfefocS  life  mm,  rig^t  jloutlp.  @oerp  foul  of  uS  f^oulb 
therefore,  3  counfel,  ^at>e  fome  gofb  ahont  ^im/  Sl^en  ^eweb 
1)e  afunber  t^e  SRing  ^e  ^ab  got  from  3ngcbor0/  bioibeb 
it  among  ^iS  men,  anb  quob  t^iS  fong: 

•SE^e  goob  3llng  t^e  rcb,  wjid& 

j5alfban'«  rid^  father 

Dwn'b,  mil  we  bew  —  ere 

3 


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18 

^(jlv  embrace  ui.  — 
®^oulb  we  guefl  ir^cre  roaw*  bntfle, 
©learning  golb  ff)aU  bright  jVartte  j 
£)own  'mib  Rana'i  beep  cctt 
SDaring  g^icfS  it  (mt»  mttV 

»jont  faib,  '9Jot  fo  certain  i8  t^i«,  pet  i8  not  aff  ^ope 
gone/  2^en  founb  Svitf^lof,  wit^  t^e  reff,  tf;at  t^e  f^ip  ^ab 
t>ti\>tn  Derp  far  onwarbj  but  nothing  fnew  t^ep  of  t^e  courfe 
t^ep  faifeb,  for  fo  tt;idffp  barf  ^ab  it  grown  on  all  |tbc3  rounb 
about  t^ent/  t^t  t^ep  coulb  not  fee  from  jiem  to  jiern  of  t^e 
De^cf,— be|tbe6  tl;e  ttm^tH  anb  rolling  of  tl^e  fea,  together  wit^ 
fnow^fleet/  frojl,  anb  a  tremenbon«  colb.  SJ^en  went  Svltf^iof 
tip  on  to  tl)t  majl/  anb  fo  foon  a^  ^e  came  bown  tf)ni  fpofe  to 
^iS  foffowerS:  'SKanp  wonberfuf  jtg^t6  f;aoe  3  feen;  a  great 
SB^ate  lap  arounb  tf)e  f^ip/  anb  3  fiifpect  we  mujl  ^aoe  come 
near  to  fomc  fanb  l&ereaboutS,  but  t^at  ^t  witt  bar  ui  from  t^t 
coajl*  3 befieoe not tl&at  ^ing  i^elgc  bearet^  u6  anp  frienbf^ip, 
nor  ()atf)  ^e  fent  u6  anp  frienbfp  mepage*  SJwo  women  fee  3  on 
t^e  badP  of  tOat  SB()arej  tl^ep  it  i«  w^o,  wit^  t^eir  worff  fpeff^ 
anb  bfacfetl  witchcraft,  caufe  t^ia  horrible  ^eab^fform*  Slow  witt 
we  trp  w^etl^cr  our  fortune  or  t^eir  incantation^  at>aif  tf)t  nioji; 
peer  pe  rigl^t  onwarb  aS  before;  mpfelf/  wit^  a  bart^club,  witt 
bruife  tt)efc  eoil  bemont?.'    Sl^cn  fang  ^e  t^iS  fong: 

'2Beirb  witrf;e«  fee  3, 
SEwo,  on  t(;e  wa^jc  t^ere;  — 
i^elflc  M  fent  t^cm^ 
^it^er  to  mett  «g : 
e.llxba  f5aa  fnap  a* 
©unber  i'  t^'  mibbefl 
S:^eir  badpa,  —  ere  o'er  iiUowi 
^ounb6  ff}e  rig^t  onwarb/ 


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19 

fdut ,  a8  it  i«  tcratcb ,  tt;i6  qualUp  foaorocb  rt;c  f  ^ip  « 1 1  i  6  a  / 
tM  i^  coufb  unbevfianb  ^uman  fpccd^.  Zt}tn  fatbSjorn, 
*9?ott?  n)c  f^aC  fee  t^efe  S3rot]^er6'  \)irtuea  towarbg  x\%:  ^txtxoxti) 
fprang  »jorn  to  tl^e  rubber;  but  Sr  Itf^iof  grafpeb  aia^jelin 
anb  teopt  to  t^c  ffem  of  tl^e  f^ip,  jtnging  t\)\t  d&aunt: 

'J^aU!  ottwarb  eUifea! 
I'eap  tt9f>  on  t^e  fea^l^iirs  — 
Z^M  flrim  SBitdEi'g  templeg 
anb  ^cet^  breaf  2;^ou  t^roufll^ ; 
fflreaf  jaw*bone  avb  cf;eeF*6one 
3n  t^e  be^jitsborn  ^ag!  — 
gor  ti^at  ot^er  foul  gianteg 
93reaf  a  foot  or  two  quidPfp!' 

SE^ereafter  lanceb  \)t  ti^t  for?  at  t^e  one  i^am^Ceaper*^), 
wMie  &llib(Ci  frontsfecl  brot)e  on  tl&e  barf  of  t^e  ot^er*  Sll^uS 
were  bot^  t^cir  barf6  brofen.  23ut  tl^e  2Bf)aIc  bbeb  unber  anb 
fwam  oxoa)),  anb  tl^ep  nether  faro  ^m  afterroarba*  Sl^en  began 
t^c  roeatl^er  to  grow  jiiff,  Hi  i^t  fl^lp  roa6  roaterloggeb*  %xU 
t^i 0 f  tl^ercforc  caffeb  foublp-to  l&iS  mtxi,t^(kt  t^ep  fl^oulb  ball 
out  t^e  oeper.  ©ap^  Sjorn,  'Ufetef  rooulb  it  be  for  u6  to 
roorf  at  t^at/  —  '9?ap/  fojier brother,  netjer  befpair/  faib  Srl» 
t^iof,  'eoer  ()at^  it  Utn  t{)e  jtout^^earteb ^ero'^  cuffom  togi\)c 
xo\;}Ckt  {)erp  ^e  can  a8  (ong  a6  it  i6  po^ibte,  come  ro^at  roiff 
thereafter/    SE^en  quob  ^e: 

'9ie\)er  f^oulb  6()ampiona  fore 
©orroro  at  beat^ ; 
Sourage,  tt^tn,  courage  mp 
3}?crrp  men  all !  — 
©ear  anb  beceitfe^ 
9lig{)tsbream6  ^a\)e  ta\x^\^t  me 


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20 

Z1)at,  in  fpitc  of  aU  t^inbratice,  3 

2ne'hovs  fHU  get!' 
SE^cn  balcb  ti^ev  t^e  f ^ip  dear ,  anb  mere  come  near  t^e 
coafff  iut  bab  weather  again  blew  againfl  t^em.  Z^tn  too! 
Srltf^lof  again  two  oarS  at  tf)t  prow,  anb  roweb  tolt^  t^em 
tig^t  flronglp  forwarb^  SE^e  meatier  now  d^angeb/  anb  t^ep  fan) 
t()at  t^ep  were  come  off  JEfju-founb/  anb  tj^ere  came  t&ep  to 
lanb.  ^i*  d'^^*'  d&ampionS  were  fuK  weaf  anb  wearpj  but  fo 
frefi^  anb  bolb  wa6  Sr it f^iof,  t^  I;e  bare  o\)er  t^e  f«rf  VIII 
of  ^i«  men,  »jorn  carrieb  II ,  anb  Vimnnb  one*  iE^en 
cfianntcb  Srit^iof; 

*2i)  t^e  fire^imnep  came  3, 
anb  carrieb  rig^t  jioutlp  — 
SE^rong^  brift«foam  fierce^{)irling  — 
SKp  feebfesgrown  fea^folf* 
SE^e  fair  on  tr;e  fanb  3 
©afelp  iau  reeo'b  now  j  — 
'©ainflf  t^e  prcttp  pate  fea:*maib« 
%i6  not  pleafant  to  fi^^tV 


djfap.  VII. 

vlngantyr  roa&  at  ftfju,  w^cn  Svitf^iof  came  af^ore. 
3^  wa«  ]()ig  cufiom ,  w^en  ^e  branf ,  t^at  a  man  f ^outb  fit  at 
t^e  lattice  of  5ig2)rinfing5jpaff,  anb  feep  a  goob  lookout  feawarb, 
ftolbing  careful  watd^»  Qut  of  a  ^ornrgobfet  f(;ouIb  {^ebrinf,  anb 
w^en  it  toaS  emptp  another  wa^  ftttcb  up  for  r;tm»  i^alltjar 
was  {)e  {iigl;t,  w()o  fcpt  wat(^  wf;cn  Svl.t^iof  came  to  (anb. 


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21 

SB^cn  gallvav  faxo  {>ow  U  went,  wUJ  Stiffs iof  anb  {>{« 
i^ampioni,  ^t  quob  tf)ii  fong: 

«Dn  boarb.of  «Ill6a, 

aSating  'mib  \loxmMUowS, 

fSUn  ftic  fee  3  ftanbing,  — 

a3ut  fe^en  ton?  forwarb* 

2ife  t|)e  battfc::fani'b  fearief 

S^ung  Sriff^iof,  t«  r;e  w^o 

fOaxtffmcpi  piitti  poTO'rfuI 

SRifl^t  tip  at  t^e  prow!' 
Sirnb  nj^en  f)t  ^ab  brunf  out  t^c  ^orn,  caflf  5c  it  in  t^roug^ 
t^e  wtnbow,  t5«8   fpeaf ing  to  tf)t  woman  w^o  po«rcb  out  tje 
brinf: 

•SEafc  up  from  t^c  floor,  mp 

gair.jlepping  bamfel, 

SE^e  SDrinflng^^orn  bowmturn'b; 

S'oc  brain'b  it  again*  — 

On  t^e  waoe,  d^ampionS  fee  3 

SBJo  goob  ^elp  wilT  want 

©re,  tcmpefi^tofl  forelp, 

Z^c  ^arbour  t^ep'ir  readj/ 
Zie  Sari  ^earb  w{)at  gdltvav  quob,  anb  quefiioncb  ^im 
of  (118  tibingg.  «2Ren  arc  come  af&ore^ere,'  anfwerSi^allrar, 
•But  ^elplef  anb  awearieb  are  tl&ep;  iTout  feffow6  tnbeeb  fecm 
t^ep  to  be;  hnt  fo  ilrong  anb  fref^  li  one  of  t^em,  tl&at  ^e 
caxxktl}  t^e  otI;er6  to  t^e  f^ore/  «®o  t^ou,'  faib  t^e  3arl,  «to 
meet  tj^emj  anb  receive  tl&em  finbfp  if  It  18  Srltf^lof,  t^e 
fon  of  mp  frienb  I^orffcn  i5cvfir,anb  renowneb  for  aU 
goob  qualities'.  Slow  began  tofpeaf  a  man  ^ig^t  2Ctlc,  a  great 
SSifing,  t{)uS:  'Sfjow  fH(  be  prooeb  w^at  i8  faib  of  grit  |>i  of, 
t&at  l&e  l^atf)  fworn  ne\)cr  to  be  tf)e  man  jtrjl  to  beg  for  peace/ 
X  were  t{)ep  toget()er,  bab  men  anb  greebp,  anb  w^o  coutb  go 


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22 

tt)e  taoing  a3erfcvr«^Courfc.  @oon  a«  tf>cp  foiinb  Sfi* 
tf^lof,  2Ctlc  faib:  '5«on)  counfcl  3  t^ee,  Sritf^iof,  eomm 
t^ec  ^it^cr;  for  cagleS  f^oulb  ctaw  anb  Uaf  cad^  ot^er,  Srif 
tl^iofj  _  ixit  3  couttfet  t^ce  to  enb  tt)p  worbS,  anb  not  to  aft 
firjl  for  peace!'  Srit|>iof  t^en  turneb  ^im  rounb  to  t^m, 
anb  (l&aunteb  t{)i«  fong: 

'g)e  neoer  can  conquer  ni , 
Sleoer,  no  neocr! 
Sa^^trouMeb  »crfcvt«/ 
S^Ianb^bearbg  <^J  btadf  j  — 
SRat^er,  alone,  bib  3 
SDefp'rately  bare  it/ 
Dne  aflainjl  ten,  t^an 
^rap  tl^ee  for  peace!' 

Sr^en  came  :iallvav  «p,  anb  faib:  *Xf)e  ^art  wim  tM 
pe  ft;aa  att  be  welcome,  nor  fl^aa  anp  one  mofetl  pou  ^ere/ 
*2;^i6  ojfer,'  faib  Srltf^iof,  *tafe  3  wilTingtp,  but  am  pre* 
pareb  for  bot^/  Sifter  tf)at  went  t()ep  to  meet  t^e  3arl,  anb 
l&c  recei^eb  SritT;lof  weir  anb  alt  ^16  men  thereto*  5111  t^e 
winter  were  t^ep  wit^  ^im ,  anb  t^e  Sari  mabe  mnd^  of  tf>em. 
Sften  affeb  ^e  tl;em  of  tl^eir  aboentureS,  anb  t^en  d^aunteb 
»j6rn  t^ui: 

'2opou6  we  war^mcn, 

'SWib  xoa\>c^  baf^ing  o'er  u6, 

Seafelef  fept  baling  bp 

fdotb  tf>t  iW^  ftt>^^* 

gor  tm  bap6  togetl;er 

Slnb  thereunto  eigl^t , 

21  an  fore  plagueb  our  feas^orfe 

3n  tf;e  trough  of  tf;c  fea!' 

♦3  3*lfl«^«^* 


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23 

Z1)^  3arl  falb:  «a  trap  ^at^  ^ing  ^clgc  laib  for  pow/ 
anb  fud&  ^ingg  are  but  Itt  eficcmcb,  w^o  are  reabp  for  not{)ing 
but  to  caufe  men  to  perif^  by  witd^craft/  '3  fnon?  alfo/  fap6 
2lnffantyr,  *t&at  it  16  t^p  erranb  ^it{>er,  Sritf^iof,  tM 
t(;ou  art  fent  after  t^t  tribute.  Slnb  a  fr>ort  anfwer  f^alt  tf)on 
t)a\)e  to  t^i«j  no  tribute  f^alT  Jting  i^clgc  H^t  of  me,  but 
t^ou  fl&alt  get  a6  mud^  treafure  a6  t&ou  wilt,  anb  tribute  mapeji 
t^ou  call  it  an  tbou  wilt,  or  fomc  ot^er  name  map'fl  tbou  gi^^e 
it/    Si^itf^lof  faib,  t^at  ^e  mulb  tafe  ti)t  monep. 


(El^ap.  VIIL 

Jtow  mufl  be  faib,  w^at  n)a6  bone  in  tlovvoay  xo^itt  t^at 
Stltf^iof  roai  abfcnt  therefrom*  SE&en  caufeb  ti)e  SSrot^er* 
princes  t^e  wMe  »iffage  at  Sramnd*  to  be  burneb  up.  Slfic 
two  n)itc55ft|7er6  alfo  were  at  t^eir  incantation*,  but  in  t^e  mibflf 
thereof  timblei  tl;ep  bown  from  t^eir  ^igt;  conjuringsflfanb,  anb 
fo  brofe  bot^  tl;eir  batf6,  ZHt  fame  autumn  came  King,  t^e 
^ing,  nortl&warb  in  Qogn  to  ^ii  webbing;  anb  rig^t  nobfp  anb 
^o6j>itabfp  feajieb  ^e  at  bi6  marriage^caroufal,  after  t^e  nuptial* 
mvt  to  Sngeborg.  S?e  queftionebber, whence  f^e  M  got  tbe 
Siing  tl^e  ®oob  wbid^  f^e  bore  upon  ^er  arm?  ^t  {)ab  befongeb, 
f^e  anfwereb,  to  b^r  gather*  '9i^p,'  faitb  tbe  fiing,  «Sri* 
t^iof  wa«  it*  owner,  anb  tafe  it  tl^i*  inffant  from  off  tbp 
(;anb,  for  neioer  fbaB  bright  golb  fail  tbee  wf;en  tbou  comeflf  to 
2IIf^cm/  SEben  gaoe  be  tbe  Sting  to  t^t  mfe  of  i^elgc, 
tetting  ^er  to  let  Sri  tf^  I  of  ba\)e  it  xc1)m  be  fboulb  return. 
Sing  &in0  t^en  journieb  bomewarb*  witb  bi*  fpoufe,  anb 
great  roai  t^t  affection  wbic^  be  bore  unto  ber. 


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24 

€.ffap*  IX. 

%tit^iof  cornet^  batf  wit^  t^e  tribute. 

^ftcrwarW,  in  t^c  ftrlng, went Sr I t^iof  from  t^e  ©rfncyij 
anb  parteb  fo  from  llneantyx  toit^  mn^  tou.  gallvav 
fottowcb  roit^  Srlt^iof.  25ut/  w^en  ^e  came  to  XXotway, 
learneb  ^e  t^at  &i8  oillaflc  waS  fturncb^  Sramnd«  read&eb 
Srit^lof  at  la)},  anb  faibj  *25larf  ^an  grown  tl^e  buUbingS 
It^erc/  anb  traces  t^crc  arc  none  of  t^e  t^anb*  of  frienb«/  Zi}cn 
quob  ^e  t^iS  d^aunt: 

•grienWp/  at  Sramn4«/ 
gormertp  branf  goob 
@n)ift»fworbeb  ^eroeg,  toit^ 
I^orflen  mp  ®ire» 
SEo  bfadf  aff;e3  burn*b/  now 
SBowet^  mp  oiffagej  — 
3  })romtfc  t^ofe  princes 
©rlmlp  to  pap!' 

SEf^en  aj?eb  ^e  counfel  of  ^i«  men ,  wl^at  courfe  now  t^ep 
f^oulb  tafe?  SE^ep  tab  l&im  becibc  t^at  for  ^imfcrf.  3lfter  tH«/ 
roweb  t^cp  ooer  tf;e  frit&,  anb  bown  to  Syrjlran&,  Jpere  wjcre 
t^ep  tofb  t^at  t^c  ^ingg  were  in  »al&cr'«  6<te^^  ^^  ^^^ 
3Difar<acrlftcc.  Zf)€n  xomt  »jorn  anb  Sritf^iof  up 
t^it^er.  Svitf^iof  hai  6allvav  anb  2C«mun&  tW  t^ep 
f^oulb,  in  t^e  mean  time,  breaf  f}oUS  in  aU  t^t  f^ip«,  bot^ 
large  anb  fmaU,  tHt  were  near  thereunto.  Zi)ii  bib  tjep.  Zi)en 
toot  Srlt^lof  anb  ^ia  fojlerbrot^er  tl;eir  wap  to  tf)t  &oor6  of 
»al&cr'«s^a^c.  Stit|>iof  woutb  go  in.  »j6rn  bab 
{^im  treab  cautiouSlp,  aS  ^e  woulb  go  atone.  Svit|>tof  begircb 
l^im  to  remain  outjtbe,  anb  feep  watd^  meanw^ire.  Z^en  fang 
5e  t^u«: 


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25 

*3tt  t^tt>nsl^  lit  court  at 

gone  xoiU  3  go} 

^erp^olf  few  «ceb  3,  tl^ofc 

®rcat  men  to  finb* 

^lamti  cdf}/  coninmin^f  mint! 

D'cr  tje  cronm«t)iaagc ,  If  — 

23adf  6p  ftrfl  ntg^t^fatt/  3 

a3e  not  rctutn'b!' 
•SBctp  wea  fatb/  t^at!'  anfwet*  asjorn.  SS^crcaftcr  went 
Stltf^iof  In,  anb  fatt>  t^at  tf)ett  were  but  few  people  In  tfic 
^aU  of  t^e  JDifar*  SE^e  «lng«  were  t^en  buft)  wtt^  t^e  »lfar« 
offering^/  anb  fat  at  t^e  brinflng^aMea*  gire  xoaB  t^ere  on 
t^c  ffoor;  t^cir  wtoe«  fate  t^erebp  anb  warmeb  tl&e  ®ob6,  wr;ld^ 
ot^er«  were  anointing  anb  t^m  brplng  wit^  a  clot^^  Up  to  «lng 
gelge  t^m  mnt  Sritf^iof,  anb  faib,  «9jow  wilt  t^ou,  3 
bo  trow/  receioe  t^  tribute/  SE^ercwlt^  pfurfeb  l^e  out  t^e  purfe 
in  w^idj  t{)e  ftfoer  wat,  anb  t^rew  it  fo  l&arb  iufi  ooer  ^i«  nofe, 
t^at  two  of  ^15  ttet^  were  brioen  out/  anb  ^e  fell  fenfele^  from 
t^e  ^ig^^®eat.  rfalf6an/  ^oweoer,  gra^peb  ^im  tig^t,  fo  t^at 
^e  feir  not  into  t^t  jtre*    2^cn  quob  Srltf^iof  t^: 

*S£af e  now ,  0  S^tef  of  t^e 

2Bar«men,  t^p  treafurej 

Safe ,  bearing  t^p  front^teet^  — 

Sf  more  3  not  beg ! 

©iloer  ric«  fafe  at  tf)e 

Sought  ?5urfe'6  bo«om  j 

asjorn  anb  3  bot^  l^aoe 

Some  ittfyee  ^if^er!' 
gew  men  were  t^ere  in  t^e  Stemple^^aff,  for  t^ep  were 
brinfing  in  anotf)cr  place^    5«ow  birccrtp  a«  Sritf^iofwa« 
going  out  along  t^e  jtoor,  ^e  faw  tW  t^e  wife  of  ^elge  wore 

4 


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26 

|)i«  ating  t^t  ©oob,  a8  f^e  waS  warming  » alter  before  t^e 
pre*  Sritf^iof  gripeb  t^e  Sting  tig^tlp/  but  it  toai  fafieneb 
to  ]&cr,  anb  ^e  brem  ^er  out  along  t^c  Poor  towarba  t^c  boor* 
»albev  fea  into  t^e  pre,  anb  aS  j^alf&an'g  wife  f^apifp 
laib  l&olb  of  it  to  fat)e  it/  t^at  image  w^id^  f^e  n)a6  warming 
fea  alfo  bown  among  t^e  Pameg*  Soon  now  began  bot^  tl&e 
®ob8  to  Maje,  for  t^ep  were  iot^  anointeb  wit^  oil.  SE^e  Pame^ 
t^en  caug{)t  t^t  roof,  anb  t^e  w^ole  builbing  xoa^  on  pre.  aSe^ 
fore  ^e  mnt  out,  ^owet>er,  Srif  f^lof  got  »)ofepion  of  tl&e  Sling* 
Slow  afl?cb  asjorn  t^e  ncwg  of  wl^at  ^ab  ^appencb,  wl^itc  ftc 
wa8  inpbe,  Sritf^iof  ^efb  up  tl^e  Sling,  anb  d^aunteb  t^i» 
fong: 

'iJclgc,  *)oor  wretd^,  bp  t^e  puxfc  toai 
^it  ^arb  enough  o'er  tl;e  nofe; 
S)wfp  t]()en  galfban"$  ira^e  brotfyer 
aSow'b  ^im  from  ^ig^  e^air^^of^pate: 
35aI6cr  tl^en  feff  anb  ^igl^^Pam'b,  int 
giercelp  t^e  ©oob  Sling  3  feis'b,  ere 
©rawing  ^er  along  —  ti^e'  olb^woman  from 
Jpeart^s^preS  3  bauntteffp  bragg'b/ 
(Some  men  fap,  t^at  Svitf^iof  ^ab  caP  prebranb6  up 
among  t^t  lat^S  of  tl;e  roof,  fo  tf;at  t^e  w^ote  ^aU  toa^  wrappeb 
in  Pamea*    Z^en  fang  l)e  t^n&i 

*Jpapen  we  now  to  tf)t  f{;ore,  —  t^eres 
Sifter  we'll  counfel  wifelpj 
23lue  Pameg  brig^tlp  curl  'mib 
»al&cr'«  facreb  grotje!' 
©0,  hereupon,  went  t^ep  out  to  fea. 


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27 

€Jfap.  X. 

^tifi^ivf  flics  |>i«  (Country. 

JCo  fooncr  ^ab  Sing  i^clgc  come  to  ]()imfclf  again,  t^an  l^c 
commanbcb  t^at  rt;cp  f ^oulb  firaig^twap  purfuc  after  Sritf^lof/ 
anb  Wr  ^tm  wit^  aff  6i6  fottowerS :  — 'gor  /  faib  ^t,  H^ii  man 
forfeieeb  l&i«  fife,  w^en  ^e  fpareb  no  place  ^owet^er  facreb/  SRow 
Men)  t&ep  tl^e  gat^eringsfoimb  for  t^e  ?5rince«'s:®ttarb«,  anb  a» 
t^ep  came  out  of  t^e  JDifar^f^all  t^ep  faw  t^at  it  toa6  in  a 
Maje»  Z^it^cxf  therefore,  went  Sing  i^alf&an  witl^  fomc  of 
^i6  men,  rol^ife  Sing  i^elge  Oafifcb  after  Sritf^lof  anb  ^i6 
fottowerS;  hut  afreabp  were  t^ep  on  boarb  t^eir  f^ip,  faffing 
gentlp  bown  t^e  jlream.  Sfjow  founb  Sing  -Jelgc  anb  ^13 
troopg  tl&at  all  t^eir  f^ipS  were  brofen  ani  unfcroiceabf e ,  anb 
t{>cp  were  forceb,  to  fanb  again,  loftng  t^erewitl^  fome  of  tf;eir 
mtn.  ^ereat  became  i^clgc  fo  enrageb,  t^at  f;e  raoeb  a« 
t^ougl^  l&e  were  mab,  Sl^en  benbeb  f)e  ^i&  bow,  anb  laib  an  ar« 
row  on  t^e  firing,  intenbing  to  fl&oot  it  at  Sri  t^)  I  of.  23ut 
t^iS  ^c  bib  wit^  fo  mud&  force,  t^at  hoti)  t^e  necfa  of  t^e  bow 
fnoppeb  afunben  9?ow  birectfp  xof)cn  Srif^iof  faw  t{)ig,  {)e 
graft)cb  two  of  t^e  oarS  on  «Ui6a,  anb  roweb  witb  t^em  fo 
mig^tifp  tl&at  t^ep  brafc*    ^erewit^  d^auntcb  ^e: 

'Sif  b  3  poung 
^ngehOTQ, 
SDaug^ter  of  »clc, 
3n  Salbev'i  grooe,  — 
®o  f^outb  tbe  oarg 
©f  «Ui&a 
Sot^  breaf,  — 
£ife  ^clgc'S  bow!' 
Srfter  t^at,  t^e  winb  frefbeneb  merrilp  bown  tbe  ftrt^,  anb 
t^ep  i&oijieb  fail  anb  put  to  fea.    Sritf^iof  faib  tbep  fboufb 


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tafe  care  anb  manasc  fo,  if)^t  t&ep  temaiitcb  tj&eres^aboiiW  no 
longer.  Z^tnaftex,  faileb  t^cp  out  along  tf)c  coajl  of  So^n. 
X^en  fang  Svitf^lof  t^i*  d&aunt: 

<@0/  latelp/  on  f^t|>^6oacb 

SBc  fairb  out  of  eo^nlj 

O'er  tf)e  iotnei  of  our  gathers 

2^en  plap'b  tl&e  fierce  pre6}  — 

'SWib  »al&cr'«  Ble^'b  ^agc 

9lott)  t^e  pprc  'gin*  to  burn; 

aSut  IcmplcstDolf  now 

ma  t^ep  caa  me,  3  wot!' 
»j4rn  quejiioneb  Svit^iof,  '2B{iat  f^att  we  now  nn^ 
bertafe,  gojferbrot^er ?'  —  '3  ma9  not/  fap«  Srit^iof, 
*be  ^ere  In  tlorway;  3  wilT  learn  t|)e  cu]iow6  of  tl^c  QWfif 
anb  win  go  out  a6  a  S3if tng/  @o  i^(anbd  anb  feafCliffiS  feari^eb 
tr>ep  aU  tl&roug^  t^e  fummer/  winning  t^em  6otl&  goob*  anb 
renown/  hxit  towaxU  axttumn  fleereb  t^ep  to  t^e  <Dffney$« 
aingantyr  reccioeb  t^em  tocUf  anb  wit^  ^Im  remaincb  t&ep 
att  t^e  winter.  JBut  wi^en  Sritf^tof  l^ab  journepeb  out  from 
nor  way,  t^e  ^ing«  ^b  a  Tlnfj,  anb  beclareb  Svit^iof 
outUxoch  from  att  t^eir  lanb* ,  feising  to  tf)cmfer»e«  aU  j^iS 
pofe^ion^.  ^alf&an,  t^e  JIing,fettteb at  St^amnd^/— •  buitb« 
ing  up  t^e  t>ir(agc  w^ere^jer  it  xoai  burneb.  Odalbex'i^^aee 
alfo  refloreb  t^e  23rot^er«  a6  it  wa«  before;  long  Ij^ab  it  Uen 
ere  t()e  fire  wa6  quend^eb  tl&ercim  3t  fell  ^ing  gelQt  tf)e 
worjt,  t^at  t^e  ®ob«  were  burneb  up.  2Jerp  great  xoai  t^e  cojt/ 
ere  »al6er'«s|5a0C  xoa&  built  up  equattp  a6  at  firfl.  «ing 
i^clgc  litjeb  now  at  Syrfiran6^ 


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c 


29 

€ffap^  XI. 

Xj5^crc\>cr  ^c  went,  wajreb  Srit^lof  Ciccccbinglp  in  rlc^c* 
anb  in  fame*  SBirfcb  anb  cruel  men  anb  grimful  SQifingg  f)e 
jlctt) ,  hut  peafant*  anb  merd&antg  let  ^e  go  free*  STgain ,  t^eret 
fore,  toai  ^e  catteb  SvltI;iof  t^e  »oI&»  Slight  manp  men, 
ilont4^<ixttt>  anb  mte,  ^ab  ^e  unber  ^im,  anb  in  alt  finba  of 
preciou6  gooba  abounbeb  f)t  e;irceebingtp»  fftoto  w^en,  a^  a  S3is 
fing/  ^c  {)ab  traocrfeb  tl^e  feaS  IV  winter^,  menbeb  ^e  rounb 
eafiwarb/anb  cafi  and^or  in  t^e  fdap.  'trf^ore/  faibSrltf^lof/ 
mufi  3  &^f  ^^^  P^  f^^ff  fotap  att  t^roug^  tt)e  winter*  SKearp 
begin  3  to  be  of  t^efe  e;rpebition« ,  anb  to  Uplanb  wiff  3  jour^ 
nep/  anb  t^ere  bifcourfe  wit^  King  t^e  «ing*  3n  tt;e  fummer 
f^aff  pc  Diftt  me  ^ere  j  bacf  f^all  3  come,  t^e  ftrfi  bap  of  fum*^ 
mer*'  —  *gar  from  wife',  anjbereb  »jorn,  'i^  t^i6  t{)p  counfcf. 
@tiB,  nat^Uh  mapfl  t|)ou  ^a^e  tH>  wap»  3  n^oulb  ^a^e  l&ab  u« 
ropage  nort^warb  to  Sogn,  anb  jlap  t^e  ^ing«  t^ere,  bot& 
(5cl(jc  anb  j^alf&an/— «9Jot  atalT/  rcturnet^  Svit^iof, 
^wiU  tHt  feroe  uS;  rather  will  3  go  anb  f!nb  *lng  King  anb 
3ngcborg/  »j4rn  anfroer«,  'Unwitting  am  3,  tW  t^on 
f^oulbf}  t^u^  truji  t^pfelf  alone  in  ^i6  power;  for  wife  i«  King, 
anb  of  r;igl)  birt^y ,  t^oug^  now  fomew^at  in  pear6/  —  «3  mufi 
counfel,'  quob  Srit|^iof,  *but  t^ou,  Sjovn,  muji  counfel 
OHx  our  men  in  t^e  ;mean  w^ile/  Z^m  bib  t^ep  a6  ^e  f>ab  com« 
manbcb.  Sritf^lof  now  jlournepeb  Uplan&«n)ar&  towarbS 
autumn ,  for  f)e  wa6  impatient  to  fooF  upon  t^e  lotjeg  of  3  n* 
gcborg  anb  of  King*  Slow  before  ^c  arrioeb  t^it^er,  toof 
^e  ouer  aU  ^i&  ot^er  garment*  a  great  broab  cloaf ,  w{)ici^  wag 
attogetl&er  ^airp;  two  f1aoe«  ^a\>  ^e  in  ^i«  ^anbS^  I^i6  face  toaS 
cojjereb  witf;  a  maj?,  anb  f)e  went  a6  one  bowcb^bown  wit^  pear*. 
2rfterwarb6  met  ifie  fome  ^erb«men.    SE^en  totter*  f)e  forwarb 


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anb  affet^  whence  t^cp  were?  'Our  Joined/  anfwereb  t^ep,  ^are 
6p  Streltalanfe/  on  t^e  king's  bomatn8/  Zf)e  olb  man  af?5 
again,  '2«  Xin^  a  mig^tp  Sing?'  — ^^t  feemet^  to  u«/  tj^cp 
replieb,  'aS  tf)Oug&  t^ou  wert  fo  olb/  t^at  t^ou  mig&tjl  fnoro 
n)f;at  f inb  of  6^ief  Sing  KiriQ  ii  in  all  refpectf.'  —  *aWorc  ^aoe 
3  minbeb  mp  burning  of  fatf ,'  faib  t^e  becrejjib  jlranger/  't^an 
tl^e  manner^  of  great  SingS/  Sl^en  wcnbeb  l^e  onwarb  to  tt)e 
Sing'6  ^oufe,  anb  tomarbS  etjentibe  entereb  ^e  t^e  ^att  tI;ereof. 
SBeaf  anb  wap^worn  appeareb  l&e,  anb  fioob  t^erc  far  bown  bp 
tl)e  boor,  bracing  t(;e  cowl  ooer  ^i&  face  t^t  ^e  migl&t  be  con* 
ceateb  t^e  better*  SE^en  quob  Jling  t{)e  Sing  to  3nflcbovflf 
*2;&ere  came  a  man  e'en  now  into  t^e  J^aff,  taCer  bp  far  t^an 
ot^er  men.'  ZU  .Queen  replied  to  bim,  '©matt  inbeeb  are  tbofe 
tibingS,  D  Sing!'  Z^m  talfeb  be  to  tbe  feroingt^man  tt)(;o  ffoob 
bp  tl^e  boarb,  anb  faib:  *®o  tbouj  quejiion  tbi^  eowr=:6toafeb 
man  tt)f)0  f;e  i6,  whence  be  cometb,  anb  w^at  ^ia  fin  map  be/ 
Sbe  fmain  leapeb  now  along  tf)e  floor  to  t^c  new-come  man, 
anb  faib:  *^f)at  art  tbou  bi9&t,olb  felTow,  anb  wf^ere  wajl  tbou 
tbi«  nigbt,  anb  xo^at  i6  tbP  finbreb?'  Z^e  gloaf^aRuffleb  am 
fweret^ :  'aSud^  aj?eji  tbou ,  fwain  j  but  canji  tbou  gi\)e  anp  goob 
account  tbereof,  f^oufb  3  teir  t^ee  now?'  Jge  faib  tbat  ]()e  coulb* 
Z1)e  6owr*fflearer  anfwerg :  *If>iof  [If^lefJ  am  2  ^ig^t,  witb 
Ulf  [Z^e  wolf]  mi  3  lail  nig^t,  anb  in  JCngri  [pcn^ 
tcnce]  wa6  3  brougl^t  up/  SE^^e  fwain  t^en  ^ajlcnetl^  to  t^e 
Sing,  anb  tettetb  l&im  t^e  gowfcman'5  anfwer*  *3yea  ^ajl  tbou 
comprebenbeb  l&im,  fwain,'  faib  t^e  Sing;  *tbat  bijirict  fnow  3 
w^id^  is  Jlngrl  catteb.  g)et  map  be,  t^i6  man  ^ai  not  peace 
of  minb.  2r  wife  man,  bowe^^er,  be  mull  be,  anb  3  t^inf 
rigbt  wctt  of  &im.'  —  *3t  is  a  wonberful  cufiom,'  obferocS  tr;e 
Qntcrif  H^at  tbou  bojl  wif^  fo  eagerip  to  tatf  witb  eoerp  olb 
feffow  tl)at  cornet^  ^itl^er;  anb  wbat  is  tbere  in  bint,  t^at  \)t 
is  wort^  taff ing  to?'  —  ^Z\)at;  faib  t^e  Sing,  <cantT  t(^ou  not 


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fnow  better  t^an  %  ^e  t^lnfett^,  2  fee,  ntud&  more  t^an  f)t 
fpeafg/  anb  cojtet^  ^16  cpe6  ct^erp  w^ere  arounb/  Sffter  tHt/ 
fcnt  t^e  ^ing  a  man  to  fctd^  ^im  x\p,  anb  r;e  came  before  t^t 
Sing*  Somewhat  croofeb  floob  f;e,  anb  roit^  a  Ion?  i>oice  be 
f»»fe.  SEbe  ^ing  faib:  'SQ^at  art  tf)on  bigbt/  tbou  tarr^buUt 
manV    Z^t  doaf^mufjTeb  ©tranger  anfroereb  witb  tbi*  (baunt: 

'Zf)en  bigbt  3  Stitl^lof  [pcace^l^lcfj 

SBben  witb  83ifing«  3  banbeb, 

aSut  i^crtf^iof  [2trmysl^lcf]  wben  SBibowg 

3  mabe  to  weep  fore, 

(Beivtyiof  [Spcar^lC^ief]  wb^n  goob  fpear« 

3  grimlp  laun^eb, 

(Bnnt^iof  [»attlc*lf^icf]  wben  glablp 

3  gafb'b  in  t^e  fdattUi 

eytf^tof  [^Sles'If^iefJ  inbeeb  wben 

<SeastfIe«  3  raPag'b, 

i^cltbiof  [3E)eatf)=^n:t>ief]  wben  carctef 

Zo  beatb  3  caff  cbifbren, 

Valt^iof[t^e  SIatn'«^If)icf]  wben  i^aliant 

3  oanquifb'b  otber6:  — 

SWott)  jtnce  bat)e  3  wanber'b 

asitb  falt^burnera  fablp, 

^etp  biflblp  necbing  ere 

^itber  3  came !' 

S£be  Sing  faib:  *grom  manp  tbinga  f)aii  tbou  tafen  tU 
name  of  ICI^iof  [Iblef]*  25ut  wberc  tva\i  tbou  tbi^  nigbt, 
wbere  iS  tbp  bome,  wbere  waf?  tbou  breb,  anb  tof)at  f)a^  ^afieiu 
eb  t^ee  bitber?'  2be  .5ibe::gooereb  anfwerebj  —  «3n  2Ingri 
[Penitence]  wa«  3  breb,  at  nif'i  [t^e  tpolf^]  roa6  3 
lail  nig^t,  ^ugur  [inclination]  b^fieb  me  bitber,  anb 
bome  b^oe  3  not  at  all.'  —  '3t  map  be  fo,'  rcpfieb  t^e  Sing, 
't^t  tbou  baff  Been  brougbt  up  fome  time  in  JCngri  [peni^ 


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32 

tenet],  anb  \)et  it  map  t)crp  mU  happen  tW  t^<>«  wafl  bom 
in  Sittf^l  [peace].  3n  t^e  woob  mufi  t^ou  ^aoc  been  e^i« 
nig^t/  for  no  pcafant  W  tjiere  f)ett  In  t^e  neig^bour^b  wl^o  t« 
ccinteb  Ulf  [tt>oIf]»  23ut  a»  to  xo^  t^on  fapcji,  t^t  tf>t>u 
^ajijno  ftome/  mapf^ap  t^ou  ti^inhH  it  to  he  of  but  little  xt>ott^, 
againfi  tHt  ^Uffur  [inclination]  w^i*  ^a6  brougl&t 
t^cc  l&it^cr/  SE^en  faib  ^naehotg:  'SEurn  t^ec,  ICf^lof 
[Il^icfJ  to  fomc  ot^cr  gcafKngsj^arr,  or  get  t^cc  to  t^e  ©ucfling* 
d&ambcr6.'  iE^c  «ing  anftoetet^:  'Dlb  enoiigl^  am  3  now,  to  be 
able  to  bift)ofe  of  mp  guejW  e'en  a«  3  wiOj  anb  get  tbee  out/ 
mp  goob  new  comet/  from  t^t«  tjp  cfoaf  t^txe,  anb  feat  t^ee 
bp  mp  jtbe/  —  «3nbeeb  a  little  too  ofb  tnnil  tl)on  be/  returnet^ 
t^e  jQueen,  'to  tbinf  of  ptocing  olb  fl[aff»men*)  bp  tbee  berc/ 
@aib  If^iof:  *3t  neebetb  not/  mp  Sorbj  anb  better  i«  it  a8 
tbe  iQucen  botb  fap/  for  tomp  falt«burning  am  3  more  accufiom* 
eb  tban  to  fttting  witb  ebief-SRen/  S£f;e  «ing  faib ;  «2)o  tbou 
a6  3  xoiUf  for  it  muflf  be  tf)at  3  rule  in  tbi«  matter.'  Z^en 
tbrew  16 1  of  bt*  cloaf  from  off  bim;  a  barNMue  firtle  toa6 
tbereunber/  tbe  SRing  ti)e  ®oob  glittereb  on  bi^  b<^«b,  a  broab 
tbirf  @ilt)ers58elt  ^e  bab  about  bim/  anb  tberefrom  a  great  ?5urfc 
wai  banging  wetl^^Ueb  witb  fbining  ftloer^monep*  S/t»  (Bvooxb 
xoaS  girbcb  on  bi*  jtbe/  anb  a  great  gur^Jpoob  bore  ^e  on  bi* 
^eaif  for  [to  bi6guife  btmfelf  tl)e  better]  b^  bab  trembling  epe8 
anb  wai  b^irp  o\)ex  all  bi^  face*— <9iow  tbat  3  calf  to  be  mud^ 
better  bont/  faitb  tbe  Sing;  'Sbou/  mp  iDueen/  fbalt  get  for 
bim  a  mantle,  a  goob  one  fucb  a«  be  rcquiretb.'  —  '3t  ii  for 
tf>ee,  mp  JJorb,'  anfroercb  tbe  Qiutm,  Ho  birect  aC;  but  Httle 
value  put  3  on  tbi«  If^iof/  SEb^rcafter  a  gooblp  cloaf  wai 
giocn  unto  bim  /  anb  be  waa  fet  in  t^e  •^igbsSeat  togctber  witb 
t^e  Sing.  SSfoob^rcb  became  t^e  Queen,  ro^tn  ©be  fan)  bi8  Slrm* 

Sting 


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Sling  tJe®oob,  hnt  t^en  mutb  fjc  not  eyd&onge  one  ftngle  mxh 
xoit^  l^int*  Z^t  Jting/  ^owtHt,  wa&  riQ^t  pUafatit  anb  frienbfp 
towarba  l^im/  faping;  <9{  goobtp  Sling  ^ajl  tl^ou  t^ere  on  t^p 
f>anb,  anb  long  muff  tf)ou  l&at)c  burncb  faU  therefor/  —  *2ra  i« 
It/  cinfwcrct^  t^c  Stranger,  «n)^i(l&  wai  left  me  69  mp  gather/ 
*St  map  be/  faltl)  t^e  fiing,  *t{>at  t^ou  l&a|I  more  tl&an  t^ati 
but  t^ere  arc  few  olb  falt^sburnerS ,  3  txow,  equal  unto  tf;ee,  if 
age  ]^a8  not  too  mud^  bimmeb  mine  epe6/  Q:|>iof  remaineb 
wit^  Jling  aB  tje  winter  t&rougI>.  Df  great  conftberation  toai 
^t,  anb  ^igf^Ip  roaS  ^t  efieemeb  bp  aD;  for  generoud  ^e  toa»  in 
gift*/  anb  finb^carteb  anb  d&cerful  towarb*  ct>erp  man.  Sittfe 
anb  felbom  fpofe  t^e  jQueen  to  ^im,  but  bp  t^e  ^ing  (^  wa9 
regarbeb  e^er  toitf)  a  glab  anb  fmiling  countenance. 


^jfap*  xil. 

^inQ  SUttig  journiet^  to  a  33anquettn0. 

JCow  it  i«  relateb,  tjiat  it  came  to  pa^  tW  ^ing  wourb 
iournep  to  a  great  feafi/  together  wit^  I&t6  jQueen  anb  manp 
fbffower«.  S£&en  t^e  «ing  queflioneb  Ifjiofj  *2B^etr;er  wirt 
t&ou  go  tt?it&  u«  now/  or  wilt  tl&ou  remain  at  f)omeV  ^t  axis 
fwereb,  &e  ^ab  rather  go  wit^  t^tra.  *5£5i6  life  3  better  alfo/ 
faitl^  tl&e  «ing.  Sifter  tWf  beparteb  t^epj  anb  it  fo  xoat>,  tHt 
tifep  fjoulb  iournep  oDcr  a  lafe.  If^iof  obfcrueb  to  t^e  ^ing 
*S£^i«  ice/  mp  Sorb/  feemet^  to  me  wcaf  anb  bangerfomej  hnt 
careleflp/  trow  3,  ^at>e  we  trat>eleb/  —  <lDften  \)a\>t  we  founb,' 
faib  t|>e  «ing,  HW  t^ou  fiafi  t^ougf^t  xotU  for  u6/  21  moment 
afterwarb/  aa  t^e  ice  brafe  in.  JE^cn  Ua'ipt  If^lof  forwarb 
anb  fnatd^eb  t^e  ©lebge  unto  V^xtif  witb  aff  t^at  wa8  in  it  anb 

5 


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thereon.  JBot^  t^e  Sing  anb  JQween  fat  tf^erej  aB  t^ft  puUtt> 
lCf>iof  up  out  of  tl&c  icc/  together  wjt|>  tj&c  &orfcg  tt>l&ii§  tt>ere 
{)arnefeb  to  t&e  @lebge^  ^ing  Kitiff  faib:  ^^ow  id  all  tvtU 
brawn  out/  If^iof;  nor  coulb  Stitf>lof  tf^e  23ol6  iimfttf 
1)a\>t  braggeb  more  fironglp^  t^oug{i  &e  l&ab  been  prefent  l&ere. 
®ud&  men,  trufp/  are  rigl^t  bolb  anb  ^eartp.  fottowersr  Z^tn 
came  t^ep  up  to  t^e  feaji/  but  nought  wort^p  of  note  occurreb 
thereat.  J^omewarb  iournieb  t^e  ^ing,  mit|>  oaluable  gift*  anb 
cotKp*  ®o  pafeb  t^e  bept^  of  t^e  tpinter  an^ap,  anb  toxDarbS 
©pring  began  t^e  weather  to  be  more  milb/  t^c  woobg  to  bub 
anb  Moont/  tl&e  graf  to  grow,  anb  f^ip6  were  feen  glibing  from 
t()e  one  lanb  eoen  to  t^e  ptj^er. 


CJfa^  XIII. 

ainff  SWtttfl  ri6e«  to  t^e  Sorcjl. 

©ne  bap  it  ^appeneb,  t^at  t^e  ^ing  fpofe  unto  ^i«  guarbS  anb 
d^ief  men  faping :  *9?ow  witt  3  —  t^at  pe  go  out  to  t^e  SBoob  wit|i 
me  t^i6  bapf  pleafantlp  to  pap  awap  t^e  time,  anb  to  fee  tl^e 
beautp  of  tf)c  lanb^cape/  @o  bib  t(«p  t^ttfoxt ,  a  oerp  great 
train  going  out  xoM^  tf)t  ^ing  into  t^e  fprefi*  Slow  it  came  to 
paP  tf)at  t(>ep  two,  tlf^c  ^ing  anb  Sritfjiof,  were  atone  6ot& 
together  in  t^e  2Boob,  far  from  oi^x  men.  Sj;i;e  *ing  faitji: 
•^caop  am  3  wit^  jlecp,  anb  ^ere  muff  3  repofe/  _  *9lot  fo,* 
anfwerctl^  Svit^iof,  'hut  let  mp  £orb  journep  |omej  for  fo 
itbecomct^  great  men,  rather  t^att  to  refi  t^em  in  t^c  open  air/ 
^ZW  3  cannot  bo,'  faib  tl&e  jling.  Jt^en  l^c  taib  |>im  bown, 
faffing  fajl  ajleep,  anb  fnoring  aloub.  If^lof  fat  near  unto 
^im,  anb  brew  ^i6  ®worb  from  ita  fcabbarb,  anb  flung  it  from 
^im   oerp  far  awap.    ©^ortlp  tf;ereafter,  tl^e  Jling  rofe  up  anb 


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faib:  ^^ai  it  not  fo,  Srlt^of/  t^^t  m«d^  cdtnc  into  U)9 
mtnb,  hnt  wl&icl^  toaB  meff  fcf?ffcb?  jponot  «n&  tegarb,  t^cre:r 
fore,  f^aft  t^Du  now  ^aoe  xoit^  uS,  for  immcbiatcrp  fncw  3 
tl&ee  t^at  »crp  ftrft  evening  w|icn  t]|oa  cantefl  to  our  ^air^^  SRot 
foon  f^aft  t^ou  pari  omap  from  116*  ©oubtfcp,  alfo,  cornet^ 
fomct()ing  great  to  befal  t^ee  ^erC  —  *2BeK  tnm  3/  anfmerct^ 
grlt^lof,  Uf)at  t^on  ^a)I  weH  anb  ftnblp  recebeb  nte,  D 
^ingj  but  foon  mujl  3  now  «w>ap/  for  mp  men  roiff  come 
eagerlp  to  meet  me,  et>en  a6  3  ^a\>t  before  appointeb  for  tf)cm 
10  bo/  S^creafter  robe  ffiej^  ^mewarbS ,  tl&c  attenbantg  of  tl&e 
SbtQ  coming  together  to  ^im  from  out  tl)e  foreff*  JE^en  came 
i^9  l^ome,  anb  at  nlg^  rig^t  merrilp  branf  tl&ep  In  t^e  ^aff. 
dloto  mad  it  alfo  oyenlp  beclareb  to  aU  t1)t  people  thereabout, 
tW  Srit^iof  t^e  %o(&  ^ab  pafeb  t^e  winter  wit^  t^ie 
^ing. 


3 


€i^ap\  XIV. 

^tit^iof  ohtainetp  ^n^ehot^- 

It  w>a«  fo  one  morning  earip,  t^at  a  great  fnodPing  wa«  ^earb 
at  t^e  boors  of  t^e  ^aU  »I>ere  t^e  ^ing  anb  Queen  bib  fleep, 
together  wit^  manp  ot^er  folf*  *SB^o  fnodP*  t^m,  on  tbe  boor?' 
afPetf^  t^e  «ing.  SE^en  repUet^  ^e  w^o  |foob  without,  *S  t  i  t  f>l of 
it  i«,  anb  reabp  am  3  now  for  mp  beparture/  9Iott)  were  t^e 
boorS  thrown  open,  anb  Stit^iof  went  in,  anb  quob  t{)id 
fong: 

'gor  all  t^p  t^oug^tfur  rinbnef 

3  now,  D  Sing,  wiff  t^anF  SE^ee; 

?5repar'b  t^e  ^ero  jlanbet^ 

SEo  go  —  anb  l&arb  oar8  lianbte. 


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3nQ*hove  3  ttmtmhev 
grom  infancp  tl&rougj  liffej 
3n  welfare  tin  ®{)e,  wearing 
jaJrifi^iewel  for  tnanp*  a  fifr 

SE^en  t^rew  ^t  to  ^tXQehove  tU  Wing  t^e  ©oob,  faplng 
t^at  it  r^ourb  be  l^erd.  9(t  t^iS  fong  t^e  Jttng  fnttfeb/  anb 
quob,  *®o  wa8  itf  fioweper/  t$at  f^e  wa«  better  tj^anfeb  for  tW 
tointcrn^ifit  t1)an  3;  anb  pet  ^at^  f^e  not  been  more  frienbrp 
towarbS  t^ee  tjan  3  fiave  been/  JCl^en  fent  tl&c  ^ing  bi8  feroing# 
men  to  feef  brinf  anb  foob/  anb  faitfi  t^at  t{iep  f^oufb  now  aff 
feaji  anb  jJlebgc  Sriff^iof  before  t^at  ic  f^oulb  bepart.  K^e 
SQueen  a(fo  bab  ^e  rife  upt  anb  be  d^eerful  wtt{i  t^ttn.  ®^e 
quob/  tf;at  fje  coulb  not  eat  fo  earfp.  Z^e  Jting  anfweret^: 
<2Be  wia  now  all  tafe  our  meal  together/  ®o  bib  t^ep  alfoj 
anb,  after  tf;ep  l^ab  brunf  for  a  time,  Jlinff  faib:  'J^ere  woulb 
3  t^at  t^ou  ffyoulbjl  be,  Srit^iofj  for  mp  fon8  are  hut 
(^ilbren  in  age,  anb  3  am  now  olb,  anb  am  no  longer  capaMe 
of  being  t^e  bulwarf  of  mp  countrp,  if  anp  one  f^oulb  feef  tl^ig 
lanb  wit&  unfrienblp  purpofe/  Sritf^iof  replietj:  ^Z^iB  mo^ 
ment  f&att  3  journep,  D  SJief/    ^e  d^auntetj^  now  tUi  fong; 

«£ong  anb  in  weal,  Wb 
Jlinflf  map'ji  t^ou  liw,  — 
STOonart^  befi,  ^igjieff,  on 
2^e  @art$*8  broab^firetd&'b  bofom! 
®uarb,  SBife  S^ief,  welT  t{ip 
SBBife  anb  tf)p  Eountrp ! 
TinQ'hovQ  anb  3  —  meet  no 
a)?ore  in  t^iJ  worfbT 

SE&en  quob  Xing  t&e  Sing; 

«5Wap!  but  not  fo  fare, 
Sritl^iof,  from  u«; 


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JDearefl  (>c(m*b  fiero    — 
mt^  ^eat)p  foul! 
3erocW  anb  pajl  prcfent6 
SWuji  3  rcspap  t&ec,— 
@ure  better  t^an  e^ett/ 
2()pfelf,  frienb,  woulbjl  tjinfr 

Srnb  thereafter  fang  l^c  t^S : 

*Sro  Sritf^iof  tjc  Samou« 

SWp  fair  ©poufe  3  gtoe, 
Sinb  ®oob8  t^at  ^  ^au 
m  abbeb  tj^ercto!' 

SE^en  anfiDereb  Sritjiof  anb  faib: 
*®ift«  fu*  a«  t^efe/  wia  3 
Slet)er  tafe  from  t^ee,  — 
Unlc^  Hiitfl'*  rafi  ftdP ncp  faK 
gatal  anb  fafir 

'3  boubtref  f()oulb  not  fltoc  t^ec  fud^/  faitb  t^e  «infl, 
•unleP  3  feltroit^in  me  tf)at  fo  it  tt)a8;  ftdP,  inbeeb,  3  ami  <i«b 
n^ininglp  toontb  3  t^at  t^i8  marriage  f^ou(b  be  enjopeb  bp 
ii)ce,  for  ftrjl  art  t^ou  among  aU  t^c  mm  in  aor»ay.  S£|)e 
JEitle  of  5ing  alfo  toiU  3  gipe  unto  t&ec,  for  3ngcbor0'« 
SBrot^erS  wif^  t^ce  morfe  bignitieg/  anb  witl^  a  nwrfc  ©poufe 
woulb  web  t^ec,  t^an  3/— *2Wanp  tl&anfg,  mp  goob  2orb,  f|>alt 
t^ou  Me/  anfwerct^  Sritf^iof;  'f^r  aH  t^p  manp  finbnefcg 
more  tH'^  3  ^ab  ^opeb^  a3ut  onlp  t^e  name  of  3arl  n>ia  3 
accept  a«  mp  |yonorarp  title^*  Sl^en  gaoe  Jling  Kins  «»t«> 
Svit^iof,  anb  wlt&  ^i^  rig^t  Hn\>  conjtrmcb  it,  aut^oritp 
ooer  all  t^at  realm  «>bicl&  it  &ab  gooerncb/  anb  t^ercwit^  t{ie 
name  of  3a r I*  SEJ^ereooer  f^oulb  Svit ^i of  rule,  until  tl^e 
fon«  of  H  i  n  ff  f  ^oulb  be  of  age  tI>emfrtoe8  to  gopem  tl;eir  lanb» 
®l^ort  roai  t^t  time  ti)at  Jting  King  (ap  on  Ui  beat^>beb, 


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anb  w^en  t^at  (ic  expinb,  great  xmt  t^  uwnmlng  <tnb  lament^ 
ation  ooer  (>im  t^roufl^  aU  ^i&  fingbont*  «  6alrtt  tf^en  raifcb 
t^ep  above  j^tnt/  anb  mud)  soobd  cafl  t^ep  t^mln^  t\>en  a6  ^e 
l^ab  babe  t^em.  after  t(fi«/  gaoe  Srit|>ldf  an  bonourable 
banquet/  anb  thereto  came  up  oil  l^ii  mm.  Z^n^,  at  once 
together,  branf  t^cp  jJtnj  King't  ^unnaU^e  anb  t^e  2Beb# 
bingsgeajl  of^ngcborflf  anbSritf^iof*  S^ereafter  fettleb 
Srltf^lof  t^ere,  ruling  ot>er  tbe  lanb,  anb  etTecnteb  anb 
famou«  was  ^e  in  t^c  fig^t  of  att  men,  SDTanp  d^irbren  bore 
3n0cborfl  unto  ^im» 


(tl^ap.  XV. 

®f  ^tttl^tof  anb  t^e  23rot^r<$  ^el^  anb  ^alfban* 

Jim  it  xoai  tolb  t6e  ^ing«  in  Sogn/  t^e  a3rot|)er3  of  3 n^c^ 
torfl/  l^m  t]&a>  SritHof  {>ab  gotten  t\)t  d^ief  fwap  In 
Hfngarifc/  anb  ^vtb  oBtaineb  in  marriage  tl&eir  ftjier  TSnQti 
feorff.  i^cltfc  t^^en  fal^l^  unto  ^aff&an  f)i8  brother, 
^SKonfirou*  inbeeb  anb  inforent  beponb  meafure  i«  it,  tW  a 
rferfe:**  [S^ief  gaptaitt'g]  fon  fboulb  t^wi  pofe^  f)er!'  9?on) 
therefore  a^mble  tl^ep  Derp  great  force*,  anb  mard^  tberewifb 
into  Xingarlfe,  t^inflng  tt>  flap  Svit^iof  anb  fubbuc  iiff 
5i*  fingbom  unber  tlytxn,  aSut  w^en  Sritfjiof  wa6  informeb 
^reof,  gat^ereb  be  ^18  troop8  together  anb  fpofc  t^nS  to  2nQt^ 
hoxQi  '2Bar  16  now  come  into  our  fingbom^  ^x\t  xoi^at^ux 
map  be  t^e  enb  tl&ereof,  t^ee  witt  we  neper  fee  Toot  unfinblp/ 
«@o  far  iJ  it  now  come/  anfweret^  f^e,  «tl&at  we  mufl  let  tbee 
be  t^c  ^igjeff/  ®o  it  xoaS  alfo,  t^at  »jorn,  aboancing 
from  t^e  eafl,  came  in  to  tbe  r;er»)  of  Srltfjiof*  5Wow 
mardj  tf^ep  to  t^e  hattU^  anb  it  wa*  a6  it  r>ab  eper  been  before, 


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t^at  St'it^iof  tt)a«  forcmofj  in  t^e  fj^ldPcfl  of  t^e  ffg^t.  3t 
^appcncb  now,  (^at  l&c  anb  ^clgc  t^c  ^ing  came  to  ex^atiQC 
Mott»6  wit^  ead&  otf^cr^  anb  ^i«  beat^^wounb  fo  got  &c  front  t^e 
5anb  of  Srit^of.  SE{icn  caufcb  Srit^^iof  t^e  @^tclb  of 
?)cacc  to  6c  llftcb  up/  anb  ficrebp  wa*  t^c  contcji  brofcn  off, 
Z^en  fpofc  Stit^iof  unto  galfban  t^e  Sing  anb/aib: 
'2tt)o  conbitlon*  arc  t^crc  now  &crc  before  t^cej  citl&cr  t^at  tl&ou 
put  all  unbcr  mp  power  anb  rule,  or  t^at  ti&ou  get  t&p  banes 
blow  cDcn  a6  t^p  brotl&er  before  t^ec,  for  to  me  it  feemet^  t^t 
^ere  3  ^a\)e  t^e  better  in  t^e  quarrel/  SE^  d&ofe  rfalfban, 
tl^creforc,  tf;at  ^imfelf  anb  aU  l;i6  realm  fl&oulb  be  in  t^c  ^anbS 
of  Sritf^iof*  ©0  wa«  it  t^en^  tM  Srit^lof  toof  t^c  rule 
ot>cr  ©Oflnc*Sylfi/  int  ^alf&an  became  ^crfc  thereof, 
papin^  unto  Stltfjiof  a  tribute  fo  long  ai  1)c  gopcrneb  l^itxQa^ 
rife*  iJ^ereafter  toof  Sritf^lof  t^e  name  of  ain^  opcr 
SogncsrSylfi/  for  Xingarifc  gape  &c  badP  unto  t^e  @on«  of 
Klnflf.  2lfter  t^ig  won  f)C  unber  ^Im  tl&at  lanb  ^igW  ^ar&e* 
lanb.  @ong  two  ^ab  ]&e,  (Bunlntf^lof  anb  rfunnt^iof/ 
bot^  ftout  men  anb  famou8  in  t^eir  bap»  —  HBnlftti)  60  ^tvt 

m  Sug^  of  ^ii^iof  i^e  ^ol^ 


The  peculiar  alliterative  metres  of  the  Recitative'Chaunts, 
and  that  general  tone  of  vigorous  simplicity, 

"Then  most  adorn'd  when  unadorned  the  most," 
which  pervades  the  Original  as  all  the  other  Icelandic  Sagas, 
—    have   been    preserved    throughout   in  the  above  Translation, 
which    is    as   literal   as  a  due  regard  to  the  genius  of  the  two 
languages  would  admit. 

The  text  has  been  rendered  in  a  style  rather  antique,  — 
but  old-fashioned  spellings,  and  Archaisms  decidedly  unintelli- 
gible to  a  common  Reader,  have  been  purposely  rejected. 


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INTRODUCTORY  LETTER 


TO 


FRITHIOFS  SAGA. 


BT 


ESAIAS  TEGNER. 


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TRANSLATED) 

INTRODUCTORY    LETTER, 


FROM 


Bishop     TEGNMiR 

TO 

THE    TRANSLATOR. 


Dated  Ostrahoj  April  as,  t83^. 


At  the  time  when  'Frithior  was  composed ,  it  was  com- 
monly enough  believed  among  the  Literati  of  Sweden  — 
and  I  need  only  mention  Leopold  as  an  example  —  that 
what  was  called  the  Gothic  Poetry  was,  notwithstanding 
the  talent  it  w^as  admitted  had  been  employed  on  it,* 
altogether  and  organically  unsuccessful.  This  Poesy,  it 
was  asserted,  rested  for  fundamental  support  on  a  wildness 
of  manners  and  opinions  and  an  only  partial  developement 
of  the  relations  of  Society,  impossible  to  reconcile  with 
the  Poetry  of  present  times.  The  latter  was ,  properly 
enough,  regarded  as  the  Daughter  of  Modern  Civilization, 
and  in  Her  countenance  it  was  that  the  Age  recognized, 
though  beautified  and  idealized,  the  features  of  itself. 
And,  indeed,  it  is  quite  true  that  all  Poetry  must  reflect 
the  progress  and  temperament  of  its  Time  ;  but  still  we 
find  those  general  human  passions  and  circumstances, 
which  must  remain  unchanged  in  every  period,  and  may 
be    regarded    as    the    foundation   of  poetry.     Even   before 

♦  For  'Iduna'  bad  long  since  been  published. 

6 


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44 

this ,  though  with  various  success ,  Llug  *  had  treated 
several  Northern  Subjects,  —  for  the  most  part  in  a 
Dramatic  form.  It  has  been  observed  that  his  great  poetic 
talent  lay  more  in  the  Lyric  than  the  Drama,  and  that 
he  paints  exterior  Nature  far  better  than  the  ever-changing 
Soul.  That  the  Northern  Saga  can  successfully  assume 
the  Dramatic  form  is,  however,  abundantly  proved  by  the 
Tragedies  of  Oehlenschlager.  It  is  with  pleasure  I  acknow- 
ledge ,  that  his  'Helge'  first  gave  me  the  Idea  of  'Frithiof.* 

It  was  never  my  meaning,  however,  in  this  Poem,  — 
though  such  seems  to  have  been  the  opinion  of  many  — 
simply  to  versify  the  Saga.  The  most  transient  comparison 
ought  to  have  shown ,  not  only  that  the  whole  denouement 
is  different  in  the  Poem  and  the  Saga,  but  also  that 
several  of  its  parts,  such  as  Cantos  II,  III,  V,  XV, 
XXI,  XXIII,  and  XXIV,  have  either  little,  if  any,  or 
at  least  a  very  distant  ground  in  the  Legend.  Indeed  it 
is  not  in  this  one,  but  in  other  Icelandic  Sagas  that  we 
ought  to  seek  the  sources  of  the  incidents  I  have  chosen. 
My  object  was,  to  represent  a  poetical  image  of  the  old 
Northern  Hero-Age.  It  was  not  Frithiof,  as  an  individual, 
whom  I  would  paint;  it  was  the  epoch  of  which  he  was 
chosen  as  the  Representative.    It  is  true  that  I  preserved, 

in  this  respect,    the  hull  and  outline  of  the  Tradition,  

but,  at  the  same  time,  I  thought  myself  entitled  to  add 
or  to  take  away,  just  as  was  most  convenient  for  my  plan. 
This,  as  I  supposed,  was  a  part  of  that  poetic  liberty, 
without  which  it  is  impossible  to  produce  any  independent 
treatment  of  any  poetical  subject  whatsoever. 


The   Translator  regreta  to  Uate,  that  tlii*  distinguished  Gymnasist- 
Savan  and  good  Poet  expired  a  few  days  ago. 


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In  the  Saga  we  find  much  that  is  high-minded  and 
heroic,  and  which ,  equally  demanding  the  homage  of  every 
period,  both  conld  and  ought  to  be  preserved.  But,  at 
the  same  time,  we  meet  occasional  instances  of  the  raw, 
the  savage,  the  barbarous,  which  recjuired  to  be  either 
altogether  taken  away,  or  to  be  considerably  softened 
down*  To  a  certain  extent  therefore,  it  was  necessary  to 
modernize;  but  jusi  the  difficulty  here  was  to  find  the 
fitting  lagom.  *  On  the  one  hand  the  Poem  ought  not 
too  glaringly  to  offend  our  milder  opinions  and  more 
refined  habits;  but  on  the  other,  it  was  important  not  to 
sacrifice  the  national  the  Uvely  the  vigorous  and  the  na- 
tural. There  could,  and  ought  to,  blow  through  the  Song 
that  cold  winter-air,  that  fresh  Norlhwind  which  charac- 
terizes so  much  both  the  climate  and  the  temperament 
of  the  North.  But  neither  should  the  Storm  howl  till  — 
the  very  quicksilver  froze,  and  all  the  more  tender  emo- 
tions of  the  heart  were  extinguished. 

It  is  properly  in  the  bearing  of  Frithiof 's  character 
that  I  have  sought  the  resolution  of  this  problem.  The 
noble,  the  high-minded,  the  bold  which  is  the  great 
feature  of  all  Heroism  —  ought  not,  of  course,  to  be 
missing  there;  and  materials  sufficient  abounded  both  in 
this  and  in  many  other  Sagas.  But  together  with  this 
more  general  Heroism,  I  have  endeavoured  to  invest  the 
character  of  Frithiof  with  something  individually  Northern 
—  that  fresh-living,  insolent,  daring  rashness  which  belongs, 
or  at  least  formerly  belonged,  to  the  national  temperament. 
Ingeborg  says  of  Frithiof,  (p.  89) 

*  "Lagom**  is  a  beandfal  word,  which  it  is  impossible  always  fnlly  to 
translate.  It  occurs  frequently  in  S^redish,  and  answers  to  our  'just 
the  thing,'  'just  right,*  'medium ,'  'moderate,'  etc.  —  G.  S. 


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How  glad,  how  daring-all,  how  full  of  hope!  — 
His  good  Sword  pointing  to  the  norna's  bosom, 
'Thou  shalt,'  saith  He,  'Thou  shalt  give  way.'  * 
These   lines  contain  the  key  to  Frithiof's  character,  and, 
in   point    of  fact,    to    the  whole   poem.     Even  the  mild, 
peace-loving,    friend-rich    old   King   Ring  is  not  destitute 
of  this    great   national   quality,   at  least  in  the  manner  of 
his    death;    and   it   is    for  this   reason  I  let  him  "Carve 
himself    with    Geirs-odd,'*    —    undoubtedly    a   barbarous 
custom ,  but  still  characteristic  of  the  time  and  the  popular 
manners. 

Another  peculiarity  common  to  the  people  of  the 
North,  is  a  certain  disposition  for  melancholy  and  heav- 
iness of  spirit  common  to  all  deeper  characters.  Like 
some  Elegiac  key-note,  its  sound  pervades  all  our  old 
national  melodies,  and  generally  whatever  is  expressive  in 
our  annals ,  —  for  it  is  found  in  the  depths  of  the  Nation's 
heart.  I  have  somewhere  or  other**  said  of  Bellman,  the 
most  national  of  our  Poets, 

And  mark  the  touch  of  gloom  his  brow  o'ershading  — 
A  Northern  minstrel-look,  a  grief  in  rosy-red!^* 
for   this  melancholy,   so  far  from  opposing  the  fresh  live- 
liness   and    cheerful   vigour   common   to   the  nation,  only 
gives  them  yet  more   strength  and   elasticity.     There   is  a 
certain  kind  of  life-enjoying  gladness  (and  of  this.  Public 

♦  "Hur  glad,  hnr  trotsig,  hur  fdrlioppningsfull ! 
Han  Salter  spetsen  af  sitt  goda  svard 
P^  Nornans  brdst,  ocli  eager:  du  skall  vika!" 
Frithiofs  Saga,  p.  S9» 
**  "och  mark  det  vemodsdraget  ofver  pannan, 
elt  Nordiskt  SSngardrag,  en  sorg  i  roscnrSdll" 
These  lines  are  from  Tcgn^r's  very  beaatiful  Verses  on  the  Jubilee  of 
the  Swedish  Academy,  in  1836.  —  (Stanza  X),  —   O.  «. 


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47 

Opinion  has  accused  the  French  ,j  which  finally  reposes 
on  frivolity;  —  that  of  the  North  is  built  on  seriousness. 
And  therefore  I  have  also  endeavoured  to  develope  in 
Frithiof  somewhat  of  this  meditative  gloom.  His  repent- 
ant regret  at  the  unwilling  Temple-fire,  —  his  scrupulous 
fear  of  Balder,  (p.  151) 

*Who  sits  in  yon  sky,  gloomy  thoughts  sending  down; 
ne'er  my  soul  from  their  sadness  is  freed!'  * 
and  his  longing  for  the  final  Reconciliation  and  for  calm 
ivithin  him,  are  proofs  not  only  of  a  religious  craving, 
but  also  and  still  more  of  a  natural  tendency  to  sorrow- 
fulness common  to  every  serious  mind,  at  least  in  the 
Nortb  of  Europe. 

I  have  been  reproached  (though  I  cannot  help  think- 
ing, without  good  reason)  with  having  given  the  love 
between  Frithiof  and  Ingeborg,  for  instance  in  *The  Part- 
ing' —  too  modern  and  sentimental  a  cast.  As  regards 
this  I  ought  to  remark,  that  Reverence  for  the  Sex  was 
from  the  earliest  times,  long  before  the  introduction  of 
Christianity,  a  national  feature  of  the  German  Peoples. 
On  this  account  it  was ,  that  the  light  inconstant  and  simply 
sensual  view  of  Love,  —  which  prevailed  among  the  most 
cultivated  nations  of  Anti(juity,  —  was  a  thing  quite  foreign 
to  the  habits  of  the  North.  Song  and  Saga  overflow  with 
the  most  touching  Legends  of  romantic  Love  and  Faith 
in  the  North,  long  before  the  spirit  of  Chivalry  had  made 
Woman  the  Idol  of  Man  in  the  South.  The  circumstances 
assumed  between  Ingeborg  and  Frithiof  seem  to  me,  there- 
fore,   to    rest   upon   sufficient  historical  ground,  —  if  not 

*  '<8om  sitter  i  skyn,  skickar  tankarna  ued, 
8om  formorka  milt  siune  alltjemt." 

Frithioft  Saga,  p»  ti8. 


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48 

personally,  -*  in  the  manners  and  opinions  of  the  Age. 
That  delicacy  of  sentiment  witli  which  Ingeborg  refused  to 
accompany  her  Lover,  and  rather  sacrificed  her  inclination 
than  withdrew  herself  from  the  authority  of  her  Brother 
and  Guardian  —  seems  ta  me  to  find  its  reason  in  the 
nature  of  each  nobler  female,  which  is  the  same  in  every 
Period  and  in  every  Land. 

The  Subjective  thus  contained  in  the  Events  and 
Characters  demanded^  or  at  least  permitted,  a  departure 
from  the  usual  Epic  uniformity  in  their  treatment.  The 
most  suitable  method  seemed  to  me,  to  resolve  the  Epic 
form  into  free  Lyric  Romances.  I  had  the  example  of 
Oehlenschlager,  in  his  Helge,  before  me ;  and  have  since 
found  that  it  has  been  followed  by  others.  It  carries  with 
it  the  advantage  of  enabling  one  to  change  the  metre  in 
accordance  with  the  contents  of  every  separate  song.  Thus , 
for  instance,  I  doubt  whether  'Ingeborg's  Lament'  (Canto 
IX)  could  be  given  with  advantage  in  any  Language  in 
Hexameters  or  Ten-syllabled  Iambics,  whether  rhymed  or 
not.  I  am  well  aware  that  many  regard  this  as  opposed 
to  the  Epic  unity,  which  is,  however,  so  nearly  allied  to 
monotony.  But  I  regard  this  unity  as  more  than  sufficiently 
compensated  by  the  freer  room  and  fresher  changes  gained 
by  its  abandonment.  Just  this  liberty,  however,  to  be 
properly  employed,  requires  so  much  the  more  thought, 
understanding,  and  taste;  for  with  every  separate  Piece 
one  must  endeavour  to  find  the  exactly  suitable  form,  a 
thing  not  always  ready  for  one's  hand  in  the  language. 
It  is  for  this  reason  that  I  have  attempted  (with  greater 
or  less  success)  to  imitate  several  metres,  especially  from 
the  Poets  of  Antiquity.  Thus  the  Pentameter  Iambic ,  hy- 
pcrcatalectic  in  the  third  foot,  (Canto  II)  —  the  six-footed 


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Iambic  (C.  XIV)  —  the  Aristoplianic  Anapests  (C.  XV) 
—  the  Ti'ochaic  Tetrameter  (C.  XVI)  —  and  the  Tragic 
Senarius  (C.  XXFV),  —  were  little,  if  at  all,  heard  of  in 
Swedish  previous  to  my  attempts. 

As  I'egards  the  language  in  itself,  —  the  antique  sub- 
ject invited  one  sometimes  to  use  an  Archaism,  especially 
where  such  an  expression,  without  beiug  obscure,  seemed 
to  carry  with  it  any  particular  emphasis.  Still  this  care 
is  at  all  events  lost  abroad,'^  and  sometimes  even  at  home. 
It  demands,  nevertheless,  very  much  prudence  —  for  the 
great  stream  of  words  in  a  modern  Poem  must,  naturally, 
flow  from  the  language  of  the  day,  although  an  obsolescent 
word  or  two  may  occasionally  be  employed. 

Es.  Tegner. 


*  The  Translator  hopes  he  has  succeeded  in  preserring  the  same  an- 
tique cast  in  his  Version  as  in  the  Original.  This  he  has  attempted, 
however ,  rather  hj  what  he  has  omitted  —  the  modern  and  the  con- 
versational —  than  hy  -what  he  has  inserted,  though  a  few  cMmMthf^ 
received  and  venerable  archaisms  are  sometimes  to  be  met  with. 


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FRITBIOrS    SA&Af 


A  MORWEQIAR  STORT. 


From  the   Original  Swedish 


OF 


ESAIAS    TE6NER. 


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Names  of  the  Personages 

who  figure  in  the 

LEGEND   OF   FRITHIOF. 


BELE,  Fylke-King   (Independent   ChieO   of  Sogne-District,    m 

Nonvay. 

BUSLGE        7 

nA«»««l«r  I  ^'^  sons,  co-heirs  to  his  throne  and  lands. 

MMjkMjWOAM  f 

INGEBORG,   His    only  daughter,    foster-sister  and   Beloved  of 

FRITHIOF. 
THORSTEN,    A   rich    and  powerful   Yeoman   (Bonde),    friend, 

chief  stay,   and  brother-in-arms  of  King  BELE. 
FRITHIOF,   His  son,  Lover  of  INGEBORG,     and  the  Hero  of 

the  Poem. 
HILDING,  A  venerable  Peasant,  the  foster-father  of  FRITHIOF 

and  of  INGEBORG. 
BJORN,  His  son,  sworn  friend  and  weapon-comrade  of  FRITHIOF. 
RING,  Fylke-King  of  Ringe-Rike,  in  Norway. 
ANGANTYR,    Jarl,   (Earl  or  reigning   Chieftain)  of  the  Orkney 

Islands. 
ATLE,  A  Berserk,  one  of  his  War-men. 
Priests,  Warriors,  Scalds,  Peasants  &c. 


Scene,  Framnas  and  its  neighbourhood  (in  Sogne-District) ,  and 
the  Orkneys. 


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Extract  of  a  letter 

from  the 

AUTHOR  OF  FRITHIOrS  SAGA. 


Dated  Ostrabo^  4  December,  1838. 

"Det  sir  min  ofvertygelse  att  ingen  af  de  foregaende 
ofversattame  som  jag  haft  tillfalle  att  lara  kanna,  intrangt 
sa  som  HeiT  Professoren  i  Originalets  ursprungliga  anda 
och  s&  respekterat  dess  Nordiska  egenheter." 

Es.  Tegn^r. 


Translation. 

I  am  of  opinion^  tbat  no  one  of  all  the  previous  Trans- 
lators with  whom  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  meetings  have 
penetrated  so  deeply  into  the  fundamental  spirit  of  the  Original 
and  have  so  much  respected  its  Northern   characteristics  as  — 

yourself. 

Es.  Tegn£r. 


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?^».r.'>  ::  *t-J-  \ <CTl-^  ■  >  v  Vi^  ■^fhWrmu 


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OAMTO  t. 


JVttfiiiJf  ajrtr  3tt0<frirr0» 


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Argument. 

In  this  simple  Ballad-Canto,  so  beautiful  in  the  Original, 
are  related  the  youthful  graces  and  exploits  of  ingeborg  and  of 
FRiTHiOF,    their   slowly    ripening   and   tender  affection,    and  the 
bold  resolve  of  frithiof  to  assert  and  abide  his  choice,    "come 
what  will."  —  Never  was  pure,  lofty,  fervid  Love,  that 
"feeling  from  the  godhead  caught. 
To  wean  from  self  each  sordid  thought; 
A  Ray  of  Him  who  form'd  the  whole ; 
A  glory  circling  round  the  soul!"  *) 
painted    with   more  impassion'd  artlessness!    The   frithiof  and 
INGEBORG  of  the  North,  how  different  from  the  romeo  and  juliet 
of  the  South,  —  and  yet  how  much   the    same!    Climate    and 
customs  modify,  but  Nature  changes  never! 

The  metre  in  the  Translation  is  that  of  the  illustrious  Author, 
except  that  the  latter  half  of  every  verse  has  always  feminine 
rhymes  in  Swedish.  —  We  need  not  remind  the  English  reader 
how  scarce  such  Rhymes  are  in  his  Tongue,  notwithstanding 
its  acknowledged  richness. 

*)  BYRON,    The  Giaour, 


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•  CANTO  I. 


J^vittfiot  attH  Sngetorg. 


Iwo  Plants,  in  HiLDDfo's  garden  fair. 
Grew  up  beneath  his  fostering  care; 
Their  match  the  North  had  never  seen. 
So  nobly  tow'r'd  they  in  the  green! 

II. 

The  one  shot  forth  like  some  broad  Oak, 
Its  trunk  a  battle-lance  unbroke; 
But  helmet-like  the  top  ascends. 
As  HeavVs  soft  breeze  its  arch'd  round  bends. 

m. 

Like  some  sweet  Rose,  — bleak  winter  flown,  — 
That  other  fresh  young  Plant  y-shone; 
From  out  this  Rose  Spring  yet  scarce  gleameth. 
Within  the  bud  it  lies  and  dreameth. 

lY. 

But  cloud-sprung  Storm  round  th'Earth  shall  go. 
That  Oak  then  wrestles  with  his  foe; 
Her  heav'nly  path  Spring's  sun  shall  tread,  — 
Then  opes  that  Rose  her  lips  so  red! 


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V. 

Thus  sportful,  glad,  and  green  they  sprung. 
And  FRITHIOF  was  that  Oak  the  young;  — 
The  Rose  so  brightly  blooming  there. — 
She  hight  was  INGEBORG  the  FAIR. 

VI. 

Saw'st  thou  the  two  by  gold-beam'd  day,  — 
To  freja's  Courts  thy  thoughts  would  stray 
Where ,  bright-hair'd  and  with  rosy  pinions , 
Swings  many  a  bride-pair  —  Love's  own  minions. 

vn. 

But  saw'st  thou  them,  by  moonlight's  sheen. 
Dance  round  beneath  the  leafy  green  — 
Thou'dst  say,  in  yon  sweet  garland-grove 
The  King  and  Queen  of  fairies  mov^. 

vm. 

How  precious  was  the  prize  he  earn'd 
When  his  fii'st  rune  the  youth  had  learn'di  — 
No  King's  could  His  bright  glory  reach,  — 
That  letter  would  he  ing'borg  teach. 

IX. 

How  gladly  at  Her  side  steer'd  he 
His  barque  across  the  dark  blue  sea! 
When  gaily  tacking  FRITHIOF  stands. 
How  merrily  clap  her  small  white  hands! 

X. 

No  birds'  nests  yet  so  lofty  were. 
That  thither  he  not  climb'd  for  Her; 
E'en  th'Eagle,  as  he  cloud-ward  swung. 
Was  plunder'd  both  of  eggs  and  young. 


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XI. 

No  streamlet's  waters  rush*d  so  swift, 
O'er  which  he  would  not  ing'borg  lift; 
So  pleasant  feels,  whea  foam-rush  'larms. 
The  gentle  cling  of  small  white  arms ! 

The  first  pale  flow*r  that  spring  had  shed. 
The  strawberry  sweet  that  first  grew  red. 
The  corn-ear  fii-st  in  ripe  gold  clad,  •— 
To  Her  he  offer  d,  ti'ue  and  glad. 

But  Childhood's  days  full  quickly  fly; 

He  stands  a  stripling  now,  with  eye 
Of  haughty  fire  which  hopes  and  prayeth ;  — 
And  She,  with  budding  breast,  see!  strayeth. 

XIV. 

The  Chase  young  frjthiof  ceaseless  sought; 
Nor  oft  would  hunter  so  have  fought; 
For,  swordless  spearless  all,  he'd  dare 
With  naked  streagth  the  sayage  bear: 

XV. 
Then  breast  to  breast  they  struggled  grim;  — 
Though  torn,  the  bold  youth  masters  him! 
With  shaggy  hide  now  see  him  laden  — 
Such  spoils  refuse  —  how  can  the  maiden? 

XVI. 

For  Man's  brave  deeds  still  Woman  wile; 
Strength  well  is  worth  young  Beauty's  smile ; 
Each  other  suit  they,  fitly  blending 
Like  helm  o'er  polish'd  brows  soft  bending! 


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xvn. 

But  read  he ,  some  cold  Winter's  night , 
(The  fire-hearth's  flaming  blaze  his  light) 
A  Song  of  ValhalVs  brightnesses. 
And  all  its  gods  and  goddesses ;  — 

xvni. 

He'd  think:  *Yes!  yellow's  freja's  hair, 
A  corn-land-sea,  breeze-wav'd  so  fair;  — 
Sure  ing'borg's,  that  like  gold-net  trembles 
Round  rose  and  lily.  Hers  resembles! 

XIX.. 

*Rich,  white,  soft,  clear  is  idun's  breast; 
How  it  heaves  beneath  her  silken  vest!  ---- 
A  silk  I  know,  whose  heave  discloses 
Light-fairies  two  with  budding  roses. 

XX. 

*And  blue  are  frigga's  eyes  to  see. 
Blue  as  Heav'ns  cloudless  canopy!  — 
But  I  know  eyes,  to  whose  bright  beams 
The  light  blue  Spring-day  darksome  seems. 

XXI. 

*The  Bards  praise  ^gerda's  cheeks  too  high. 
Fresh  snows  which  playful  North-lights  dye ! 
I  cheeks  have  seen,  whose  day  lights,  clear. 
Two  dawnings  blushing  in  one  sphere. 

xxn. 

*A  heart  like  NANNa's  own  Tve  found, 
As  tender,  — -  why  not  so  renown'd? 
Ah!  happy  BALDER;  ilk  breast  swelleth 
To  share  the  death  thy  Scald  o'ertelleth. 


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xxm. 

'Yes !  could  my  death  like  BALDER*s  be ,  — 
A  faithful  maid  lamenting  me  -— 
A  maid  like  nanna,  tender,  true  — 
How  glad  I'd  stay  with  HBL  the  blue  !* 

XXIV. 

But  the  King's  Child  —  all  glad  Her  love   — 
Sat  murmuring  Hero-Songs,  and  wove 
The'  adventures  that  Her  Chief  had  seen , 
And  billows  blue ,  and  groves  of  green ; 

XXV. 

Slow  start  from  out  the  wool's  snow-iields 
Round,  gold-embroider'd,  shining  shields. 
And  battle's  lances  flying  red. 
And  mail-coats  stiff  with  silver  thread;  — 

XXVI. 

But  day  by  day  Her  Hero  still 
Grows  FRITHIOF  like,  weave  how  she  will,  — 
And,  as  His  form  'mid  the'  arm'd  host  rushes. 
Though  deep,  yet  joyful,  are  her  blushes! 

xxvn. 

And  FRITHIOF,  where  his  wanderings  be. 
Carves  i  and  F  i  th'  tall  birch-tree; 
The  runes  right  gladly  grow  united. 
Their  young  hearts  like  by  one  flame  lighted. 

XXVin. 

Stands  DAY  on  Heav'n's  arch  —  throne  so  fair! 
King  of  the  world  with  golden  hair. 
Waking  the  tread  of  life  and  men  — 
Each  thinks  but  of  the  other  then! 


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XXIX, 

Stands  NIGHT  on  HeayVs  arch  —  throne  so  fair!  — 
World's  mother  with  Her  dark-hued  hair. 
While  stars  tread  soft,  all  hush'd  *mong  men  — 
Each  dreams  but  of  the  other  then! 

Thou  earth!  —  each  spring  through  all  thy  bow'rs 
Thy  green  locks  jeweling  thick  Mrith  flowers  •— 
Thy  choicest  give  I  fair  weaving  them. 
My  FRITHIOF  shall  the  garland  gem/ 

XJLXI. 

*Thou  sea!  in  whose  deep  gloomy  hall 
Shine  thousand  pearls,  hear  Love's  loud  call!  — 
Thy  fairest  give  me,  to  bedeck 
That  whiter  pearl  —  my  ing'borg's  neck!' 

xxxn. 

*0h  crown  of  oden's  Royal  Throne, 
Eye  of  the  world ,  bright  golden  suN !  — 
Wert  thou  but  mine,  should  FBXTHIOF  wield 
Thy  shining  disc.  His  shining  shield/ 

*Oh  lamp  of  great  allfather's  Dome , 
Thou  MOON ,  whose  beams  so  pale-clear  roam !  — 
Wert  thou  but  mine«  should  ing'borg  wear 
Thy  crescent-orb  among  her  hair/ 

Then  HILPING  spoke:  *From  this  love-play 
Turn,  fosterson,  thy  mind  away; 
Had  wisdom  rul'd,  thou  ne'er  hadst  sought  her  — 
))The  maid»,  fate  cries,  »i6  sele's  Daughter !» 


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X3LX.V. 

*To  ODEN,  in  His  star-lit  sky. 
Ascends  her  titled  ancestry; 
But  thorsten's  son  art  thou;  give  way! 
For  »like  thrives  best  with  like))  they  say.' 

3LXXVI. 

But  FBITHIOF  smiling  said;  *Down  fly 
To  Death's  dark  vale  my  ancestry; 
Yon  forest's  King  late  slew  I;  pride 
Of  high  birth  heir'd  I  with  his  hide. 

xxxvn. 

rrhe  freebom  man  yields  not;  for  stiU 
/His  arm  wins  worlds  where'er  it  will; 
Fortune  can  mend  as  well  as  mar, 
Hope's  ornaments  right  Kingly  are! 

xxxYin. 

*What  is  high  birth  but  force?  Yes!  THOR, 
Its  sire,  in  Thrudvang's  fort  gives  law; 
Not  birth,  but  worth,  he  weighs  above;  — 
The  sword  pleads  strongly  for  its  love  ! 

XXXIX. 

\*Yes!  I  will  fight  for  my  young  bride. 
Though  e'en  the  Thund'ring  God  defied. 
Rest  thee,  my  lily,  glad  at  heart; 
Woe  him,  whose  rash  hand  would  us  part!' 


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5  =>^ 


i 


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MMllM 


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OAKTO  n. 


Hind  MiU 

atdf 


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Argument. 

King  BELEy  worn  down  with  years  and  feeling  his  end  ap- 
proaching, summons  his  sons  and  frithiof,  and  with  hildiitg 
at  his  side  counsels  them  in  sumy  a  proverb  of  Northern  wisdom. 
^Life's  changing  scenes',  then  exclaims  the  aged  hilding  to  the 
King,  'have  we  shared  together,  and  in  death  we  wiU  not  be 
divided.'  —  He  also  then  exhorts  the  three  in  sharp  sayings 
and  Scandinavian  lore. 

Both  then  interchange  words  of  friendly  greeting;  and, 
again  saluting  the  young  warriors  they  love  so  much,  they 
conclude  by  commending  them  to  the  care  and  blessing  of  frey, 
of  oden,  and  of  thor. 

It  was  not  possible  to  retain  in  this  Caaito  the  metre  of  the 
original,  of  which  we  subjoin'  the  first  Terse  as  a  i^pecimeo: 

"Kung  BELE,  st5dd  pa  svardet,  i  Kungssal  stod, 
hos  honom  thorsten  vikingsson,  den  bonde  god, 
bans  gamle  vapenbroder,  snart  hundraarig, 
och  Unrig  som  en  runsten,  och  silfverharig." 

Tegners  Frithiofj  p.  10. 


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CANTO  IL 


Minq  Utlt  aitu  Etfot^tm  vmm^^on. 


In  regal  Hall  King  BELB  stood. 

His  sword  a  staff  of  light. 
And  near  him  lean'd  that  Yeoman  good 

THORSTEN  VIKINGSSON  hight; 

His  weapon-brother  old  was  he, 

A  hundred  years  well  nigh. 
And  scarred  all  o'er  as  Rune-stones  be. 

And  silver-hair'd  on  high. 

n. 

They  stood  as  up  and  down  a  hill 

Two  offring-houses  stand; 
Once,  shrines  for  Heathen  Gods  to  fill. 

Now,  ruin'd  in  the  land; 
But  wisdom's  runes,  carv'd  deep  and  fast. 

Those  broken  walls  still  hide. 
And  high  traditions  of  the  past 

On  each  arch'd  vault  reside. 


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m. 

'The  shades  of  ev'ning  hasten  on  ,* 

So  speaketh  BELE  now; 
*My  mead-cup's  flavour  all  is  gone. 

The  helm  weighs  down  my  brow; 
My  vision  fails  to  trace  the  lines 

Of  human  weal  and  woe : 
But  nearer,  brighter,  Valhall  shines,  — 

My  death's  at  hand,  I  trow! 
rv. 

*My  children  have  I  call'd;  and,  friend. 

Thy  son  is  summon'd  too; 
For  still  together  should  they  wend , 

As  we  were  wont  to  do.  — 
A  warning  shall  they  have  to  day. 

Those  eagles  proud  and  young. 
Before  all  counsel  sleeps  for  aye 

Upon  the  dead  man's  tongue !' 

^' 

Then,  as  the  King's  commandment  ran, 

Advanc'd  they  up  the  Hall. 
The  first  was  helge,  pale  and  wan 

And  gloomiest  of  them  all; 
He,  where  yond'  altar-circle  lies, 

Mong  spaemen  lov'd  to  stand. 
And  came  from  groves  of  sacrifice 

With  blood  upon  his  hand. 

VI. 

HALFDAN  appear d  the  next,  a  youth  j 

With  locks  as  bright  as  gold;  I 

I 


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Noble  his  features  were,  m  sooth, 

Though  womanly  their  mould. 
His  sword  was  belted  round  about 

For  sport,  apparently; 
And,  in  the  guise  of  hero  stout. 

Some  girl  resembled  he. 
VII. 

But  close  behind  them  frithiof  goes, 

Wrapp'd  in  his  mantle  blue; 
His  height  a  whole  head  taller  rose 

Than  that  of  both  the  two. 
He  stands  between  the  brothers  there  — 

As  though  the  ripe  day  stood 
Atween  young  morning  rosy-fair. 

And  night  within  the  wood. 
,  VIII. 

*My  children',  saith  the  dim-eyed  King, 

*Soon  sets  my  Ev'ning's  sun; 
Govern  the  realm  in  peace,  nor  bring 

Discord  'mid  Union. 
For  Union  all  in  one  enfolds; 

The  Ring  she  likens  most 
Which  grasps  the  lance;  —  where  no  ring  holds 

The  lance's  strength  is  lost. 

IX. 

*Let  Force  stand,  like  a  sentinel. 

Before  the  country's  gate; 
Let  Peace  within  the  hedg'd  land  dwell. 

Blooming  and  consecrate. 
The  sword  defence  alone  should  yield. 

Else  is  its  steel  too  hard; 


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Forg'd  for  ft  padlock  was  the  Shield, 
The  peasant's  barn  to  guard* 
X. 

*His  own  good  land  who'd  fain  oppress  — 

Is  but  a  simple  man ; 
For  Kings  can  do,  as  all  confess. 

But  what  their  People  can. 
When ,  on  the  rocky  mountain's  side , 

The  sapless  trunk  is  dead^  ~ 
The  thick-leav'd  crown  that  was  its  pride 

Soon,  too,  is  withered. 

XI. 

*0n  pillars  four  of  up-heap'd  stone 

Stands  high  Heav'ns  lofty  round; 
The  throne  can  only  rest  upon 

Just  Laws'  all-holy  ground. 
When  Diets  sanction  feard  Rings'  wrongs, 

Stands  ruin  near  at  hand; 
But  gloiy  to  the  King  belongs. 

And  good  unto  his  land. 
XII. 

'Full  well  in  Disarsal  reside 

The  Gods,  o  helge;  but 
Not  as  weak  snails^  that  still  abide 

Within  their  shells  close  shut;  — 
Far  as  bright  day-light  shines  on  high. 

Far  as  the  voice  can  sound. 
Far  as  man's  thought  can  upward  fly,  — 

The  Mighty  Gods  are  found! 


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*How  oft,  in  lungs  of  offer'd  hawk , 

Stand  faithless  token-signs! 
And  falsely  many  a  rune  doth  talk, 

Though  deeply-grav'd  the  lines: 
But,  HELGE,  on  a  heart  v/hose  lore 

Is  sound,  glad,  upright,  just  — 
Has  ODEN  written  runes  all  o'er 

Which  gods  and  men  may  trust. 

XIV. 

*Firm  hut  not  harsh ,  my  son ,  '—  let  Might 

The  touch  of  Mercy  feel ; 
For  sword  that  bends  the  most,  will  bite 

Most  sharply  on  the  steel. 
Know,  HELGE,  it  becomes  a  King 

Gentle  to  be,  though  bold, 
As  flowrs  adorn  the  Shield;  —  soft  Spring 

Brings  more  than  Winter-cold* 

XV. 

*A  friendless  Chief,  however  fear'd 

However  bright  his  day, 
Dies  like  a  trunk  in  deserts  rear'd, 

Its  bark  all  peel'd  away; 
But  whoso  claims  fast  faithful  friends  — 

Grows  like  the  woodland  tree. 
Bound  whose  deep  roots  the  streamlet  wends. 

Whose  branches  shelterd  be. 

XVI. 

'Boast  not  the  fame  thy  dead  Sires  gainM , 
Each  hath  his  own,  no  more; 


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Hast  thou  to  bend  the  bow  vain  strain*d  — 
The  bows  not  thine,  give  o'er. 

What  wilt  thou  with  that  bright  esteem 
Which  down  i'th'  grave  doth  sleep? 

With  own  fierce  waves,  the  rushing  stream 
Flows  onward  through  the  deep. 
xvir, 

Thou,  HALFDAN,  hear!  —  A  pleasant  wit 

Is  wise  men^s  profiting; 
But  idle  talk  can  none  befit. 

And  least  of  all  a  King ; 
Mere  honey  can  no  mead  afford. 

With  hops  'tis  brew'd  alway;  — 
Put  steel,  young  man!  into  thy  sword. 

Put  earnest  in  thy  play! 
xviir. 

*Too  much  good  sense  none  ever  show. 

However  wise  it  fall  — 
But  little'  enough  full  many  know. 

Who  have  no  wit  at  all. 
An  ignorant  guest  is  but  despis'd^ 

Though  seated  on  the  dais; 
But  clever  men's  discourse  is  pris'd. 

However  low  their  place. 

XIX. 

*Thy  true-fast  friend  is  close  at  hand. 

Thy  fosterbrother  dear. 
Although,  to  reach  his  welc'ming  land. 

The  road  be  not  so  near. 
But,  HALFDAN,  far  enough  away 

That  mansion  proves  to  be,  — 


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Be  short  llie  journey  as  it  may,  — 
Which  holds  an  enemy* 
XX. 

*Let  not  a  forward  man  be  made 

Thy  bosom-counselor; 
An  empty  house  stands  wide  display'd, 

Barr'd  is  the  rich  man's  door. 
Choose  one;  unnecessary  'tis 

To  seek  a  second  friend  j 
And  the  world's  secret,  halfdan,  is. 

What  with  the  third  should  end  J'  — 
XXI. 

Then  upstood  thorsten  ,  and  began 

In  words  like  these  to  speak: 
*Not  thus ,  alone ,  King  bele  can 

ODEN's  Valhalla  seek. 
Together  have  we  shar'd,  o  King! 

The  changing  scenes  of  life,  — 
And  Death,  I  hope,  will  never  bring 

Occasion  for  our  strife! 
xxu. 

*01d  Age,  son  frithiof,  in  mine  ear 

Full  many  a  warning  speech 
Hath  whisper'd  soft;  list  now,  and  hear 

What  wisdom  they  can  teach. 
r  th'  North-land  oden's  birds  sweep  down 

On  cairn  and  hero-mound; 
On  the'old  man's  lips ,  —  ah  I  sweet  renown , 

Sit  wise  words,  thoughts  profound! 


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XXIIT. 

*And  first,  the  High  irods  reverence  1 

For  good  and  evil  come. 
Like  storm  and  sunshine,  not  from  hence. 

But  Valhall's  shining  home; 
The  heart's  most  secret  vaults  they  see. 

Though  clos'd  with  fast*nings  strong. 
And  long  years'  penance  shall  there  be 

For  but  one  moment's  wrong. 

XXIV. 

*Obey  the  King.     With  force  and  skill 

Shall  one  the  sceptre  sway; 
With  stars  dim  Night  the  sky  may  fill, 

But  one  eye  hath  bright  Day, 
Willing  the  better  man  will  pledge 

The  best,  glad  praise  his  deeds;  — 
The  sword  not  only  wants  an  edge, 

A  good  hilt,  too,  it  needs. 

XXV. 

'FRITHIOF,  great  strength  the  Gods  bestow,  — 

And  good  it  is,  my  son! 
But,  without  wit,  mere  force  we  know 

Is  soon  out-spent  and  done. 
By  one  man  slain  —  the  bear  can  wield 

Twelve  men's  strength ,  in  his  paw ;  ^^ 
Yes!  'gainst  the  sword-thrust's  held  the  shield, 

'Gainst  violence  —  the  Law! 

XXVL 

*By  few  the  haughty  chief  is  fcar'd , 
Hated  he  is  by  all; 


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And  arrogance «  by  few  rever'd. 

Is  father  to  a  fall. 
How  many  have  I  seen  high  soar  — 

Now  on  a  crutch  bent  low;  — 
Seasons,  not  men,  the  harvest  pour. 

And  Heavn's  winds  fortune  blow. 
XXVU. 

*When  down  the  setdng  sun  hath  sunk  — 

Then,  frithiof,  praise  the  day; 
Ale  may  be  prais'd,  too  —  when  'tis  drunk; 

And  —  followed  —  counsel  may. 
Fond  youth  on  many  things  for  aid 

Will  trust  itself,  indeed; 
But  battle  proves  the  keen  sword-blade. 

And  want,  a  friend  in  need  I 
XXVIII. 

•Trust  not  to  night-old  ice,  or  snow 

Which  some  spring-day  may  see, 
Or  slumb'ring  snakes,  or  words  that  flow 

Frae  th'girl  upon  thy  knee; 
For,  on  a  wheel  that  nothing  stills. 

Is  tum'd  fair  Woman's  breast. 
And  'neath  those  soft  white  lily-hills 

Inconstancy  doth  rest! 

XXIX. 

'Down  to  the  grave  thyself  must  go , 

And  what  thou  hast,  away; 
But  one  thing,  frithiof,  well  I  know 

Which  never  can  decay,  — 
That  is,  the'  unchanging  doom  decreed 

To  evry  dead  man's  Spright;  — 


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Will,  therefore,  ev'ry   noble  deed. 
And  do  thou  ev'ry  right!'  — 
XXX. 

His  warnings  thus  gave  hoary  age 

In  bele's  Kingly  Hall, 
As  since  the  Scald  whose  warnings  sage 

Yet  sound  in  Havamal; 
From  race  to  race  the  Proverbs  go 

In  pithy  sentence  forth,  — 
And  deeply,  from  the  tomb  below. 

Yet  whisper  in  the  North. 
XXXI. 

Thereafter  talk'd  the  Heroes  both. 

In  many  a  heartfelt  tone. 
Of  their  long  friendship's  faithful  troth 

Through  all  the  Northland  known,  — 
And  how  their  truefast  union, 

In  weal  and  woe  the  same , 
(Like  two  hands  firmly  grasp'd  in  one) 

More  tight-knit,  still,  became. 

XXXII. 

*Our  arms,  my  Son,  in  danger's  path 

We  back  to  back  did  wield; 
However,  then,  came  norna's  wrath. 

Still  struck  she  'gainst  the  shield. 
Before  you  now,  with  years  bow'd  down. 

We  two  to  Valhall  wend;  — 
But  may  our  spirits,  ye  children!  crown 

Each  Ysrish,  —  each  step  attend!' 


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XXXIII. 

And  mucli  and  long  the  King  talked  o*er 

The  brave  young  frithiof's  worth. 
And  warrior-might,  which  alway  more 

Was  priz'd  than  Royal  Birth;  — 
And  much  and  long  doth  thorsten  praise 

The  Northland's  high-fam'd  Kings, 
And  all  that  glorious  fame  whose  blaze 

From  the'  ASAR-Heroes  springs.  — 

XXXIV. 

'And  now,  together  as  one  man 

Hold  fast,  ye  children  three ! 
Your  overmatch,  —  that  know  I  —  can 

Our  Northland  never  see! 
For  strength,  to  Kingly  rank  and  blood 

Indissolubly  bound. 
Is  like  the  darkblue  steel-rim  good 

Which  flows  the  gold-shield  round. 
XXXV. 

*My  last  salute  fail  not  to  tell 

ing'borg,  that  rose  fresh-blown; 
In  peace,  as  it  became  her  well. 

Her  lovely  form  hath  grown. 
Hedge  round  the  Fair;  let  no  Storm-wind 

Come  down,  in  evil  hour. 
And  to  his  helmet-bonnet  bind 

My  tender  blooming  flow'r! 
XXXVI. 

'helge!  be  thou  her  guardian. 
Thyself  her  father  prove ! 


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ing'sorg,  my  child,  my  dearest  one 

Oh!  like  a  father  love. 
Constraint  revolts  the  genrous  soul. 

But,  HELGE,  softness  leads 
Woman  and  man  to  Virtue's  goal  — 

Just  thoughts  and  noble  deeds! 

'Beneath  two  Barrows,  in  the  earth. 

Lay  us,  ye  children  dear! 
One  on  each  side  the  billowy  firth. 

Whose  murmurs  we  may  hear. 
For  pleasant  to  the  Hero's  Ghost 

Resounds  the  sea's  low  song; 
Like  soft  sad  Drapas  on  the  coast. 

The  wavelets  roll  along. 
xxxYin. 
'Pouring  pale  splendours  round  the  hill. 

When  bright  the  moon  hath  shone ; 
And  midnight  dews,  all  calm  and  still. 

Fall  on  the  Bauta-stone ;  — 
Then  shall  we  sit,  o  thorsten,  there 

On  our  green  Cairns  so  round 
And,  o'er  the  waters'  rush,    declare 

How  coming  fates  astound! 
XXXIX. 
*And  now ,  ye  Sons  ,  farewell !  farewell ! 

Hither  no  more  draw  nigh. 
With  great  allfather  shall  we  dwell;  — 

We  long  to  be  on  high. 
Like  as  the  wearied  flood-streams  long 

To  reach  wide  ocean's  deep.  — 
And  now,  FREY  guard  you,  sons,  from  wrong, 

THOR  bless ,  and  oden  keep  !' 


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-^ 


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pwgi&iaf!3~  sz  Kr: " 


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id 


OAHTO  in. 


JVitfiiaf  succeeds 


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Argument. 

Iq  the  beautiful  Hexameters  of  his  third  Canto  the  Author, 
like  another  homer  working  up  the  ^^rhapsodies'"  of  national 
tradition,  paints  with  a  bold  and  yet  elegant  simplicity  the 
picturesque  manners  of  an  age  remarkably  Homeric  in  its  barbaric 
civilization  and  its  pirate  independence.  . 

On  the  death  of  his  father  frithiof  succeeds  to  his  lands, 
wealth,  and  Hall,  which  is  described  at  large.  Then  follows  a 
detailed  History  of  his  three  principal  valuables  —  angurvadel 
his  falchion,  —  his  arm-ring  the  famous,  —  and  his  war-ship, 
ELLiDA,  the  gift  of  the  Sea-god! 

Assembling  his  friends  and  retainers,  the  young  Hero 
pledges  them  at  the  Grave-ale  (funeral  banquet)  of  the  Deceased , 
and  then,  in  the  midst  of  the  applause  of  the  Scalds,  steps  into 
the  vacant  ^seat  of  his  father,  now  his." 

English  Hexameter  verse  is  so  uncommon,  and  its  laws 
so  uncertain,  —  that  we  are  afraid  we  have  trespassed  rather 
too  largely  on  the  patience  and  good  humour  of  the  reader  by 
presenting  him  with  the  following  "attempt."  The  "attempt" 
however,  was  worth  while.  We  need  hardly  add  that,  in 
English,  tone  accent  and  emphasis  must  be  our  guide  in  con- 
structing the  Hexameter  —  rather  than  syllabic  quantity,  of 
which  we  have  so  little  that  is  absolutely  determined.  So  far 
as  its  comparative  novelty  would  admit ,  the  Translator  has  aimed 
at  a  natural  and  national  verse,  differing  from  the  strictly 
classical  Germanic  Hexameter  on  the  one  hand,  and  tfeTe  loose 
unequal  Hexameter  of  Southey  on  the  other.  —  How  far  he  has 
succeeded  • —  is  another  question! 


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CANTO  in. 


Jfvittfiot  mttttrt^  to  ttft  ip^ttitmtt 
of  ]&i0  ifatiftm 


Ooft,  now,  in  th'earth  were  laid  ag'd  THORSTEN  and  BELE 
his  sovereign 

Where  they  themselves  had  bidd'n;  one  on  each  side  the 
firth  rose  their  barrows. 

Shielding  beneath  their  round  two  breasts,  now  death- 
sun  der'd  ever. 

IL\LFDAN  and  HELGE  then,  as  the  People  decreed,  were 
successors 

After  their  sire  in  the  realm;  but  frithiof  divided  with 
no  one; 

Peaceful  he  heir'd,  sole  son  to  his  father,  and  settled  in 
Framnas. 

Far  to  the  right,  and  the  left,  and  behind  his  homestead 
ascended 

Hills  and  low  vallies  and  rocks ,  —  but  its  fourth  side  fronted 
the  ocean. 

Forests  of  birch  crown*d  the  mountain-tops,  while  their 
sides  smoothly  sloping 

Flourished  with  golden  corn,  and  with  man-high  bright- 
waving  rye-crops. 


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Lakes    full     many     their    glittring   mirrors     held   to    the 

mountain , 
Held  to  the  woods,  too,    above,  —  in  whose  depths  had 

high-braaching  elk-deer 
Range  as  they  royally  trod,    or  drank  of  a  hundred  fresh 

streamlets. 
Pasturing  Herds   were  seen   in    the    vallies,    cropping   the 

green-sward. 
Or  with  sleek  sides  standing,    and   bags  which  longed  for 

the  milk-pail. 
'Mid  them  were  spread,   here  and  there  o'er  the  meadows, 

white-woolly  sheep-flocks,  — 
Wand  ring  careless  and  free;  as,  (when  soft  winds  herald 

the  Spring-time,) 
Heav'n's  blue  vault   small    far-scatter'd  cloudlets   flockwise 

besprinkle. 
Rang'd  in  their  stalls,   like  winds  close-fetter'd,  and  proud 

and  impatient. 
Pawing  there  stood  twice   twelve  chain'd    coursers,    sweet- 
grasses  champing; 
Knotted  with  red  were  their  manes ,  and  their  hoofs  shone 

brightly  with  steel-shoes. 
Wide,  and  a  House  by  itself,  was  the  Drinking-Hall ,  built 

of  tough  heart-fir; 
Not  five  hundred  men,    (though   ten    twelves   went  to  the 

hundred) , 
Fill'd  that  spacious  Hall,    when  at  Yule    they    gather'd   to 

banquet. 
Right  through  the  Hall's  whole   length  ran  the  Board,     of 

scarlet-oak  timbers, 
Polish'd  and  bright  like  steel;  the  two  High-seat  pillars  of 

honour 


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Stood  at  its  upper  end,  God-shapes  both  carv*d  from  hard 

elm-wood,  — 
ODEN  with  lordlike  features,    and    FREY   with    the  sun  on 

his  bonnet. 
Lately,  —  between  them,  thron'don  his  bear-hide  (th' hide 

was  all  coal-black. 
Red  like  to  scarlet  its  jaws,  but  the  sharp  claws  shodded 

with  silver,)  — 
THORSTEN  sat  there  'mong  his  friends.    Hospitality   sitting 

with  Gladness! 
Oft,  while  the  Moon  flew  along  through    the  sky,  the'old 

Chief  would  tell,  cheerly. 
Marvels  which  out  in  strange  lands  he  had  seen,   and  his 

Vikinga-rovings 
Far  o'er  the  Baltics  waves,  and  the  Western  seas,  and  in 

Gandvik. 
Mute  sat  the  listening  guests,    their   looks    firm    fixing    on 

the*old  man's 
Lips,  like  the  bee  on  its    rose;    but    the    Scald    thought, 

silent,  on  brage 
As,  with  silvery  beard  and  runes  on  his   tongue,    he    sits 

calmly 
Telling,  beneath  some  thick-spreading  beech-tree,  a  Saga  by 

mimer's 
Fount  whose  waves  ever  murmur,  himself  a  Saga  undying. 
Midst    on  the  straw-strewn  floor,  shot  the  fire-flame  cease- 
lessly upwards. 
Glad  in  its  stone-wall'd  hearth;    while    down   through  the 

wide-stretching  chimney 
Heav'nly  friends,    blue-twinkling  stars,    glanc'd   bright    on 

the  Hall-guests. 


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But ,  round  the  wall ,  on  nails  of  hard  steel ,    all  in    rows 

were  suspended 
Helmet  and  mail  alternate,  —  while  here  and  there  from 

among  them 
Lighten'd  a  sword,  as    in   Winter-ev'nings  a    shooting-star 

Hght'neth. 
Yet,    more   bright   than    or   helmet  or  sword,  in  the  Hall 

shone  the  war-shields. 
Clear  as  the  Sun's  bright  orb  or  the    pale    moon's  silvery 

surface. 
Went  there  at  times  a  fair  maid  round  the  board,  upfilling 

the  mead-horns,  — 
Blush'd  she  with  down-cast  eyne ,  —  in  the  mirrowing  shield 

her  image , 
Even  as  she,    blush'd    too;  —  how  it  gladded   the    deep- 
drinking  champions! 

Rich  was  the  House;  wherever  thou  lookedst,  still  met 

thy  gazings 
Close-fill'd  cellars,  and  crowded  presses,  and  well-victuall'd 

store-rooms. 
Many  a  jewel  there ,  too,  was  hidden,  the  booty  of  concjuest. 
Gold  carv'd  o'er  with  runes,  and  silver  artfully  graven. 
Three  things  yet,  among  all    this    wealth,    most   precious 

were  valued. 
First  of  the  three ,  that  sword  which    from   father    to    son 

went  an  heir-loom; 
AnguTvadel  the   brand   was    bight,    and    the    brother    of 

lightning. 
Forg'd  had  it  been  in  some  Eastern  land,    (saith  ancient 

tradition,) 
Harden'd  in  Dwarf-fires  red;    and  at  first  BJdRN   BLaTAND 

had  borne  it. 


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BJdRN,  nathless,  both  the  Sword  and  his  life  lost  soon  at 

one  venture,  — 
Southward    in  Groningasund ,    when  he  fought    gainst  the 

powerful  VIFELL. 
VIFKLL  had  but  one  son,  hight  viking.  —  Now,    old  and 

decrepid , 
Dwelt    there   at  UUeraker    a    King   with  a  fair- blooming 

daughter. 
Just  thereupon,  from  the  woods'  deep  shades,  came  a  grim* 

looking  Giant, 
Taller  by  far  than  other  men,    and  all  hairy  dnd  savage; 
Fierce  from  the' old  Chief,  then  he  combat  claims,  or  his 

daughter  and  kingdom^ 
None  could  accept  his  challenge,  for*  steel  was  not  in  the 

country 
Edg'd    that   it  bit  on  his    iron -hard  skull;    so   they  nam'd 

him  GRIM  IRON -head! 
VIKING  alone,  who  his  fifteenth  winter  newly  had  finished, 
Brav'd  the  wild  foe  —  on  his  Arm  and  Angurvadel  de* 

pending : 
Then,  at  one  blow,  he  the  foul  fiend  clave,  and  the  Fail* 

One  deliver  d. 
ViKiNG  to  tHORSTEN^  his  Son,  this  Falchion  gave ;  and  from 

THORSTEN 

Went  it  to  FRitHiOF,  his  heir;  when  in  wide  Hall  drawn — 

it  glitter'd 
Like  quick  lightning-flash  therethrough,  or  a  sky-streaming 

Northlight. 
Hammered  gold  was  the  hilt,    but  the  blade  was  covered 

with  runic s. 
Wonderful,    all  unknown  in  the  North,  but  known  at  the 

Sun's  Gates  — 


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There,  where  our  fathers  dwelt,  till  the*  ASAR  led  them  up 

hither. 
Dead-pale  flicker'd  those  runes,  when  blest  Peace  rul'd  in 

the  country; 
But,  should  HiLDUR  begin  Her  sport,    then  bum'd    ev'ry 

letter 
Red  as  the  comb  of  the  fighting- Cock i  quick  lost  was  that 

Hero 
Meeting  in  battle's  night  that  blade  high-flaming  with  runics. 
Widely  renown'd  was  this  Sword,    of  swords  most   choice 

in  the  Northland! 

Next    most   precious    in  price  was  an  Afmring,    all 
over  famous; 
Forg'd  by  the  halting  VAUlund  'twas,  the'old  North-Stoiy's 
VULCAN. 

Three  full  marks  weigh'd  the  Ring,  and  of  pure  gold  VAU- 
lund had  wrought  it. 

Heav'n  was  grav'd  thereupon,  with  the  twelve  iwoviORTALS* 
strong  castles  — 

Signs  of  the    changing  Months ,    but   the   Scald   had  Sun- 
Houses  nam'd  them. 

Alfhem   there    was   beheld,    frey's   Castle;    the  Sun  'tis 
who,  new-born, 

HeavVs  steep  heights  slow  'ginneth  to  climb,   uprising  at 
Yule-time. 

Soquabdch  also  was  there;  in  its  Hall  sat  ODEN  with  SAGA 

Drinking  his  wine  from  a  golden  bowl;  that  bowl  is  wide 
Ocean 

Tinted  with  gold  from   Morn's  red  beams;   but' SAGA  the 
Spring  is 

Trac'd  on  the-  green-blooming  plains  with  flow'rets,  'stead 
of  with  rune -marks. 


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fiAlD&R  WftS  aho  there  on  his  throne,    hot  Midsummers 

Stin,  which 
Down  from  the  firmament  pours  rich  beamings,  of  Good-' 

ness  the  token;  — 
For  in  all  Good  is  streaming  light,  but  Evil  is  darkness. 
Alway   to  tread,  tires  the  Sun  in  Her  course;  and  GOOD- 

♦  NESS  is  like  Her,   — 

Soon  turning  giddy  at  such  far  heights;  with  a  sigh  both, 

wearied. 
Sink  to  the  Land  of  the  Shades,  hel's  Home :  'tis  balder 

on  Death -Pile. 
There,  too,  saw  one  the  Peace-fort,  glitner,  where  FOR- 

set'  the'  Appeaser 
Balance  in   hand    grave    sat,  —  the'  Assize -and -Autumn 

Judge  faultless. 
These  fair  signs,  and  many  thereto  (Light's  conflicts  betoke- 
ning 
Far  o'er  the  sky's  arch'd  vault,    and  in   each  man's  breast 

when  he  museth) 
The'  Artist  had  carv'd  on  the  Ring,  while  a  splendid  firm- 
clasping  Ruby 
Crown'd  its  embracing  round  —  as  the  bright  Sun  crowneth 

her  Heaven. 
Long  this  Ring  had  an  heir-loom  been,  for  the  race  reach'd, 

backward , 
Though  by  the  Mother's  side,  great  VAULUND  reckon'd  its 

Founder. 
Yet  was  this  jewel  once  carried  off  by  SOTE,  the  Pirate, — 
Who,  o'er  the  North  Seas,  pillaging  rov'd ,   but  afterward 

vanish'd. 
Fame  gave  out,  at  the  last,  that  sOTE  had  buried  in  Bret^ 

land 


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Ship  and  rich  goods  and   live    Self  on    the  coast,   in  his 

wall'd-about  Barrow; 
But  no  rest  found  he  there,  and  his  Cairn  was  ceaselessly 

haunted. 
THORSTEN,    also,  that  rumour  had   heard  and  with  bele, 

his  friend-chief, 
Climb'd   his   good   Dragon -Ship,    salt  billows    clove    and 

steer'd  to  the  cairn  *  strand. 
Wide    as    a    Temple's    arch ,    or  some  Palace ,  firmly  im- 
bedded 
'Mong   hard  gravel    and    verdant    turf,    upheap'd   was    the 

Grave -mound. 
Light  from  its  depths  shone    out;    through  a  chink   of  the 

doorway  i^i- gazing » 
Saw    those   champions    the    Viking- ship    well-pitch'd  and 

well  fasten'd  — 
Anchors  and  yards  and  masts  still  secure ;  but  a  figure  all 

grisly 
High  on  the  stern  was  sitting,    a  blue -flame  mantle  about 

him. 
Dreadful    and  grim,    fierce- scour  d  he    the    blood- stain'd 

blade  he  had  wielded. 
Yet  could  not  its    stains  scour    aWay;    all  the  gold  he  had 

plundered 
Lay  heap'd  up  and  about;    himself  on  his   arm    bare   the 

Bracelet. 
'Now',   whisper'd  bele,   'We'll  straight  go  down  and  fight 

with  the  goblin, 
Two  against  one  Fire-spirit !  —  But  half-wroth  answer'd  him 

THORSTEN, 

'One  'gainst   one    was  the  use   of  our  Fathers;    alone  will 
I  fight  him!' 


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Long  was  it  now  contended,  which  of  the  two  should  en* 
counter 

First  that  pei'ilous  foe ;  till  at  last  took  bele  his  steel-helm. 

Shook  two  lots,  and  decided  the  quarrel.  Glimmering 
star-light 

Show'd  his  lot  to  brave  thorsten  again.  At  one  blow  of 
his  iron -lance 

Locks  and  strong  bolts  gave  way.  —  If  a  champion  ques- 
tion'd  him  ever 

What  in  that  night -gloomy  deep  he*d  seen  —  he  silent- 
ly shudder'd. 

Chauntings  wild  heard  bele  first,  most  like  to  a  Spell- 
song  ; 

Then  came  loud  -  clashing  sounds,  as  of  swords  cross'd 
fiercely  in  conflict; 

Lastly  a  horrible    scream.   —    Then  was   silence.  —    Out 

tOtter'd   THORSTEN 

Stagg'ring,  pale,  and  confus'd,  —  for  with  Death,  demon- 
Death,  had  he  battled. 

The'Armring  yet  grasp'd  he  tight;  —  *'Tis  dear-bought'  — 
often  observed  he ; 

*Once,  but  once,  in  my  life  Fve  trembled;  'twas  — when 
I  took  it!' 

Widely  renown'd  was  that  Gem,  of  gems  most  choice  in 
the  North- Land. 

Lastly;    the    swift -wing'd  ellida  rank'd  'mong  the  fa- 
mily-treasures. 
VIKING,  'twas  said,    as  he   homeward  return'd  from  a  far- 
stretching  foray. 
Sailing  along  his  coasts  one  day,  saw  a  man  on  a  shipwreck 
Who  yet  merrily   swung  up   and  down ,    as   sporting  with 
Ocean, 


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Tall  was  the   man,    and  nobly  form'd,   and  his  features 

were  open. 
Glad,  and  yet  changeable,  just  like  the  Sea  when  it  plays 

in  the  sunshine. 
Blue  was  his  Mantle;  of  gold  his  belt  set  about  with  red  corals ; 
White  like   to  wave -foam   flow'd  his  beard,   but  his  hair 

floated  sea-green. 
yiKiNG    right  to   the   spot  steers   his    Snail «   and  resques 

him  helpless; 
Home  to  his  Halls  then  led  he  him  shivVing,  and  feasted 

him  nobly. 
Yet,  when  his  Host  bade  him  sleep  in  peace,   light -smil- 
ing he  answer  d,  — 
*Fair  is  the  wind  and  my  Ship,  as  thou  saw*st,  is  not  to 

bo  slighted ; 
Full  this  night  some  hundreds  of  miles ,  hope  I  well  to  sail 

forward. 
Thanks,  nathless,  for  thine  offer;  'tis  well-meant;  —  would 

that  I  only 
Had  some  keepsake   to  give;   —   but  my  wealth  lies  deep 

'mong  the  sea -waves. 
Yet  on  the   shore   some  present,   perchance,   thou'lt  find 

in  the  morning.'  — 
There  by  day-break  was  viking,  when  lol  like  a  sea-eagle 

darting 
Fierce   on  his  prey  through    the    air,    flew  a  Dragon-  ship 

right  in  the  haven! 
None  on  board  could  be  seen ,  not  ev'n  could  a  steersman 

be  notic'd. 
Yet  trac'd  the  rudder  its  winding  path  'mong  the  cUffs  and 

sunk  shoal -rocks  — 
Just  as   some  Spirit  had   dwelt   therein.     As  it  near  d  the 

smooth  beech -sand 


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Reevd  of  itself  was  the  sail,  no  mortal  touching  the  canvass; 

Down  to  the  bottom,  too,  sank  the  hook*d  anchor,  Ocean's- 
sands  biting! 

Mute  stood  VIKING  and  gaz'd ;  —  but  then  sang  the  fresh- 
sporting  billows,  — 

•agir,  the  Rescued,  forgets  not  his  debt.  See!  he  gives 
thee  yon  Dragon!' 

Royal  the  present  was;  for  the 'oak-beams,  gen  tly-inb  ending, 

Join'd  were  not,  as  is  wont  in  a  ship,  —  but  had  grown 
altogether. 

Dragou-shap'd  it  lay  on  the  sea;  full  high  o'er  the  waters 

Rose  its  proud  head,  while  its  wide  throat  flam'd,  with 
red  gold  thickly  cover'd. 

Speckled  with  yellow  and  blue  was  the  belly;  but  back, 
towards  the  rudder, 

Curv'd  its  strong -knit  tail,  in  a  ring  all  scaly  with  silver. 

Black  were  its  wings,  with  edgings  of  gold;  when  each 
one  was  full-stretch'd  — 

Flew  She  with  th'  whistling  Storm  for  a  wager;  —  but 
the'  eagle  came  after!  — 

Saw'st  thou  the  vessel,  with  arm'd  men  fiird  —  thou 
straightway  had'st  fancied 

Some  King's  City  was  floating  past,  or  some  quick- swim- 
ming fortress. ' 

Widely  renown'd  was  this  Ship,  of  ships  most  choice  in  the 
Northland!  — 

These,  and  yet  more  thereto,    young  frithiof  heir'd 

from  his  Father. 
Scarce  through  the  North   was  there  found  an  Inheritance 

richer  or  larger. 
Kings'  Sons'  only  excepted,  —  for  Kings  are  still  the  most 

mighty. 


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Yet,   though  not  a  King's  Son,  was  his  Temper  kingly  by 

nature  — 
Friendly,  and  noble,  and  gentle;  thus  daily  grew  he  more 

famous. 
Champions  twelve,  too,  had  he — grey-hair'd,  and  princes 

in  exploits  — 
Comrades  his  Father  had  lov'd,  steel-breasted  and  scarr*d 

o*er  the  forehead. 
Last  on  the  Champions'  bench,  equal-ag'd  with  FRITHIOF, 

a  stripling 
Sat,  like  a  rose  among  wither'd  leaves;  BJdRN,  call'd  they 

the  Hero  — 
Glad  as  a  child,    but   firm  like    a  man,    and   yet  wise  as 

a  grey -beard  I 
Up  with  FRITHIOF    he'd   grown;    they  had  mingled  blood 

.with  each  other. 
Foster-brothers    in   Northman    wise;     and  they   swore    to 

continue 
Steadfast  in  weal  and  woe ,  each  other  revenging  in  battle. 
Now  'mong  his  Champions  and  crowding  Guests  who  had 

come  to  the  Grave -Feast  • — 
FJIITHIOF,    a  sorrowful  host,    (his   eyes  full  of  fast -falling 

tear  -  drops) 
Drank,  as  his  Sires  had  before,  —  'to  his  Father's  mem'ry' — ; 

and  thoughtful 
Lists  to  the  Song  of  the  Scalds  in  his  praise  —  their  loud- 

thund'ring  Drapa. 
Then  to  his  Father's  Seat,  now  his  own,  stepp'd  he  boldly, 

and  sat  him 
Down  'mid   its    ODEN   and   frey;  —   that   is    tHOR's  own 

place  up  in  valhall  ! 


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4. 


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CANTO  IV. 


fvUhiots  €0uvi$hip, 


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Argument. 

There  is  an  abrupt  though  harmoDious  sentcntiousness  id 
this  Canto,  exceedingly  well  adapted  to  the  gloomy  and  forebo- 
ding incidents  it  describes. 

FRiTHiOF  is  love -sick.  He  invites  the  brother -kings  to  his 
Halls,  hoping  that  'their  Sister  the  fair'  vf^ill  not  be  left  behind. 
—  Nor  is  he  disappointed;  but  the  meeting  is  short,  and  he  is 
again  left  to  loneliness  and  despair.  The  Courier -dove  which 
he  sends  returns  not,  and  —  roused  from  his  dreamy  inaction 
by  the  reproaches  of  bj6rn  —  he  casts  ofiF  the  moorings  of 
ELLiDA^  and  sweeps  over  the  firth  to  the  Courts  of  tte  Princes. 
He  ehanees  to  find  them  dlstnlmting  justice  to  the  People,  and 
embraces  the  opportunity  to  declare  his  passion  for  ingeborg, 
and  to  demand  her  hand. 

HELGE,  with  many  biting  taunts,  insultingly  refuses  her  — 
whereupon  the  bold  Suitor,  in  a  tempest  of  ungovernable  but 
noble  indignation ,  cleaves  in  two  the  Shield  instead  of  the  skull 
of  the  royal  tyrant,  and 

'Homeward  returneth  o'er  dark -blue  waters.' 
The  two  last  lines  of  every  stanza  end  in  feminine  rhymes 
in  the  Original. 


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CANTO  IV. 


JfvitftioV»  Cotirt0|^tp. 


Xiight  well  peals  the  Song  in  the  Chieftain's  Hall, 
And  Scalds  the  high  deeds  of  his  Sires  recall : 
But  that  Song  cheereth 
Not  FRITHIOF;   he  heeds  not  the  Scald  nor  heareth! 

n. 

And  the'Earth  is  once  more  clad  in  waving  green. 
O'er  the  Seas  Dragons  swimming  again  are  seen;  — 
But  War's  Son  wanders 

Thro'  deep  woods,  and  sad  on  the  pale  Moon  ponders. 

in. 

Yet  late  was  he  happy  —  so  ha*ppy,  so  glad  — 
For  cheerful  King  HAX.FDAN  as  guest  he  had. 
And  HELGE  glooming,  — 

And  with  them  their  Sister  brought  they,  the  blooming. 

IV. 

He  sat  by  her  side,  gently  pressing  Her  hand,  — 
A  pressure  at  times  felt  he  back,  warm  and  bland ;  — 
And  still,  enchanted. 
Saw  features  so  dear,  so  noble,  so  vaunted  1 


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Of  those  joyous  days  spoke  they  long,  with  delight. 
When  Morning's  fresh  dews  still  on  life  glitter  d  bright ; 
Ere  Childhood  closes 

On  scenes,  in  high  souls,  still  fresh  like  group'd  roses. 

VI. 

She  playful  salutes  Him  from  dale  and  from  park. 
From  the  names  which  grew  on  the  birch-tree's  bark. 
And  thence  where  flourish 
(On  the  green  hill  planted)  the'oaks  Heroes  nourish. 

vn. 

*Over- pleasant  the  Palace  now  scarce  could  appear. 
For  HALFDAN  was  childish,  ajxd  HEiiQE:  severe;  -^ 
Those  two  kingly  heirs 
They  listen  to  nothing  but  praises  and  pray'rs. 

vni. 

*  And  Friend  found  she  none  (here  she  blush'dlike  a  rose). 
With  whom  her  sad  heart  could  its  plaints  repose; 
The  King's  Halls  compare 

To  hilding's  free  vallies ,  —  how  stifling  they  were  ! 

IX. 

'And  the  Doves  «hey  had  tam'd  and  fed  day  by  day 
Had  fled,  frighten'd  off  by  the  hawk,  far  away;   — 
All  are  bereft  me, 

But  one  pair  alone ;  —  take  one  of  those  left  me ! 

X. 

*Home,  doubtless,  again  the  sweet  bird  will  fly,  — 
Sure  longs  she,  like  others,  her  Friend  to  be  nigh; 
Runes  kindly  tender 
Bind  fast  'neath  her  wing;  none  marketh  the  Sender.'' 


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XI. 

So  sat  tliey,  close  whisp'ring  tbe  whole  day  through. 
Still  whisp  ring  as  close  when  towards  Ev'ning  it  grew; 
When  Spring's  day  dieth  — 

So,  whisper  d  'mong  green  Limes,  its  soft  hreath  sigheth. 
xn. 

But  now  is  She  absent;  and  frithiof's  light  heart 
Is  absent  with  Her;  —  His  young  blood,  at  the  smart. 
Mounts  quick  to  his  cheeks. 

And  he  bums  —  and  sighs  alway  —  and  never  speaks, 
xin. 

His  sorrow,  his  grievings,  he  wrote  by  the  Dove, 
And  glad  sped  she  off  with  the  letter  of  love ;  — 
Alas!  she  never 

Came  back;  from  her  Mate  she  would  not  sever. 
XIV. 

But  BJoRN  was  notpleas'd  with  such  trifling  as  this;  — 
'What  is  there*,  cried  he,  *our  young  Eagle  amiss?  — 
So  silent,  so  tam*d  -*- 

Has  its  breast  been  pi erc*d  through,  or  its  strong  wing 

lam'd? 
XV. 

'^Vhat  wilt  thou? — For  have  we  not  more  than  we  need 
Of  rich  yellow  bacon ,  and  brown  -  foaming  mead  ? 
And  Bards,  too,  many 

Drawl  rhymes  night  and    day,  if  thoii  lackest  any.  — 

XVI. 

"Tis  true  —  thy  good  Courser  paws  fierce  in  his  stalls  — 
And  for  prey,  for  his  prey,  screams  the  Falcon's  wild  call, 
But  FRITHIOF  getteth 
Up  cloudward  to  hunt,  and  sad- pining  fretteth- 


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xvn. 

'ELLroA,  too,  now  has  no  sport  on  the  sea; 
How  ceaseless  her  cable  she  jerks  to  get  free.  — 
ellida!  still  thee; 

FRITHIOF,  the  peaceful,  no  war- sport  will  thee! 
xvm. 

*Who  dies  in  his  bed  also  dies;  ere  'tis  past,  — 
My  good  spear,  like  oden's,  shall  carve  me  at  last. 
That  cannot  fail  us; 

HELA,  the  blue -white,  will  welcome  and  hail  us!'  — 
xni. 

Then  frithiof  his  Dragon's  tight  moorings  set  free. 

And  the  sails  fill'd  fast,  loud  snorted  the  sea: 

Right  over  the  bay. 

To  the  King's  Sons  steer'd  He  his  course  through  the 

spray. 
xx, 

On  bele's  Cairn  sitting  the  Kings  he  saw. 
Their  People  they  hear'd  and  judg'd  after  law; 
But  FRITHIOF  speaks  out 

With  voice  that  is  heard  hills  and  dales  round  about: 
XXI. 

*Fair  ing'bORG  ,  ye  Kings  I  right  dear  is  to  me ! 
I  ask  her  now  from  you,  my  own  Bride  to  be. 
For  doubtless,  bele. 

Our  long- foreseen  union  had  sanction'd  freely. 
xxn. 

*He  let  us  grow  calmly  in  hilding's  grove,    . 

Like  young  trees  up-shooting  together  above ; 

And  Love's  freja  bound 

Their  tops,  with  gold  twine  rich-encircling  them  round. 


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xxm. 

*No  King  was  my  Sire,    not  a  Jarl,  eVn  —  'tis  true; 
Yet  Scald-songs  his  mem'ry  and  exploits  renew; 
The  Rune -stones  will  tell 

On  high-vaulted  Cairn  what  my  Race  hath  done  well. 
XXIV, 

*With  ease  could  I  win  me  both  empire  and  land;  — 
But  rather  I  stay  on  my  Forefathers'  strand; 
While  arms  I  can  wield  — 

Both  Poverty's  hut  and  King's  Palace  I'll  shield. 
XXV* 

*0n  BEUa's  round  Barrow  we  stand;  each  word 
In  the  dark  deeps  beneath  us  he  hears  and  has  heard; 
With  FRITHIOF  pleadeth 

The'  old  Chief  in  his  Cairn:  think!  your  answer  thought 

needeth!'  — 
XXVI. 

Then  HKLGE  rose  up,  and  right  scornful  begun;  — 

*Our  Sister  is  not  for  a  Peasant's  Son: 

Proud  North-Land  Chiefs  shall 

Dispute,  but  not  thou,  for  the  Daughter  of  Valhall. 

xxvn, 
*Boast  on,  that  the  Northmen  their  Hero  thee  style,  — 
With  hand-strength  win  men,  with  words  women  beguile: 
But  blood  ODEN- sprung 
I  never  can  give  to  an  arrogant  tongue  I 

XXVIII. 

*My  Kingdom  requires  not  thy  service ;  I  can 
Protect  it  myself.  —  Wouldst  thou  yet  be  my  man, 
A  place  I  proffer 
'Mong  those  of  my  Household,  —  such  can  I  offer  I'  — 


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XXESt 

*ril  scarcely  be  thy  man';  was  frithiof's  i*eply.  -^ 
*Like  my  Father,   a  man  for  myself  am  I; 
From  thy  silver  slide 

Fly!  angurvadel!  not  a  breath  may*st  thou  bide!'  — 
XXX. 

The  falchion's  blue  steel  in  the  Sun  bright  glanc'd. 
And  redly  the  runes  on  that  flame-blade  danc'd*  — 
*Thou,    ANGURVADEL, 

Thou  at  least',  said  frithiof,  'art  high-born  and  noble. 
XXXI. 

*And,  but  for  the  peace  this  Barrow  should  crown. 
On  the  sp6t  Fd  hew  thee,' Swarthy -King,  down! 
But  dear  'twill  jcost  thee, 
r    Hereafter^*  to()  near  my  good  sword  to   trust  tlieel'  — 

XXXII, 

This^said,  at  one  blow  clove  his  Battle-brand  keen 
Grim  helge's  gold  War-shield,  as't  hung  on  the  green  ; 
Its  halves  straight  follow. 

Clashing  the  C^irn;  -^  that*  crash    downwards  sounds 

>  hollow. 

X3DXIII. 

*  Well  struck !  my  good  blade  !  Lie  thou  there  now,  and 

dream 
Of  exploits  more  noble.  —  Till  then  hide  the  gleam 
Of  rune-mark'd  slaughter; 
.  Now  Home-ward  we'll  sail  o*er  the  dark-blue  water !'  — 


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Eitt0  l^itfj). 


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jirgument. 

How  rich  the  calm  repose  flung  over  the  picture  with  which 
this  Canto  opens!  —  And  ring,  the  wise 

'King  of  a  land  like  the   groves  of  the  Gods', 
RING  the  chief  venerable  for  his  years  and   his  virtues,  —  in 
how  few   words  does  the  genius  of  the   Poet  give  him   pos- 
session of  our  hearts! 

This  aged  Prince,  who  fans  lost  his  Partner  and  wishes 
to  give  ^a  Mother  to  his  Country  and  his  Children',  hears  the 
fame  of  ingeborg,  that  'slender  1tfy*,  and  requests  her  from  the 
Brothers  as  his  bride,  helge,  the  cruel  Priest -bigot,  consults 
entrails  and  tokens  instead  of  J^ature  and  his  Land,  and  gives 
a  decided  no!  This  refusal  h  renBerod  (itiU  more  galling  by 
an  impertinent  jest  of  the  giddy  hal'fdan,  —  and  the  indignant 
old  Monarch  prepares  for  war. 

ingeborg,  the  unconsulted  plaything  of  policy  and  super- 
stition, is  sent  for  shelter  and  security,  to  b alder's  Sanctuary, 
where  she  sits  'weeping  her  bosom  full.'  'It  is',  adds  the  Bard, 
'dew  sprinkling  -  o'er  the  lily!' 

In  the  Original,  feminine  rhymes  close  the  secqnd  and  last 
lines  of  every  verse. 


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CANTO  V. 


mm  ^ina. 


I. 

Jving  KING  he  push'd  back  his  gold  chair  from  the  board. 

And  his  Champions  rise 
And  Scalds ,  and  would  hear  from  the  North's  fam'd  Lord 
His  kingly  word;  — 

Gentle  was  he  as  baldbr,  as  himer  wise! 

n. 

Like  the  Gods'  own  groves,  heard  his  Land  no  alarm; 

Peace  -  shadow'd  reposes , 
Profaned  by  no  arms,  its  green -wood  so  calm,   — 
And  hedg'd  from  harm 

Fresh  flourish'd  the  grass,  their  sweets  shed  the  roses. 

in. 

All  alone  justice  sat,  at  once  mild  and  severe. 

On  his  Seat  of  Dooming; 
And  Peace  paid  willing  its  debt  ev'ry  year; 
And  far  and  near, 

Bright-wav'd  in  the    Sunshine,   gold   com -crops   were 

blooming. 


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IV. 

The  Snails,  too,  came  swimming,  with  breasts  of  black 

And  wings  stretch'd  whitely. 
From  a  hundred  coasts,  —  and  from  each  far  track 
Wealth  brought  they  back 

Various  and  wondrous,  as  wealth  summons  lightly. 

V. 

And  Peace  in  his  domains  and  Liberty  dwell 

United  and  glad; 
And  all  lov'd  their  Country's  Father  well,  — 
Though  each  would  tell 

At  the  Diet,  unfetter d,  what  thoughts  he  had. 

VI. 

Thus  peaceful  and  blest  he  his  Northern  throne  fills 

For  winters  thrice  ten; 
And  none  ever  angry  went  home  to  his  hills,  — * 
And  nightly  thrills 

ODEN*s  Hall  with  his  People's  benison. 

Til. 

And  King  RING  he  push'd  back  his  gold  chair  from  the  board. 

And  glad  uptread 
All  his  Chiefs,  and  would  hear  from  the  North's  fam'd  Lord 
His  kingly  word;  — 

But  deeply  he  sigh'd,  and  then  spoke  and  said: 

VIII. 

*In  folkvang's  Bow'rs  sits  my  Queen,  I  know. 

On  purple  cov'ring. 
But  here  o'er  her  dust  verdant  grasses  grow. 
And,  by  the  flow 

Of  the  stream  round  her  Grave-mound,  flow'r- sweets 

are  hov'ring. 


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rx. 

'No  Qaeea  shall  I  find  so  good  and  so  fair. 

My  Kingdom's  glory; 
VALHALl's  rewards  *mong  the  Gods  she  will  share;  — 
But  my  Country's  pray'r 

And  my  Babes',  for  a  Mother  implore  me. 

'King  BELE  right  oft  came  up  to  my  Hall, 

With  Summer's  breezes; 
Gn  the  daughter  he's  left  my  choice  doth  fall,  — 
That  Lily  tall 

And    slender,    whose    cheek   still   with   Mom's   blush 

pleases ! 
XI, 

*'Tis  true  that  she's  young;  and  girlhood,  I  know. 

Sweet  flow'rs  most  weareth; 
While  I'm  in  toy  sear  leaf,  and  winters  strow 
E'en  now  their  snow 

On  the  thin-scatter'd  locks  the  King  beareth. 
xn.. 

'But,  —  can  She  an  upright  true  man  love. 

Nor  his  white  hairs  reckon , 
And  to  those  dear  infants  a  Mother  prove 
Whose  own's  above,  — 

To  his  throne  Autumn  then  the  Spring  will  beckon! 
xin. 

*Take  gold  from  the  vault-rooms,  take  gems  for  the  Bride, 

From  yon  strong  oak -presses; 
And    follow,  ye  Minstrels ,  with  harpings  of  pride :  — 
For  festive  tide,. 

And  wooing- hour,  brage  still  blesses!' 


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54 

XIV. 

Then  out  went  the  youths  with  glad  tumult  away. 

With  gold  and  with  prayVs, 
And  next  came  the  Harpers  in  long  array 
With  chauntings  gay. 

And  stood  before  bele's  Royal  heirs. 

XT. 

Days  two,  ay!  days  three,  were  in  wassail  spent,  — 

The  fourth  not  endeth 
Ere  to  HELGE  they  all ,  on  quick  answer  bent , 
Rose  up  and  went,  — 

For  each^  longing  glances  now  homeward  sendeth. 
XVI. 

Both  falchion  and  horse  offers  HELGE  the  King 

r  th'  Grove  leaf-laden  — 
VALA  and  pale  priest  questioning. 
What  best  might  bring 

Happy  fates  to  his  Sister ,  that  fair  young  maiden ! 
xvn. 

But  the  Lungs,  and  the  Priest,  and  the  VALA  show 

That  it  may  not  be;  — 
Then,  scar'd  by  the  sign,     HELGE  bad  them  go 
With  changeless  no! 

For  Man  must  obey,  when  the  Gods  decree, 
xvm. 

But  waggish  King  halfdan  he  said  with  a  smile, 

'Farewell  to  the  feast; 
King  Grey -beard  himself  should  have  ridden  a  mile,  — 
Myself,  the  while. 

Would   the    good   old  man  gladly  have  holp    on  his 

beast!* 


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XIX. 

Then  wroth  go  the*  Envoys  with  helge's  reply. 

Nor  forget  the  story 
Of  halfdan's  insult:  —  ring  answers  them,  dry, 
*We  soon  shall  try 

King  Grey- beard's  revenge  for  his  glory!'  — 

XX. 

His  War -shield  he  struck,  as  it  hung  o'er  his  head 

On  th'  high-stemm'd  Lind:  — 
Then  swift  o'er  the  billows  Dragons  tread 
With  combs  blood -red. 

And  helmets  fierce  nod  in  the  rushing  wind. 

XXI. 

And  the  message  of  war  to  King  helge  flew. 

Who  mutter'd  grimly,  — 
*Hard  fight  shall  we  have,  for  ring's  men  are  not  few; 
But  shelter  due 

My  Sister  shall  find  where  BALDER  stands  dimly.' 
xxn. 

All  pale  sits  the  Loving -one  there,  full  of  woe. 

On  the  blest  dais  stilly; 
She  broiders  in  silk  and  in  gold  also. 
And  tears  o'erflow 

Her  white -heav'd  bosom,  —  dews  so  drench  the  lily! 


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CANTO  TL 


/Htliitff  at  €h6S0, 


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ArgumenU 

In  this  fresh  and  spirited  Chanson,  hildii^g,  who  is  de- 
scribed as  coming  on  the  errand  of  the  Princes,  finds  frithiof 
and  his  Foster-Brother  at  Chess.  To  his  propositions  and  obser- 
vations he  gets  only  dubious  and  emblematic  answers ,  such  as 
can  apply  bo^  to  th&  game  aUd  to  himseK 

At  last,  as  he  is  about  indignantly  to  depart,  frithiof  in- 
forms him,  in  plain  terms,  that  the  Kings  who  have  insulted 
him  may  help  themselves.  Hereupon,  his  Fosterfather  retires, 
—  hoping  that  oden  will  ^guide  every  thing  to  the  best!' 


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FRITHIQF    AT     CHFu'iS. 


Vbi4ce. 


Iti  axtof  o  ric . 


-Areio^/r €^MrU'  ^v^en^i^  iffiafyfKy^T  ^c/*^fha4f,.J^/f'  an    ^'^K.e7  .r^r/«T7^*4»-i^i*<r/? 


f//ti^^4S/^.A^c  on.    tfoZe^./Ar    ^^r^^^/ert/r  4f>f.    J^cn   ceep/tr.XT/iJf.IJiTi^   'f/n*'^  /^.' 


^/^•fet!c^  ^irrnrfiUkc^  SF^jU^fj^    rrrai^  At-  ^-ftr/.  aO^,-  jDrttthYAofA^/'n  Jhfr^/.M>i^~afA  . 


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CANTO  VI. 


Jfvitbiot  at  C^tfttm. 


I. 

lijdRN  and  frithiof,  both  contending. 
O'er  their  splendid  board  were  bending; 
Now  on  silver  squares  thick  gather. 

Now  on  gold,  the  struggling  foes: 

Then  came  HILDING,  gladly  greeted,  — 
•Welcome!  the  High -Chair  waits;  be  seated! 
Drain  thy  Horn,  kind  Foster-Falher, 

Let  our  doubtful  contest  close !  *  «— 
u. 

*bele's  Sons,'  quoth  helding,  *send  me; 
Arm'd  with  pray'rs,  to  thee  I  wend  me. 
Evil  tidings  round  them  hover, 

AU  the  land  on  Thee  relies'.  — 

Answers  frithiof:  • —  *bjorn,  in  danger 
Stands  thy  King!  beware  the  stranger; 
Yet  a  Pawn  can  all  recover,  — 

Pawns  were  made  for  sacrifice ! '  — 
m. 

•frithiof,  anger  not  the  Kings  so; 
Strong,  remember.  Eaglets'  wings  grow. 
Forces  ring  full  well  despises 

Conquer  yet,  oppos'd  to  thine.'  — 


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'BJciRN,  the  foe  my  Castle  craveth! 
But  the'  attack  with  ease  it  braveth; 

Grim  and  high  the  fierce  wall  rises. 

Bright  the  Shield- tow'r  shines   within!'  - 
IV. 
*ing'borg  wastes  the  day  in  weeping,  — 
Sad,  tho'  in  bALDEr's  sacred  keeping; 

Tempts  not  war  for  Her  release ,  and 

Mourn  unheeded  Her  blue  een?'  — 

*bj5RN;  thou'  in  vain  my  Queen  pursuest. 
She  from  childhood  dearest,  truest! 

She's  my  Game's  most  darling  Piece ,  and 

Gome  what  will  —  I'll  save  my  Queen  !'- 
V. 
*What!  not  ev'n  reply  conceded?  — 
frithiof,  go  T  thus  unheeded? 

Till  that  Child's-play  yonder  endeth 
Must  my  suit  unheard  remain?'  — 

FRITHIOF  rose,  and  as  he'  addresses 
The'  old  man  —  kind  his  hand  he  presses;  — 
'Father!  nought  my  firm  soul  bendeth. 

Thou  hast  heard,  yet  hear  again:  — 
VI. 
'Yes!  my  words  take  back  unvamish'd,  — 
Deeply  they've  my  honour  tarnish'd; 

No  strong  ties  to  them  unite  me. 
Never  will  I  be  their  man ! '  -^ 

'Well,  in  thine  own  path  thou  goest; 
I  blame  not  the  rage  thou  showest: 

All  for  the  best  guide  oden  rightly!'  — 
So  old  hilding's  answer  ran. 


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k     ^^^^mm 


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CANTO  VII. 


friikiofs  Miss, 


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Argument. 

With  a  glowing  pencil,  ^'dipped  in  the  sun-beams'\  and 
whose  rich  wannth  and  tender  elegance  remind  us  of.  Poets  - — 
Household-Gods,  in  the  South,  —  tegner,  in  his  Vlltth  Canto, 
rapidly  describes  the  pains  and  pleasures  of  the  two  young  Lov- 
ers' forbidden  meeting  within  the  walls  of  the  White  God's 
Temple. 

As  the  Night  disappears,  however,  they  must  part,  fri- 
THiOF  and  his  Beloved  first  kneel  before  the  Altar  of  the  Divi- 
nity, and  with  a  fervent  eloquence  he  plights  his  troth  to  King 
bele's  Daughter.  Then,  printing  a  burning  kiss  upon  her  brow 
and  lips,  he  bids  her  'sleep  and  dream  of  him',  and  goes. 

This  Canto  is  pre-eminently  distinguished  in  the  Original 
for  purity,  softness,  and  melody  of  language. 


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rmiHlOFS    BLISS. 


oTOr . 


/^r/^J^/iJ*^J\f**^irtri^yt/i'^f^i^^y  -x^fx^^.f^fv  F}*t/^f*  rffe^^^    aSib^^j^w^ 


|*l*j  J|J  Jy  J^  Jj    j  I    ^iPi 


.ru^'atY^rr^fri' .rAi'e^a^ ;       JTT'n^^(^f^^^  ^Ttex^/  -wri!^  'yiAZfDJ^/t  t^^n^-^^»y 


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teJfeB%L^-^iif'   ,ff»ir|i|l-l'[3ll 


7,'r>      a//'^i:/ 'I'^^'^'^^i, /^fj^/^rr/^^y/ii'7^-,    Zr  cc/i^'7/?^y  zc'^rZ^ mt/' ^a^<^~ 


SW^Tn  \f^^^:"'''^\^\M 


m 


it 


#^ 


^ 


P 


^ 


j.f/i;;ir'  g-i  ''u  .1 '  1  mii   ; 


i^^m 


^a 


^s 


s 


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CANTO  vn- 


I. 

JLet  bele's  Sons  at  pleasure  wander 

From  dale  to  dale  for  sword  and  shield; 
Mine  get  they  not,  with  BALDER  yonder 

Is  all  my  world,  my  battle-field. 
Proud  Kings'  revenge,  —  the  wide  Earth's  sadness, 

I  there  will  not  look  back  upon. 
But  only  drink  the  Gods'  own  gladness  — 
With  ing'borg  in  sweet  union! 

n. 

'Long  as  day's  purple  beam  abideth 

Which,  warm,  the  Sun  on  flow'ret  show'rs,  — 
That  rose-stain'd  gauze -web  like  which  hideth 

My  ing'borg's  bosom,  world  of  flowrs;  — 
Gonsum'd  by  longings  fierce,  undying. 

So  long  I  stray  upon  the  strand  — 
And  with  my  sharp  sword  write,  deep -sighing, 

That  Lov'd  one's  name  upon  its  sand. 

m. 

'How  ling'ring  go  the  tedious  moments! 

Thou  delling's  Son,  why  dronest  thou? 
Thou  sure  hast  seen  the  groves  and  mountains. 

The  sounds  and  islands,  long  ere  now! 


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64 

In  Western  halls  dwells  no  fond  maiden 

Who ,  long  since ,  wal^s  thy  dawn  above ,  — 

And  then  9  to  thy  young  breast  flies  5  laden 
Still  first  still  last  with  tales  of  love? 

IV. 

*At  length,  thy  toilsome  route  is  over. 

Thou  sinke&t  to  thine  ocean -bed; 
And  Eve,  the  Gods'  glad  sports  to  cover. 

Draws  round  her  curtains  rosy -red. 
Earth's  streams  Love  whisper  to  each  other, 

Heav'ns  breezes  whisper  Love*s  caress; 
Hail!  welcome!  NIGHT,  the  Gods'  own  Mother, 

With  pearls  upon  thy  bridal  dress. 

V. 

*Those  high  cold  Stars,  how  stilly  glide  they. 

Fond  lover  like  on  silent  toe ! 
ELLIDA!  fly  o'er  frith  and  tide -way. 

Shoot  on!  blue  billow,  —  faster  go! 
The  White  God's  grove-land  yonder  bloometh. 

To  the  good  Gods  our  course  is  bound; 
And  'neath  there,  balder's  Temple  gloometh. 

Love's  Goddess  shelter'd  in  its  round. 

VI. 

'How  blest  I  now  the  shore  am  treading!  -*■ 

I  glad  could  kiss  thee.  Earth!  —  and  you. 
Small  Flow'rs,  the  crook'd  path  quaintly  threading 

With  white  and  red  —  Td  glad  kiss  too ! 
Thou  Moon,  who  thus  thy  light -floods  streamest 

Round  grove  and  temple ,   cairn  and  tomb , 
How  fair  thou  sittest  there  and  dreamest. 

Like  SAGA  in  a  marriage -room! 


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65 


vn. 

^y  feelings*  voice,  sweet  Brook,  who  taught  thee, 

As  with  those  flow*rs  thou  whisp'rest  low? 
And,  Northland's  Nightingales,  who  brought  ye,  — 

Stol'n  from  my  breast,  —  that  plaintive  woe? 
See!  Fairies  paint  with  Ev*ning's  blushes 

My  ing'borg's  shape  on  sky- cloth  blue;  — 
But  envious  freja  forward  rushes. 

And  far  hence  blows  each  beauteous  hue. 
vni. 
*But  fade,  and  welcome,  airy  semblance! 

Here  comes  Herself,  than  Hope  more  fair. 
And  faithful  as  is  Youth's  remembrance; 

She  comes  —  and  Love  rewards  my  pray'r! 
Gome,  dearest!  Let  these  arms  enclose  thee!  — 

Come  to  this  heart,  with  Love  on  fire; 
Come  to  my  breast,  and  there  repose  thee. 

My  Life's  bright  star  —  my  Soul's  desire! 

IX. 
*Like  lily-stalk  thy  frame  is  slender. 

Yet  like  ripe  rose-bud  full  and  free; 
As  th'  Gods'  high  will  Thou'rt' pure ;  yet  tender 

And  warm  as  freja's  thought  to  be! 
My  Fair-One,  kiss  me!  Let  my  passion 

Light  kindred  flamings  in  thy  soul;  — 
Ah!  at  that  kiss,  the  round  Earth's  fashion 

Has  gone,  yon  Heav'n's  fires  cease  to  roll! 

X. 
•Nay,  Love!  No  perils  here  attend  us! 

BJORN  and  his  Champions,  all  in  arms. 
Stand  there  below,  and  would  defend  us. 

If  need  were,  'gainst  a  world's  alarms; 


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Myself,  how  gladly  —  thy  defender  — 
rd  fight  as  now  I  clasp  thee  here; 

How  bless'd,  bright  valhall  would  I  enter,  — 
If  Thou  wert  my  valkyria! 

Thou  whisprest  ^balder',  —  His  wrath  fearest;  — 

That  gentle  God  all  anger  flies. 
We  worship  here  a  Lover,  dearest! 

Our  hearts'  love  is  his  sacrifice; 
That  God  whose  brow  beams  sunshine-splendour. 

Whose  faith  lasts  through  Eternity ,  — 
Was  not  his  love  to  beauteous  NANNA 

As  pure,  as  warm,  as  mine  to  thee? 
XII. 

*His  Image  see !  --»  Himself  broods  o*er  it  — 

How  mild,  how  kind,  his  bright  eyes  move! 
An  oflTring  bear  I  here  before  it, 

A  warm  heart  full  of  purest  love. 
Come,  kneel  with  me!  no  altar -incense 

To  balder's  soul  more  grateful  is 
Than  two  hearts,  vowing  in  his  presence 

A*mutual  faith  as  true  as  His! 
xm. 

*To  that  far  Heav'n  my  Love  belongeth 

More  than  this  Earth;  —  receive  it  then; 
In  Heav'n  'twas  nurtur'd,  and  it  longeth 

To  reach  its  starry  home  again. 
How  bless'd  were  he,  already  yonder! 

How  bless'd  who  now  with  thee  could  die,  — 
And,  conqu'ring,  'mong  the  Gods  could  wander. 

Embracing  his  pale  Maid  on  high! 


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XIV. 

*Then,  when,  from  silver  gates  outriding. 

Its  champions  rush'd  to  War's  fierce  glee,  — 
Still  at  thy  friendly  side  abiding 

Should  I  be  found,  still  gaze  on  Thee! 
Did  valhall's  blushing  maids  round -proffer 

The  Mead -Horns,  rich  with  foam  of  gold,  — 
I  Thee  alone  would  pledge.  Thee  offer 

In  gentle  whispers  love  untold. 

XV. 
'A  leaf-deck'd  BowV  I  there  would  build  us. 

Near  some  bold  headland's  dark -blue  bay; 
The  deep  grove's  verdant  shades  would  shield  us, 

That  grove  whose  gold -fruit  blooms  for  ayel 
When  VALHALl's  Sun  flam'd  up  again  (and  — ' 

How  dear,  how  lord -like  is  its  glow!) 
Back  to  the  Gods  returned  we  then,  and  — 

Yet  long*d  we  home  again  to  go! 
XVI. 
*Yes!  there  Fd  crov^rn  with  stars  far -glancing 

Thy  brow  and  locks  of  waving  light ; 
In  vingolf's  Hall  I'd  lead  thee  dancing, 

Till  rose  -  red  blush'd  my  lily  white ! 
Then,  from  the  mazy  course  I  led  thee 

To  Love's  and  Peace's  blissful  bow*r. 
Where  silver -bearded  BRAGE'd  wed  thee  -^ 

With  bride -songs  new  each  Eve's  soft  hour. 
xvn. 
*How,  through  the  grove,  the  Quail  is  screaming  I 

That  song  is  from  valhalla's  strand. 
How,  o'er  the  sound,  the  Moon  is  gleaming! 

He  shines  from  out  the  Spirits'  land. 


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That  song,  that  light,  both  herald  truthful 

A  world  of  love  from  sorrow  free ; 
Ah !  fain  I'd  see  that  world  so  youthful  — 

With  Thee,  my  ingeborg,  with  thee  I 
xvni. 

*Nay,  weep  not!  Life  as  yet  red  streameth 

Through  these  full  veins.     O !  weep  no  more. 
The  dreams  that  Love  and  proud  Youth  dreameth 

So  soon  from  Earth  up  Heav'n-ward  soar. 
Should  once  half  op'd  those  pretty  arms  be. 

Once  hither  turn'd  those  loving  eyes,  — 
Entranc'd  no  more,  my  Maid  quick  charms  me 

Back  from  the  glories  of  the  skies  !'---- 

xrx.. 
*The  Lark;  hush!'  —  *No!  those  light -trill'd  numbers 

Some  cooing  Dove's  fond  faith  exprest; 
In  grassy  tuft  the  Lark  still  slumbers 

Close  by  its  mate,  in  soft  warm  nest. 
They,  happy  they!  can  love  united 

At  dawning  as  at  closing  day; 
Through  Heav'n's  wide  space  they  soar  delighted,  — 

Not  freer,  the  wings  that  cleave  their  way.'  -  -  -  - 

*See!  that's  the  dawn  there!'  —  *No!  dim- streaming 

Some  beacon's  flame  illumes  yon  East. 
We  yet  can  speak  our  hearts'  fond  dreaming. 

Not  yet  dear  lovely  Night  hath  ceast. 
O'ersleep  thee,  golden  Star!     I  pray,  nor 

Make  haste  from  thy  long  sleep  to  wake; 
For  FRITHIOF  may'st  thou  sleep  all  day,  or  — 

If  so  thou  wilt  —  till  ragnarok! 


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XXX. 
*In  vain!  Fresh  dawn- streaks  Heav*n  discloses^  — 

Mom's  wind  e'en  now  blows  keen  and  bleak,  — 
Already  bud  those  Eastern  roses 

Fresh  like  to  those  on  ing'borg's  cheek. 
Hark!  sweet  that  feather'd  song- troop  twitters. 

Unthinking,  in  the  bright'ning  sky; 
Existence  moves;  the  billow  glitters. 

And  far  the  shades  and  lover  fly! 
xxn. 
*There  comes  She  now  in  all  Her  glory! 

Pardon  me,  golden  Sun,  my  pray'r; 
I  feel,  I  know,  a  God's  before  me,  — 

But  yet  how  brilliant,  oh!  how  fair! 
O  happy  he,  who  trod  unclouded 

And  valiant  as  thou  treadest  now,  — 
And  proud  and  glad  his  weak  life  shrouded 

In  light  and  vict'ry,  —  like  as  Thou! 
xxni. 
*Behold!  —  Before  thee,  god  of  splendour. 

The    fairest  stands  in  all  the  North! 
Become,  bright  Sun,  Her  strong  Defender,  — 

Thine  image  She  on  this  green  Earth. 
Her  soul  is  pure  as  thine  own  lustre ; 

Her  eye,  like  thine  own  Heav*n,  is  blue; 
And  round  her  forehead  ringlets  cluster 

Dyed  in  thine  own  dark-golden  hue'.  -  -  -  - 
XXIV.    ^ 
*Farewell,  my  Dearest!  We  each  other 

Some  longer  night  again  shall  see. 
Farewell !  —  yet  one  kiss !  Ah !  Another 

On  those  red  lips  accord  to  me! 


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70 

Sleep  now;  and  all  these  scenes  dream  over: 
At  midday  wake,  and  faithful  tell 

The  hours  like  me.  —  Regret  thy  Lover, 
And  bum  as  L  —  Farewell !  Farewell ! ' 


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/- 


/ 

/ 


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jf 


CANTO  vm. 


€k6  |latrli]t0. 


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jirgument. 

Tegjver's  Iambics  are  remarkably  soft  and  pure.  They 
flow  in  a  ''silver  tide",  making  "sweet  music"  as  they  pass 
away,  and  with  their  **gentle  murmurs"  filling  the  mind  with 
sensations  of  a  delightful  melancholy.  —  But  he  has  also  known 
how  to  apply  them;  they  suit  the  subject,   and  it  suiteth  them! 

The  curtain  of  the  VIII:th  Canto  rises,  and  discovers 
INGEBORG  alone,  sitting  in  the  Temple  of  balder.  In  a  mono- 
logue full  of  beauty  She  discovers  to  us  the  depth  of  her  affec- 
tion for  the  Hero  of  her  Choice ,  the  Angel  of  her  Dreams ,  the 
Ideal  of  her  Imagination.  Then,  knowing  that  he  went  to  de- 
mand her  hand  publicly  in  the  Diet  of  her  Land,  she  trem- 
blingly and  forebodingly  awaits  his  return  and  her  sentence,  de- 
termined to  propitiate  the  offended  balder  by  abiding  her  Fate, 
even  to  the  sacrifice  of  her  'whole  Life's  happiness.' 

He  comes,  —  declares,  in  a  torrent  of  indignant  rage,  her 
Brother's  second  and  malignant  refusal  on  the  ground  of  his  hav- 
ing violated  the  White  God's  Sanctuary,  and  explains  that  ho 
has  been  in  consequence  condemned  by  the  'crowned  hypocrite'  to 
cross  the  Ocean  and  compel  angantyr  to  make  good  his  omit- 
ted tribute,  —  under  pain  of  banishment  and  outlawry.  Ho 
then,  in  a  magnificent  outburst  of  impassioned  tenderness,  be- 
seeches his  dear  maiden  —  to  abandon  a  country  so  unjust,  and 
seek  a  fairer  Home  in  the  verdant  Paradise  of  Greece!  This 
proposal,  as  we  might  expect  from  her  feminine  and  delicate 
softness  and  passive  enduringness  of  character,  she  at  once 
refuses.  —  A  lovers'  quarrel  ensues;  but,  comprehending  the 
sublime  severity  of  her  motives  and  touched  by  the  despair  of 
her  grief,  frithiof  acknowledges  his  hastiness,  praysr  her  par- 
don, renews  his  assurances  of  hopeful  and  tender  attachment, 
—  and  presents  her  with  his  shining  Arm -Ring,  on  whose 
wonderful  Almanac  as  it  clasps  her  arm  'like  glow-worm  circling 
lily -stalk',  she  may  reckon  the  tedious  Months  of  'slow-wing'd 
sorrow'  till  her  Chief's  return! 


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CANTO  VIII. 


Etft  ^avtim. 


INGEBORG. 
It  dawns  already';  —  and  still  is  FRITHIOF  absent! 
Yet  yester-sun  beheld  the  Ting  proclaim'd 
On  bele's  Cairn:  that  spot  was  chosen  well. 
For  there  his  Daughter's  fate  should  be  determin'd! 
How  many  fond  entreaties  hath  it  cost  me. 
How  many  tears,  (by  FREJA  all  up-reckon'd!) 
Hate's  icy  wall  to  melt  round  frithiof's  heart. 
And  tempt  the  promise  from  that  proud  One's  mouth. 
Again  to  stretch  his  hand  in  reconcilement!  — 
Severe,  alas,  is  Man!    and  for  his  glory 
(For  so  he  calls  his  pride)  but  little  recketh 
If,  rudely  stepping,  he  should  trample  down 
A  faithful  heart  or  two,  all  bruis'd  and  broken. 
Yes!  clinging  to  his  breast,  weak  fragile  Woman 
Some  moss-plant  likens,  whose  pale  tints  creep  o'er 
The  hard  bare  rock,  and  there  unseen  unmark'd 
Her  painful  hold  scarce  keeps  of  granite  cliff. 
Nurtured  —  sad  food!  by  Night's  slow -falling  tears! 

*My  fate,  then,  yesterday  was  fix'd  for  ever. 
And  o'er  it  Ev'ning's  sun  hath  set  already. 


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But  FRITHIOF  comes  not!  All  those  pale  stars  yonder 
Are  one  by  one  expiring,  and  are  gone; 
And,  with  each  single  star  that  morning  quenches, 
A  hope  my  breast  had  nurtur'd  dies  away. 
But,  ah!  why  hope  I  longer?  valhall*s  Gods 
Love  me  not  now,  for  I  have  anger*d  them. 
The  lofty  balder,  in  whose  shade  I  shelter. 
Is  injur d,  —  for  a  passion  earthly,  human. 
Can  ne'er  be  pure  enough  for  Gods  to  look  on! 
No !  never  dare  this  world's  vain  joys  intrude 
Beneath  those  arches,  where  the  reverend 
And  high  Superior  Pow'rs  have  fix'd  their  dwelling. 
And  yet  my  fault  is  —  what?  —  In  Virgin  Love 
What  is't,  that  tender  gentle  God  displeases?  — 
As  URDA's  chrystal  wave  is't  not  all  pure. 
And  innocent  as  gefion's  Morning -di*eamings? 
Through  Heav'n  advancing,  yonder  high -bom  Sun 
Her  pure  eye  turns  not  from  two  loving  hearts; 
And  Day's  sad  widow,  starry  Night,  with  joy 
Listens,  'mid  all  her  mourning,  to  their  oaths; 
Ah!  how  can  Innocence  beneath  Heav'n's  vault 
Be  construed  Crime  beneath  these  Temple-arches? 
*Tis  true,  I  frithiof  love!  Yes!  long  as  Mem'ry 
Can  stretch  her  records,  have  I  lov'd  but  Him: 
The  Twin  of  my  existence  is  this  feeling, 
I  know  not  its  commencement,  nor  can  once 
Conceive  the'  idea  that  it  hath  not  been  so!  — 
The  rip'ning  fruit  about  its  kernel  sitteth. 
And  round  its  substance  grows  its  bowl  of  gold 
Maturing  slowly  in  the  summer -sun;  — 
I  so  have  grown  around  that  kernel  -  feeling 
While  rip'ning  up  to  Woman,  and  my  Life 


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Is  only  the'  outward  shell  of  my  affection. 

Forgive  me,  balder!  with  a  faithful  heart 

Thy  Halls  I  enter'd,  and  when  thence  I  go 

Still  faithful  is  it:  Yes!  it  follows  me 

When  bifrost's  bridge  I  traverse,  boldly  treading 

With  all  my  Love  before  the  Gods  of  valhall. 

Bright  shields  his  mirrors,  shall  He  there  stand  forth 

An  ASA -Son  as  they,  and  with  dove -wings 

Unfetter  d  take  his  course  to  whence  He  came  — 

The  blue  eternal  space  allfather's  bosom 

For  ever  shelters.  —  Nay,  why  frownest  thou? 

Why  darkens  bALDER's  brow  'mid  Mom's  fresh  dawning? 

In  these  my  veins,  as  in  thine  own,  red  rushes 

Old  oden's  blood;  what  wilt  thou  then,  my  Kinsman? 

My  Love  I  cannot,  will  not,  sacrifice. 

For  know,  God!  that  thy  lofty  Heav'n  'tis  worthy.  — 

But  all  my  Being's  bliss  I  well  can  offer, 

I  that  can  cast  far  from  me,  as  a  Queen 

Her  royal  robes  throws -by  and  doffs  her  state  — 

Nathless  a  Queen  as  ever!  —  Yes,  'tis  done! 

Never,  O  lofty  valhall,  need'st  thou  blush 

To  own  thy  Cousin.  —  I  go  to  meet  my  fate. 

As  to  meet  his  the  Hero.  —  There  comes  frithiof: 

How  wild,  how  pale.  His  looks!  —  'Tis  past,  'tis  o'er. 

My  wrathful  norna  comes  as  his  attendant! 

Be  strong,  my  Soul! Tho*  late,  yet  welcome,  frithiof! 

Our  fate  is  fix'd;  upon  thy  brow  'tis  written. 
And  all  may  read  it.' 

FRITHIOF, 
*Are  not  blood -red  runes 
Carv'd  deep  too  there,  -*-  loud- speaking  insult,  shame. 
Contempt  and  exile?' 


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INGEBORG. 

*FRiTHiOF,  come,  bethink  thee! 
What  happen'd  tell  me;  for  the  worst,  long  since, 
I  darkly  boded.  —  I'm  prepar'd  for  all.' 

FRITHIOF. 

*I  sought  the  Diet,  gather'd  at  the  Barrow, 
Round  whose  smooth  grassy  sides ,  shield  joining  shield. 
And  sword  in  hand,  our  North's  brave  warriors  stood ^ 
In  rings  within  each  other,  till  they  reach'd 
The  Summit.    But  upon  the  Judgement -Stone  — 
Like  some  dark  thunder -cloud  —  thy  Brother  sat. 
That  pale  bloodman  with  looks  of  dusky  gloom; 
And  near  him  halfdan,  that  fair  full-grown  child. 
Was  seen,  all  thoughtless,   playing  with*his  sword. 
Then  stepp'd  I  forth  and  spoke :  —  *War  stands  and  strikes 
His  glitt'ring  shield  within  thy  boundaries; 
Thy  realm.  King  helge,  is  in  jeopardy: 
But  give  thy  Sister,  and  FU  lend  mine  arm 
Thy  guard  in  battle.     It  may  stead  thee  well! 
Come!  let  this  grudge  between  us  be  forgotten,  — 
Unwilling  bear  I  such  'gainst  ing'borg's  Brother. 
Be  counseird.   King!  be  just!  and  save  at  once 
Thy  golden  crown  and  thy  fair  Sister's  heart! 
Here  is  my  hand:  by  ASA-THOR  I  swear 
Never  again  'tis  stretched  in  reconcilement!'  — 
Then  rose  the  Ting  tumultuous.     Thousand  swords 
On  thousand  shields  loud  hammer'd  deafning  plaudits; 
Up  heav'n-ward  flew  the  weapon  -  clang ,  and  heav'n 
Drank 9  glad,  free  men's  assent  to  right,  to  justice.  — 
*Yes!  give  him  ing'borg,  that  fair  slender  Lily, 
The  loveliest  ever  grew  in  these  our  vales : 
What  swordsman  in  our  land  is  like  to  him? 


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Ay!  give  him  ing*borg!'  —  Then  my  Fosterfather, 

Old  HILDING,  with  his  silv'ry  beard,  uprose 

And  spoke  right  wisely  many  a  weighty  word 

And  pithy  proverb  biting  falchion -like. 

Nay,  HALFDAN  even,  from  his  kingly  seat 

Upstanding,  ask'd  with  words  and  looks  consent. 

In  vain,  in  vain!  But  wasted  was  each  prayer  — 

Like  sunshine  lavished  on  the  naked  rock. 

No  harvest  tempting  from  its  barren  bosom: 

Thus  cold,  thus  hard,  was  helge's  gloomy  brow  — 

Still  like  itself  —  a  chilling  *No!*  to  Mercy!  — 

*The  Peasant*s  Son',  —  so ,  scornful  glancing,  spoke  he  — 

'Might  ing'borg  claim,  but  thou,  the  Temple -forcer. 

Art  scarce,  methinks,  a  match   for  valhall's  Child. 

Say,  FRITHIOF,  —  BALDER^s  peace  hast  thou  not  broken. 

Not  seen  my  Sister  in  His  House,  while  Day 

Conceal'd  himself,  abash'd,  before  your  meeting? 

Speak!  Yea  or  Nay!*  —  Then  echoed  from  the  ring 

Of  crowded  warriors,  —  *Say  but  Nay,  say  Nay! 

Thy  simple  word  we'll  trust;  we'll  court  for  thee. 

Thou,  thorsten's  Son,   ax*t  good  as  any  King's; 

Say  nay,  say  nay!  and  thine  is  ingeborg!'  — 

*The  happiness',  I  answer'd,  *of  my  life 

On  one  word  hangs;  but  fear  not  therefore,  helge!    " 

I  would  not  lie  to  gain  the  joys  of  valhall. 

Much  less  this  Earth's  delights.     I've  seen  thy  Sister, 

Have  spoken  with  Her  in  the  Temple's  Night,  — 

But  have  not,  therefore,  broken  balder's  peace!'  • — 

More  none  would  hear.     A  murmur  of  deep  horror 

The  Diet  travers'd;  they  who  nearest  stood 

Drew  back,  as  I  had  with  the  plague  been  smitten; 

And,  when  I  round  me  gaz'd,  pale  Superstition 


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Had  lam'd  each  tongue,  and  white -lim'd  ev'ry  cheek 

But  late  with  cheerful  hope  so  brightly  blooming. 

Then  conquer  d  helge.  —  With  a  voice  as  hoarse 

And  gloomy  as  dead  VALA*s  when  to  ODEN 

She  sang,  in  VEGTAMSQvmA ,  how  destruction 

Should  whelm  His  ASAR  and  how  hela  triumph'd  — 

So  hoarse  he  spoke:  -^  'By  our  great  Fathers'  Laws 

To  banishment  or  death  I  could  condemn  thee 

For  this  thy  crime.     But  mild  as  is  that  BALDER 

Whose  Shrine  thou'  insultedst,  shall  my  judgement  be.  — 

Far  westward  lieth,  garlanding  broad  Ocean, 

An  isle -group  govern'd  by  Jarl  ANGANTYR. 

His  gold  the  Jarl  paid  yearly  in  the  days 

Of  bele's  reign,  but  now  keeps  back  his  tribute. 

Away,  then,  o*er  the  Sea!  —  Collect  the  money; 

This  penance  fix  I  for  thy  hardihood! 

*Tis  said',  he  added,  with  mean  scoundrel-scorn^ 

•That  ANGANTYR's  hard-handed,  and  sits  brooding 

Like  fapner,  that  fam*d  Dragon,  o'er  his  gold. 

But  —  who  can  face  our  SIGURD ,  bane  of  FAFNER? 

Now,  an  thou  wilt,  an  exploit  dare  ' —  more  manly 

Than  witching  timid  girls  in  B alder's  grove.  — 

Till  Summer  breathe  again,  we'll  here  await  thee 

With  all  thy  fame,  and  with  -*■  the  gold  —  in  special: 

Else,  frithiof,  art  thou  doom'd  a  branded  coward. 

And  exil'd  all  thy  days  from  this  our  Land  I '  — 

His  verdict  thus  he  gave,  —  and  clos'd  the  Diet.  — 

INGEBORG. 
'And  thy  resolve?* 

FRITHIOF. 

*What!  —  have  I  then  a  choice? 
Is  not  my  honour  bound  to  this  demand? 


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79 

Yes !  it  shall  be  redeemed  though  angantyr 

'Neath  nastrand's  floods  his  paltry  gold  had  hidden.  — 

To-day,  e'en,  voyage  I.* 

INGEBORG. 
*And  leave  thy  mG^BORG?' 

FRITHIOF.  ** 

*LeaveThee  —  ah  Nol  Thou  sharestall  my  wandVings?' 

INGEBORG. 
*Alas,  I  cannot!' 

FRITHIOF. 

*But  hear  me!    then  reply!  — 
Thy  Brother,  in  his  wisdom,  hath  forgotten 
That  ANGANTYR  was  once  my  Father's  friend 
As  well  as  bele's.     With  good  will,  perhaps, 
He'll  yield  what  I  would  have;  but  should  he  not, 
A  sharp  persuader,  pow'rful  advocate. 
Hangs  here,  my  left  side's  ornament  and  strength. 
The  gold  so  dearly  lov*d  TU  send  to  helge. 
And  thus  will  free  us  both,  at  once,  for  ever. 
From  that  crown'd  hypocrite's  red  offring- knife. 
Ourselves,  fair  ing'borg,  will  ellida's  sails 
O'er  unknown  waves  expand.     She'U  bound  along 
And  bear  us  to  some  far-off,  friendly,  strand 
A  safe  asylum  for  our  outlaw'd  Love. 
This  North  —  what  boots  it  me?  What  boots  a  People 
That  pale  at  ev'ry  word  their  DIAR  speak?  — 
They  would,  with  daring  hand,  my  heart -hopes  dash. 
The  blooming  flow'r-cup  of  my  very  being:  — 
I  swear  by  freja  that  it  shall  not  be!. 
A  wretched  thrall  is  fasten'd  to  the  sod 
Where  first  he  grew;  but  I  will  be  a  freeman. 
Free  as  the  Mountain -breezes.  —  One  hand  full 


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80 

Of  dust  from  thorsten*s  grave,  and  one  from  bele*s. 

Will  yet  find  room  on  shipboard;  that  is  all 

We  want  or  ask  from  this  our  foster- earth. 

A  Sun  far  brighter  shall  we  find,  my  Dearest, 

Than  this  which  shines  so  pale  on  cliifs  of  snow; 

A  sky  more  beautiful  than  this  will  hail  us, 

Whose  mild  soft  stars  with  heav'nly  glance  look  down. 

In  warm-breath'd  summer  nighty  on  many'  a  pair 

Of  faithful  lovers  sate  in  laurel -groves. 

My  father,  THORSTEN  vikingsson,  far  -  wander  d 

On  Sea -King  exploits,  —  and  full  oft  beguil'd 

Long  winter  -  ev'nings  by  the  blazing  hearth 

With  tales  of  Greekland's  Ocean,  where  fair  islands 

Like  green  groves  rise  from  out  the  laughing  wave. 

Of  old,  a  mighty  race  liv'd  there,    and  Gods 

Still  mightier  dwelt  in  marble  sanctuaries.  — 

Now  stand  They  desolate :  wild  luxuriant  herbage 

O'erspreads  their  lonely  avenues,  flow'rs  shoot 

From  runes  which  speak  of  wise  antiquity , 

And  rich-curl'd  tendrils  of  the  vineyard  South 

Slim  columns  circle  with  their  green  embrace. 

But  round  these  ruins,  in  unsown  harvest -crops. 

Gives  the'  untouch'd  Earth  all  man  can  want  or  wish; 

While  fresh  leaves  glow  with  clust'ring  golden  apples. 

And  bending  boughs  full  purple  grapes  weigh  down 

All  tempting,  rich,  and  juicy  as  —  thy  lips! 

There  ing'borg,  'mid  that  sea's  bright  waves,  we'll  stablish 

A  little  North  more  beautiful  than  this; 

Those  slender  Temple  -  arches  will  we  fill 

With  faithful  love,  and  entertain  again 

Forgotten  Gods  with  human  happiness.  — 

Should  loose -saird  Barque  float  slowly  past  our  isle. 


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(For  storms  have  ttere  no  home -land)  in  the  blush 

Of  eve's  soft  light,  while  some  glad  mariner 

Looks  out  from  rose -dyed  billows  to  the  shore,  — 

He  then  shall  view,  within  the  Temple's  threshold. 

That  other  FRfiJA,  (in  their  speech  methinks 

She's  APHRODITE  hight)  and,  wondVing,  see 

Her  golden  locks  light-flutt'ring  in  the  Zephyr, 

And  eyes  more  bright  than  brightest  Southern  skies!  — 

As  years  roll  by,  shall  slow  shoot  up  around  Her 

A  little  temple -race  of  fairy  Creatures 

With  cheeks  where,  'mong  the  North*s  snow-drifts,  the  South 

Would  seem  to'  have  planted  ev'ry  freshest  rose!  — 

Ah!  ing'borg,  ah!    How  fair,  how  near,  how  tempting 

Stands  all  Earth's  joy  to  two  fond  faithful  hearts! 

Yes!  have  they  courage   close  to  grasp  her  to  them  — 

She  willing  follows  and  a  vingolf  builds  us 

Already  here,  beneath  the  fleeting  clouds.  — 

Come,  Dearest,  haste  thee!    Ev'ry  word  we  utter 

Is  one  more  moment  stolen  from  our  bliss. 

Come!    All's  prepar'd.     ellida  spreads,  impatient, 

Dark  Eagle -wings  for  flight;  and  fresh'ning  breezes 

Point  out  the  path,  for  ever,  from  a  strand 

Where  gloomy  Fears  hold  awful  sway  around.  -  -  -  - 

But  why  delay?'  — 

INGEBORG. 
'I  can  not  follow  Thee/ 

FRITHIOF. 
•Not  follow?  —  Not  -  -  -  -' 


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INGEBORG. 

*Ah !  FRiTraOF,  Thou  an  happy! 
Thou  folio w'st  none,  but  art  Thyself  the  foremost. 
Like  thy  good  Dragon-Ship's  high-lifted  stem;  — 
While  at  the  rudder  stands  thy  Will,  and  steers 
Thy  course,  with  steady  hand,  o'er  angry  waves. 
How  otherwise,  alas!  it  is  with  ing*borg! 
In  others'  hands  my  fate  reposes,  and 
Their  prey  they  slip  not,  bleed  it  as  it  will!  — 
Self-sacrifice,  and  tears,  and  languishing. 
And  wasting  grief,  —  such  the  King's  Daughter's  Freedom!'  — 

FRITHIGF, 

*What  hinders,  then,  thy  freedom?  bele  sits 
Within  his  cairn.'  — 

INGEBGRG. 

'My  Father's  —  HELGE,  now! 
He  holds  my  Father's  place,  and  his  consent 
Decides  my  hand.  —  No !  bele's  Daughter  steals  not  j 
Her  happiness,  however  near  it  be. 
Ah!  what  were  Wx)man,  should  she  burst  those  bonds 
With  which  ALLFATHER  fastens  to  the  strong 
Her  weak  existence?  —  Some  pale  Water-lily 
She  likens,  as  on  ev'ry  light-mov'd  wave 
It  rises,  trembles,  falls;  and  o'er  its  head 
The  Seaman's  keel  its  reckless  way  pursue th 
Nor  marks  that  it  cuts-through  her  stalk  so  slender. 
Such  is  that  Lily's  destiny;  —  but  still 
Long  as  the  sands  beneath,  her  deep  root  grasps  — 
The  plant  her  value  hath,   and  borrows  dyes 


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From  pale  Relation- Stars  above,  itself 

A  Star  soft -floating  on  the  bflloivy  blue. 

Ah!  should  She  straggle  loose,  away  she  drives 

A  wither  d  leaf  around  the  desert  waters.  — 

The  Night  just  gone,  — '  that  Night  how  fearful  was  it!  — 

I  waited  thee  expectant,    and  thou  cam'st  not; 

And  Night's  dark  children,  gloomy  black-hair d  Thoughts^ 

In  long  procession  passed  before  mine  eye. 

All  watchful,  burning,  and  without  a  tear; 

Nay,  balder's  Self,  the  bloodless  God,  beheld  me 

With  looks  of  threatening  and  an  angry  mien:  — 

The  Night  just  gone ,  my  Fate  Fve  well  consider'd  — 

And  firm  resolv'd  to'  abide  it.     I  remain 

A  duteou/  ofTring  at  my  Brother's  Altar. 

And  yet  'twas  well  I  heard  not,  then,  thy  story 

Of  islands  fabled  in  the  gorgeous  clouds. 

Where  Ev'ning's  blush  is  spread  unceasing  over 

A  qniet  flow'r-world,  full  of  peace  and  love.  — 

Who  knows  his  own  heart's  weakness?  Childhood's  dreamings 

So  long  all  silent,  now  once  more  rise  up 

Low-whisp'ring  in  mine  ear,  with  voice  familiar 

As  'twere  a  Sister's,  and  as  soft  and  tender 

As  some  fond  lover's  when  he  courts  his  maid. 

I  hear  you  not;  I  cannot,  will  not,  hear  you 

Ye  tempting  voices,  once  so  dearly  lov'd.   — 

What  would  the  South  with  me,  the  North-Land's  daughter? 

Too  pale  am  I  for  all  its  rose-retreats; 

Its  burning  Sun  would  parch  a  soul  as  mine,  r— 

Too  cold  and  hueless  for  its  glowing  rays. 

Yes!  full  of  longing,  would  mine  eye  turn  often 

To  yonder  Pole-star,   ever  steadfast  standing 

A  heav'nly  sentinel  o'er  our  Fathers'  graves. 


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My  noble  frithiof,  bom  his  Land's  Defender, 

Shall  never  flee  inglorious  from  its  shores. 

His  dear-bought  Fame  shall  never  cast  behind  him 

For  aught  so  worthless  as  a  young  girl's  love! 

A  life  whose  golden-threaded  days  the  Sun 

Spins  year  from  year  the  same^  is  beautiful; 

But  this  eternal  oneness.  Woman's  Soul 

Alone  can  please;  to  Man,  and  most  to  Thee, 

Life's  changeless  calm  is  changeless  weariness.  — 

Then  joys  thy  proud  soul,  when  the  tumbling  Tempest 

On  foaming  Courser  sweeps  o'er  Ocean's  deeps 

That  so,  for  life  or  death,  on  thin  plank  riding, 

Thou  may'st  contend  with  Danger  for  thine  honor.    . 

The  beauteous  wilderness  thou  paintest,  would 

Too  many*  an  unborn  exploit  slow  entomb; 

And,  with  thy  shield,  —  thy  glad,  free,  dauntless  spirit 

Dark  rust  would  gnaw.  —  But  it  shall  not  be  so! 

Not  I,  at  least,  my  frithiof's  name  will  steal 

From  Bard-harp'd  songs;  not  I,  at  least,  will  quench 

My  Hero's  glory  in  its  first  red  dawn! 

Be  wise,  dear  frithiof!  Heav'n's  dread  lofty  nornor 

Command;  let  us  give  way!    At  least  oiir  Honour 

May  still  be  sav'd  from  out  our  Fortunes'  shipwreck,  — 

For  ah!  our  life's  chief  Bliss  is  gone  for  ever  I 

We  must,  Tnust  part!' 

FRITHIOF. 

*Nay!  wherefore  must  we?  —  Is't 
For  that  a  sleepless  night  untunes  thy  spirit?' 

INGEBORG. 
*'Tis,  that  my  worth  and  thine  must  both  be  rescued!' 


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FRITHIOF. 
*0n  Man's  firm  Love  rests  Woman's  dearest  value ! ' 

INGEBORG. 


no  more. 


/   'Not  long  he  loves  whom  he  esteems 

FRITHIOF. 
*Can  his  esteem,  then,  light  caprices  purchase?'  — 

INGEBORG. 
'Caprice!  a  noble  one  —  the  sense  of  Duty!' 

FRITHIOF. 
*But  yesterday,  our  Love  was  still  most  righteous.' 

INGEBORG. 
*Nor  less  to-day:  —  The  more  would  flight  be  crime. 

FRITHIOF. 
•Necessity  invites  us;  Come:  no  more!' 

INGEBORG. 


f'l 


Necessity  is  what  is  Right  and  Noble!' 

FRITHIOF. 
The  Sun  high  riseth.     Come!  our  time  goes  quickly.' 


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INOBBOKQ. 
^  Alas  I  'tis  gone  already  —  gone  for  ever!' 

FRITHIOF. 
*Once  more;  consider!  was  that  word  thy  last!' 

INGSBORG. 

*A11  well  have  I  consider'd:  —  'tis  my  last!' 

FRITHIOF, 
'Then,  hblge's  Sister,  fare  Thee  well!  —•  Adieu!* 

INGEBORG. 

'O!  FRITHIOF,  FRITHIOF,  IS  it  thus  we  part? 
What]  Hast  thou  not  one  friendly  look  to  give 
Thy  childhood's  friend?  —  Hast  thou  no  hand  to  stretch 
Towards  Her,  unfortunate,  who  once  was  lov'd?  — 
Think'st  Thou  I  rest  on  roses  here,  and  motion 
My  whole  Life's  bliss  away  —  and  coldly  smile? 
From  this  torn  bosom  can  I  rend  a  Hope 
Grown  with  my  very  being  —  and  feel  no  pang?  -  - 
Ah!  wast  not  thou  my  heart's  first  Morning- dream?  -  - 
Whatever  joy  I  knew,  I  call'd  it  FRITHIOF; 
And  all  that  Life  holds  great  or  good  or  noble 
Put  on  Thy  features  to  my  youthful  eye. 
Dim  not  this  glowing  image,  nor  repay 
Thus  sternly  Woman's  weakness  when  she  offers 
Whatever  on  this  earth  was  dearest  to  Her, 
Whate'er  in  valhall  s  Halls  will  dearest  prove. 
Enough ,  O  FRITHIOF ,  has  that  ofTring  cost  me , 


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And  well  desertes  one  word  of  tender  cbmfort. 

I  know  Thou  lov'st  me:  I  have  known  it  long^ 

E'en  since  first  'gan  to  dawn  my  young  existence ; 

And,  year  on  year,  where'er  afar  Thou  rovest. 

Thy  ing'borg's  mem'ry  must,  will,  follow  Thee!  — 

But  loud-clash'd  arms  still  ease  the  pangs  of  Sorrow, 

Yes!  far,  far  —  Ocean's  wild  fierce  tumult  drives  Her; 

Nor  dares  She,  timid,  sit  on  champion's  bench 

'Mong  wine ,  and  healths ,  and  songs  of  victory.  — 

But  yet  at  times,  whene'er  in  deadest  night 

Thou  must'rest  in  their  order  days  long  fled,  — 

One  pallid  Form  will  slow  glide  in  among  them. 

Thou  know'st  it  well,  saluting  thee  from  regions 

Far  off  but  dear ;  —  'tis  that  pale  Virgin's  image 

Whom  holy  balder  in  his  Temple  guards. 

Thou  may'st  not.  Dearest!  must  not,  turn  away 

From  that  sad  Phantom's  features;  no!  low  whisper 

Some  friendly  word  in  greeting!  Night's  faint  winds 

On  faithful  wings  that  word  will  carry  me ,  — 

One  comfort  left,  n\y  last,  mine  only  one! 

My  loss ,  alas !  nought  here  can  dissipate ; 

All,  all,  around  me  is  its  guardian! 

These  high-arch'd  Temple  -  vaults  speak  thee  alone. 

And,  bright  with  moon -light  rays,   the   God's  own  image 

Thy  features  takes,  instead  of  threat'ning  gloom. 

Should  yonder  Sea  attract,  —  there  swam  Thy  keel. 

Its  path  swift  cutting  to  the  longing  ing'borg; 

Should  yonder  Grove,  —  there  many'  a  tree  uprises 

Whose  tender  bark  with  ing'borg's  name  was  carv'd,  — 

That  name,  alas!  the  growing  bark  slow  covers. 

And  this,  tradition  saith,  betok'neth  Death!  — 

Where  last  he  saw  Thee,  bright-ey'd  Day  I  ask, 


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8» 

Where  last,  the  Night,  but  both  are  silent ^  nay 
I  The  very  Sea  which  carries  Thee  replies 
/    With  nought  but  sighs  half  -  utter'd  to  the  shore,  -^ 
L   With  Ev'ning's  blush  1*11  greet  Thee,  when  'tis  quenched 
In  those  Thy  billows;  and  Heav'n's  swiftest  vessel. 
The  long-stretch'd  cloud,  shall  never  flit  above  me  '— 
But  freighted  mth  the  poor  Forsaken's  grief! 
/Thus,  seated  in  my  Maiden -Bow'r,  FU  hold  me 
(The  black- clad  widow  of  my  life's  delights; 
^here  in  my  web  I'll  broken  lilies  broider  — 
Till  Spring  his  cloth  shall  weave,  embroidering 
Its  woof  with  fairer  lilies  on  —  my  grave. 
But  touch  I  my  sweet  Harp,  in  songs  lamenting 
My  grief  in  all  its  deep-ton'd  bitterness. 
Fast-flowing  tears  will  then,  as  now  -  -  -  •' 

FRITHIOF. 

^Thou  conqu'rest,  bele's  Daughter;  weep  no  morel 
Forgive  mine  anger;  'twas  my  sorrow  only 
Disguis'd  one  moment  in  the  dress  of  Wrath , 
A  dress  it  cannot  wear  beyond  a  moment. 
My  own  good  NORNA,  art  thou,  ing'borg;  Yes! 
What  noble  is ,  a  noble  mind  best  teaches ; 
The  wisdom  of  Necessity  can  have 
No  Advocate  more  eloquent  than  Thou, 
My  beateous  VALA  with  Thy  rosy  lips. 
Yes!  I  will  yield  to  dire  Necessity, 
Will  part  from  Thee,  but  never  from  my  Hope  — 
I  take  that  with  me  o'er  the  Western  waters!  — 
I  take  that  with  me  to  the  gates  of  Death! 
Next  Springs  I  trust,  again  shall  see  me  here; 


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King  HKLGE  yet  again  shall  meet  his  foe. 
My  promise  then  perform'd,  his  claim  fulfiird. 
And  that  great  crime  aton'd  I'm  charg'd  withal  — 
ril  ask  Thy  hand,  nay  boldly  will  demand  it 
In  open  Council,  'mid  the  glitt'ring  steel. 
And  not  from  HELGE ,  but  the  North's  free  People , 
For  they.  King's  Daughter,  can  dispose  of  Thee :  — 
Let  him  deny  who  dares,  and  hears  my  reason!  — » 
Till  then,  farewell!  Forget  me  never!  And, 
In  sweet  rememb'rance  of  our  youthful  love. 
This  Arm-Ring  take,  a  fair  VAULUNDER-work 
With  all  Heav'n's  wonders  carv'd  i'  th'  shining  gold;  ■— 
Ah!  the  best  wonder  is  a  faithful  heart!  -  -  -  - 
How  prettily  becomes  it  Thy  white  arm,  — 
A  glow-worm  twining  round  a  lily -stem!  -  -  -  - 
Farewell,  my  Bride!  My  best  Belov'd,  Farewell! 
A  few  short  months  -  *  -»  -  and!  O  how  diff'rent  then!'- 

(goes.) 

INGEBORG. 

'How  glad,  how  daring- all,  how  full  of  hope!  — 
His  good  Sword  pointing  to  the  norna's  bosom 
*Thou  shalt',  saith  He,  *Thou  shalt  give  way*.  —  Alas! 
The  NORNA,  my  poor  frithiof,   yields  to  no  one; 
Right  on  She  goes,  and  laughs  at  ANGURVADEl!  — 
My  gloomy  Brother,  Ah!  how  little  know'st  Thou! 
Never  can  Thy  frank  Hero -spirit  fathom 
His  dark  Soul's  depths,  and  all  that  envious  hatred 
Which  bums  and  smoulders  in  his  remorseless  breast. 
His  Sisters  hand  he'll  never  give  thee.  —  Sooner 
He'd  give  his  Crown,  his  Life,  to  wild  destruction. 


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90 

And  offer  me  to*  old  oden,  or  to'  old  ring 
That  hoary  Chief  whom  now  he  hattles  sore.  — 

'Where'er  I  look^  no  hope  remains  for  Me, 

Yet  glad  I  see  Thy  heart  still  keep  the  Stranger: 
Myself  alone  shall  know  my  grief,  my  danger ; 

But  oh!  may  all  good  Gods  attend  on  Thee! 

On  this.  Thine  Arm-Ring,   may  I  yet  count  over 
Each  sep'rate  Month  of  tedious  fretting  pain ; 

One,  two,  four,  six  —  then  perhaps  returns  the  Rover, 
But  —  ne'er  to  find  his  ingeborg  again ! '  — 


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Oh"     ^ 


^ 


I 


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OAHTO  IX. 


Jng^effovQ's  £ammU 


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Argument. 

The  sail  of  her  Lover's  long-ship*  has  just  faded  beneath 
the  horizon's  boundary;  —  and  the  Desolate  One  weeps! 
Far-seeing  and  observant »  She  feareth  all  things.  'Death  aIone\ 
concludes  the  Mourner,   ^ill  bring  me  the  wings  of  the  Gods.' 

The  wave -like  dash  of  the  metre  harmonizes  wonderfully 
with  the  melancholy  despair  of  hopeless  Love,  —  seeking  in 
vain  the  light -floating  ellida  that  carrieth  her  chosen  Hero  from 
her  embrace,  far  o'er  the  wilds  of  the  pathless  Ocean! 


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VOT.. 


Pianoforte.-^ 


M± 


m 


Ajacl-a,xtt«   cLol/O  r»>so . 


/ 


J5:  atCrSLZ.  JHfrAA^^^n . 


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trte^rr^g€;r  7^    jo^^ / 


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:J  M.f}|.A;rrrfig'Fr^^^ 


\¥r  k^'i 


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h'^ '  [:g  -gif  ^ 


f 


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CAJVTO  ES. 


Jngeborfi'fl^  Hotnetit 


'S> 


I. 

ummer  is  past. 
Ocean's  broad  bosom's  upheav'd  by  the  blast : 
Yet  O  how  gladly  out  yonder 
Far  would  I  wander! 

n. 

'Long  did  I  view 

Westward  His  sail,  on  the  wave  as  it  flew; 
Sail  ah!   how  bless'd!  —  that  abideth 
Still  where  He  rideih. 

m. 

'Swell  not  so  high. 

Billow  of  blue ;   fast  enough  he  sweeps  by. 
Guide  Him,  ye  Stars!  —  In  his  danger 
Shine  on  the  Stranger! 

IV. 
'When,  in  the  Spring, 

Homeward  he  hastens  —  no  ing'borg  will  bring 
Welcomes  i'  th'  valley  to  meet  Him, 
Hall-words  to  greet  Him. 

V. 
Deep  under  ground 

Pallid  and  cold  for  her  Love  she  is  found! 
Or,  a  sad  victim,  her  Brothers 
Give  her  to  others.  — 


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94 

VI. 

*Mine  shall  thou  be , 

Hawk  He  forgot;  yes!   Til  love  as  did  He:  — 
iNG*BOHG  will  feed  thee,  through  endless 
Skies  hunting  friendless. 

Til. 

*H€re,  on  His  hand. 

Work  I  thy  form  on  the  clothes  broad  band; 

Pinions  of  silver,  and  glowing 

Gold- talons,  sewing. 

vm. 
*FREJA  one  day 

Falcon -wings  took>  and  through  space  hied  away: 
Northwards  and  southwards,  She  sought  Her 
Dearly- lov'd  6D£R: 

*Ah!  could  I  wear 

Thine,  they  alas!  would  not  carry  me  there; 
Wings  like  the  Gods',  to  the  lonely  — 
Death  giveth  only! 

X. 

*Pretty  one!  keep 

Fix'd  on  my  shoulder,  and  gaze  on  the  deep;  — 

Gaze  we  and  long  as  we  will,  no 

Keel  cleaves  the  billow. 

XI. 

*When  I  am  dead, 

Doubtless  returns  He;  then  mind  what  I  said;  — 

FRITHIOF ,  whose  tears  will  bewail  me , 

Hail  me,  ah!  hail  me!*  — 


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GAHTO 


4rrUJii0f  at  %ea. 


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jirgumenU 

Gloomily  wild ,  terribly  grand ,  is  the  subject  of  this  Song. 
The  young  Hero,  intent  upon  bringing  to  a  successful  close  the 
Enterprise  so  maliciously  imposed  on  bim  by  the  swarthy  blood- 
king,  is  ploughing  the  foaming  billows  on  board  his  good  Drag- 
on,  and  bound  to  the  far-off  Orkneys.  But  his  false  foe  has 
invoked  the  aid  of  witchcraft.  The  rising  storm  assumes  an  un- 
natural fierceness.  Wave  follows  wave,  crash  —  crash.  All  Heaven 
seems  armed  for  his  destruction.  Personal  strength,  and  the 
excellence  of  his  God -built  vessel,  save  him  for  awhile,  —  but, 
at  last,  ^Death'  he  sees  'is  on  board'  with  him,  and  he  distri- 
butes fragments  of  his  golden  Bracelet  among  his  stout  cham- 
pions, that  they  may  not  go  down  empty-handed  to  the  'Sea- 
blue  RAN.' 

Suddenly,  however,  he  discovers  the  horrible  Troll -shapes 
which  have  caused  the  Tempest.  To  see  is  to  dare,  —  to  dare 
to  overcome!  His  lances  soon  death -pierce  the  terrible  fiend- 
monsters,  and  ELLiDA  dashes  triumphantly  over  the  'island -like 
Ocean -whale.' 

Immediately  the  enchantment  vanishes.  All  Nature  recovers 
its  serenity,  and  he  reaches  in  safety  his  desired  haven. 

The  peculiar  variation  of  metre,  rhyme,  and  recitative  which 
this  Canto  exhibits ,  —  the  admirable  art  with  which  the  Author 
has  embellished  the  letter  of  the  Original  Saga,  while  faithfully 
adhering  to  its  spirit,  —  and  the  vivid  colours  in  which  the 
Panorama -like  series  of  its  sea -pictures  is  painted,  —  undoubt- 
edly make  it  one  of  the  most  effective  and  best«>dispo6ed  Legend- 
Songs  in  the  whole  of  this  noble  Epic  Drama.  —  Would  that  the 
Translator  could  have  embodied  all  the  beauties  he  has  felt! 

The  Recitative  is  a  looser  kind  of  that  Icelandic  alliterative 
metre,  of  which  we  meet  with  so  severe  and  beautiful  an  exam- 
ple in  the  XXI:st  Canto. 


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CANTO  X. 


J^vitffiot  at  Stsu 


I. 

Ijut,  wood  and  afeard, 

HELGE  stood  on  the  shore  — 

To  the  Goblins  so  weird 

Dark  spells  mutt'rin^;  o'er. 

See!  Heav'n's  vault  now  clouds  are  treading; 

Crashing  thunders  ban's  wastes  sweep. 
Fast  Her  boiling  waves  are  spreading 

Sparkling  froth  o*er  all  the  deep. 
See!  r  th*  sky  red  lightnings  fasten 

Here  and  there  a  bloody  band; 
Ocean's  sea-birds  —  frighten'd  —  hasten , 

Harshly  screaming,  to  the  strand.  — 

*Desp'rate  weather.  Comrades! 
Hark!  the  Storm  I  hear  a- 
Far  His  pinions  flapping,  — - 
But  we  grow  not  pale : 
Sit  in  peace  with  BALDER, 
Think  of  me  and  long !  —  O , 
Beauteous  in  Thy  sorrow. 
Beauteous  ingeborgI'  — 


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n. 

'Gainst  ellida  came 

Of  Trolls  a  grim  pair ; 
*Twas  the  wind -cold  HAM, 

'Twas  HEJD  with  snow -hair. 

Then  the  Storm  unfetterd  wingeth 

Wild  His  course;  in  Ocean's  foam 
Now  he  dips  Him,  now  up-swingeth, 

Whirling  toward  the  Gods'  own  home: 
Rides  each  Horror -Spirit,  warning. 

High  upon  the  topmost  wave  — 
Up  from  out  the  white,  vast,  yawning, 

Bottomless,  unfathom'd  grave. 

Tairer  was  our  voyage. 
Moonlight  glitt'ring  round  us. 
O'er  the  mirrowing  billows 
Hence  to  balder's  Grove: 
Warmer  than  'tis  here,  my 
ing'borg's  heart  was  beating,  — 
Whiter  than  the  sea -foam 
Swell'd  Her  bosom  tlien!'  — 
ni. 

Now,  SOLUNDAR  see 

'Mong  white  breakers  stand;  — 
There  all  calm  the  waves  be. 

There's  your  port,  steer  to  land! 

But  the  dauntless  Viking  fears  not 
On  His  true -fast  Oak  so  soon; 

Hard  the  helm  He  grasps,  and  hears  not  — 
But  with  joy  —  winds  sport  aboon. 


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99 


Tighter  still  the  sail  He  stretches, 
Faster  still  He  cuts  His  way,  — 

Westward,  west,  due  West  —  He  fetches. 
Rush  the  billow  as  it  may!  — 

*Fain  one  moment  longer 

Fierce  I'd  fight  the  Tempest; 

Storms  and  Northmen  flourish 

Well  together  here. 

For  a  gust  to  land -ward. 

Should  Her  Ocean -Eagle 

Fearful  feebly  flutter  — 

How  would  ing'borg  blush ! '  — 

IV. 

But  each  wave's  now  a  hill, 
Down  yet  deeper  they  reel. 

Blasts  in  cordage  sing  shrill,  — 
Strains  the  grating  keel:  — 

Yet,  howe'er  the  surges  wrestle. 

Whether  for  or  'gainst  they  rise,  — 

Still  ELLIDA,  God-built  vessel. 
All  their  angry  threats  defies- 

Like  some  star- shoot  in  the  gloaming. 
Glad  she  bounds  along,  and  leaps 

Goat -like  o'er  rough  mountains,  roaming 

Now  o'er  heights  and  now  o'er  deeps!  • 

« 

*Better  felt  soft  kisses 
From  my  Bride  with  balder. 
Than,  as  here  I  stand,  to 
Tas.tc  this  up -thrown  brine. 


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100 


Better  'twas  to'  encircle 
ing'borg's  Waist  so  slender,  — 
Than,  as  here,  tight- clasping 
This  hard  Rudder -bar!' 

V. 

But  the  snow -big  cloud 
Icy  knife -gusts  pours; 

And  on  deck,  shield,  shroud 
Clatter  hailstone  show'rs.  — 

And  from  stem  to  stern  on  board  Her, 

Nought  thou  canst  for  night  descry; 
Dark  'tis  there,  as  in  that  chamber. 

Where  the  dead  imprison'd  lie, 
Down  'mid  whirlpool -horrors  dashes 

The'  implacable  bedevil'd  wave; 
While  grey -white,  as  strown  with  ashes  ^ 

Gapes  one  endless,  soundless,  grave!  ' 

*RAN  our  beds  of  blue  is 
Spreading  'mong  the  billows. 
But  for  me  is  waiting 
Thy  bed,  ingeborg. 
Yes!  stout-hearted  fellows 
Lift  Thy  oars,  ELLIDA; 
Gods  thy  good  keel  builded,  — 
Yet  awhile  we'll  swim!'  — 
VI, 

O'er  Her  starboard  broke 
Now,  a  mountain -sea. 

And  with  whelming  stroke 

Swept  Her  deck  all  free.  — 


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FRITHIOF  then  His  Armlet  taking, 

(Three  marks  weigh'd  it,  and  was  old 
B£LE*s  gift,  nor  Morn's  awaking 

Sun  outshone  its  fine -wrought  gold) 
Quick,  the  dwarf- carv'd  Ring  in  pieces 

Hews,  relentless,  with  His  sword  — 
And^  the  fragments  sharing,  misses 

None  of  all  His  men  on  board. 

*Gold,  on  sweet-heart  ramblings, 
Pow'rful  is  and  pleasant; 
Who  goes  empty-handed 
Down  to  sea -blue  RAN? 
Cold  her  kisses  strike,  and 
Fleeting  her  embrace  is  — 
But  we  Ocean's  Bride  be- 
Trothe  with  purest  gold!'  — 

vn. 

Threatening  still  His  worst. 
Roars  the  Storm  again; 

Quick  the  Sheet  is  burst  — 
Snaps  the  yard  in  twain. 

'Gainst  th'  half- buried  Ship,  commotion- 

Toss'd,  high  waves  to  boarding  go; 
And  howe'er  they  bale,  is  Ocean 

Not  so  soon  bal'd  out,  we  know! 
Not  ev*n  frithiof  now  doubts  longer 

That  He  carries  Death  on  board; 
Yet  than  storm  or  billow  stronger. 

Higher,  sounds  His  lordly  word:  — 


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'Hither  bj6Rn!  The  rudder 
Grasp  with  bear -paw  strongly; 
valhall's  Pow'rs  sure  send  not 
Weather  such  as  this: 
Witchraft's  working!  helgb^ 
C  oward  -  scoundrel ,  doubtless 
Conjurd  has  these  billows  — 
I  will  up  and  seel' 

VIII. 

Like  Marten,  he  flew 

Up  the  bending  mast; 
And  there,  fast -clinging,  threw 

Many'  a  glance  o'er  the  waste. 

Look!  —  as  isle  that  loose -torn  drifteth  — 

Stops  that  Whale  ellida's  way; 
Sea -fiends  two  the  Monster  lifteth 

High  on's  back,  through  boiling  spray: 
HEJD  is  wrapp'd  in  snowy  cov'ring, 

Fashion'd  like  the  white -furrd  bear,  — 
HAM,  'mid  whistling  winds  grim -hov ring. 

Storm -bird  like  assaults  the  air: 

*Now,  ellida!  show  us 

Whether,  as  'tis  boasted, 

Hero -mood  thy  iron -fast 

Round  oak- bosom  holds!  — 

Listen!  Art  Thou  truly 

agir's  God -sprung  daughter  — 

Up!  with  copper- keel,  and 

Gore  that  spell-charm'd  Whale!'  — 


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;  IX. 

And  ELLIDA  hears 

Her  young  Lord's  behest. 
With  one  bound  —  gulfs  clears 

To  the  Troll- Whale's  breast. 

From  the  wound  a  stream  out -gushes 

Up  toward  Heav'n,  of  smoking  blood; 
And,  gash*d  through,  the  beast  do^vn-rushes. 

Roaring,  to  the  deepest  mud: 
Then,    at  once,  the  Hero  slingeth 

Two  sharp  spears;  one  the'  Ice -Bears  hide 
Pierceth,  the'  other  deadly  springeth 

Through  yon  pitch-black  Eagle's  side.  — 

*Bravely  struck,  ellida!  — 

Not  so  soon  will  helge's 

Dragon -ship  leap  upwards 

Out  from  bloody  mud: 

HEJD  nor  HAM  much  longer 

The'  up  -  toss'd  sea  will  keep ,  for 

Bitter  'tis  to  bite  the 

Hard  blue -shining  steel!'  — 

X. 
And  the  Storm  —  it  had  fled 

At  once  from  the  Sea; 
Only  ground -swells  led 

To  the'  Isle  on  their  lea. 

And  at  once  the  Sun  fresh  treadeth. 

Monarch  like  in  Hall  of  blue ; 
Joy  o'er  ship  and  wave  She  spreadeth , 

Hill  and  dale  creates  anew. 
Sunset's  beamingg  crown  with  gold  the 

Craggy  rock  and  grove  -  dark  plain ;  — 


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All,  with  glad  surprise 9  behold  the 
Shores  of  efjesund  again. 

*ing'borg's  Prayrs,  —  pale  Maidens, 

Up   to   VALHALL  rising  — 

Lily-white,  on  Heav'n's  own 
Gold -floors  bent  the  knee: 
Tears  in  light -blue  eyes,  and 
Sighs  from  swan -down  bosoms 
The*  ASAR*s  stern  hearts  melted  — 
Thank,  then,  thank  the  Gods!'  — 

XI. 
But  ELLiDA  rose 

Sore  jarr'd  by  the  whale, 
And  water -logg*d  goes. 

All  awear'd  by  Her  Sail. 

Yet  more  wearied  than  their  Dragon 

Totter  frithiof's  gallant  men; 
Though  each  leans  upon  his  weapon. 

Scarcely  upright  stand  they  then. 
BJORN,  on  powrful  shoulder,  dareth 

Four  to  carry  to  the  land; 
FRJTHIOF ,  all  alone ,  eight  beareth ,  — 

Sets  them  so  round  the*  upblaz'd  brand. 

*Nay!  ye  white  fac*d,  shame  not  I 
Waves  are  mighty  Vikings; 
Hard's  the*  uneqiial  struggle  — 
Ocean's  maids  our  foes. 
See!  there  comes  the  Mead -Horn, 
Wand'ring  on  bright  gold -foot; 
Shipmates!  cold  limbs  warm,  —  and 
Here's  to  ingeborg!'  — 


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CANTO  Xb 


ftithiift  at  thi  Caurt 

of 


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Argument. 

TTith  a  fresh 9  vigourous,  popular >  ease  this  Canto  con- 
ducts us  to  the  Court  of  Jarl  angantyr,  the  generous  and 
civilized  Chief  of  the  Orkneys. 

FRiTHiOF  and  his  men  have  scarcely  landed,  when  • —  the 
VFcary  Envoy  is  welcomed  by  the  grim  atle's  brutal  challenge. 
He  accepts  the  offer,  and  vanquishes  and  spares  his  foe. 

Old  halvar  then  comes  up  —  though  rather  late,  'tis  true 
-r-  to  separate  the  combataints  and  announce  tfie  banquet 

AKCiAKfYR'a  reception  of  bla  daring  nod  renowned  TisHor, 
inspires  us  with  a  high  admiration  of  his  noble  qualities.  After 
listening  to  his  adventures,  be  presents  him  with  the  tribute 
he  came  to  demand,  and  with  a  friendly  force  detains  him  over 
the  Winter  in  hisi  UbHa. 

We  need  not  adjj>  that  the  pure  Balbd  style  (of  which 
this  Canto  may  be  considered  a  specimen)  is  very  difBcult  in 
English.  Neither  too  high  nor  too  low,  it  must  unite  simplicity 
with  strength,  and  natural  and  national  expressions  with  that 
dignified  language  equally  opposite  to  vulgarity  and  to  fustian. 
It  was  better,  however,  to  risk  the  danger,  than  altogether  to 
lose  the  effect. 


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TJRITHTOF  WITH  A:N^C^AXTYR  . 

•?Z 'It. y% r 


y  ozatjuof,  i<wwu«<i«i**. 


€Sh-w€fift4t,rl3a\rl . 


Vovcle 


*!f'  •>  }\y}  rh^  "J.  -J) 


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CANTO  XI. 


jftiVbiot  at  tfit  eoutt  of  mtqmtut^ 

I. 

IMow  say  we.  Ocean  quitting. 

How  ANGANTYR  was  then 
Within  His  Fir- Hall  sitting. 

At  wassail  with  his  men. 
Right  glad  He  was,  and  bended 

His  eye  blue  waves  upon. 
Where  Ev'ning's  Sun  descended 

All  like  a  golden  Swan. 

n. 

Outside  the  window  chances 

Old  HALVAR  watch  to  be. 
Right  earnest  were  His  glances,  — 

The  mead  too  guarded  He: 
One  custom  miss'd  He  never. 

To  scan  the  bottom  o'er,  — 
And  then,  in  silence,  ever 

The  Horn  thrust  in  for  more. 
ra. 

Now  far  i*  th'  HaB,  loud -rattling. 

His  empty  Horn  he  threw. 
And  cried:  —  ''Gainst  slorm- waves  battUug 

A  ship  at  hand  I  view; 


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On  board  half- dead  they  tarry, 
Now  come  ihey  lo  the  land. 

And  two  tall  giants  carry 

The  pale  ones  to  the  strand.'  — 
IV. 

The  Jarl's  keen  gazings  wander 

Where  bright  waves  mirrowing  flow; 
'ellida's  sail  is  yonder. 

And  frithiof's  there  I  trow: 
His  gait  and  brow  discover 

Again  old  thorsten's  Son; 
Search  all  the  Northland  over, 

Ye'll  ne'er  find  such  a  one!'  — 
V. 

Then  Berserk  ATLE  springeth. 

Fierce -grinning,  from  his  place,  — 
(Blood -stain'd,  his  black  beard  flingeth 

Brute  grimness  o'er  his  face  — ) 
And  screams  —  *ril  prove  the  saying 

That  FRITHIOF,  all  his  days. 
Unnerves  the  sword  from  slaying 

Nor  e'er  for  quarter  prays.' 
n. 

And  up  with  him  all  eager 

His  twelve  dread  champions  spring; 
Impatient,  the'  air  they  dagger 

And  sword  and  bill -axe  swing: 
Then  coastward  storm'd  they,  heated. 

To  where  the  Dragon  lay,  — 
And  FRITHIOF,  careless  seated. 

Full  stoutly  talk'd  away. 


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vn. 

•Right  well  I  now  could  kill  thee'; 

With  shouts  'gan  AXLE  cry; 
*Thou,  yet,  may'st  either  will  thee 

To  battle  heire  or  fly: 
But  if  for  peace  thou  prayest , 

Though  Champion  hard  and  bold. 
Through  me  the  Jarl  thou  mayest 

In  friendly  guise  behold!'  — 
vm. 

Said  FRITHIOF;  'With  my  voyage 

Fm  spent,  'tis  true;  —  yet  may 
Our  Falchions  prove  our  courage 

Ere  peace  from  thee  I  prayf  — 
Then  steel  full  soon  did  lighten 

In  sun -brown  champion -hand. 
And  quick  its  flame -runes  brighten 

On  frithiof's  sharp  -  tongu'd  brand. 
EC. 

Fast,  now,  are  sword -thrusts  given. 

And  death-blows  hail  around; 
At  once  fly  both  shields,  riven 

In  halves,  upon  the  ground. 
Their  fight's  uncensurable , 

They  finn  their  circle  ti'ead. 
But  keen  bit  angurvadel. 

And  straight  broke  atle's  blade. 
X. 

'My  sword',  said  frithiof,  *nevep 
'Gainst  swordless  man  I  wave; 

But  an  thou  wilt,  however, 

A  diffrent  sport  we'll  have;  — : 


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Then  storm  they,  nothing  yielded. 
Two  autumn -billows  like! 

And  oft,  with  steel  round  shielded. 
Their  jarring  breasts  fierce  strike. 
XI, 

All  like  two  bears  they  wrestle. 

On  hills  of  snow;  and  draw 
And  strain,  each  like  an  eagle 

On  the'  angry  Sea  at  war. 
The  root -fast  rock  resisted 

Full  hardly  them  between 
And  green  iron -oaks  down -twisted 

With  lesser  pulls  have  been, 
xn. 

From  each  broad  brow  sweat  rushes; 

Their  bosoms  coldly  heave ; 
And  stones  and  mounds  and  bushes 

Dints  hundred-fold  receive. 
With  awe  its  close  abide,  the 

Men  steel-clad  on  the  strand; 
That  wrestling -match  was  widely 

Renown'd  in  Northern  Land, 
xni. 

At  last,  to  the'  earth  down -reeling. 

Has  FRITHIOF  fell'd  His  foe , 
And  'gainst  His  bosom  kneeling. 

Fierce  words  succeed  the  blow; 
'If  but  my  Sword  I  brandish'd  — 

O  swarthy  Berserk -beard,  — 
Its  point,  ere  now,  base  -  vanquished  I 

Had  through  thy  back  appear'd.' 


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Ill 


XIV. 

*Let  not  that  hindrance  'larm  thee;' 

Grim  ATLE  proudly  cried; 
*Go!  with  thy  rune -blade  arm  thee, 

I'll  lie  as  I  have  lied :  — 
We  both  at  last  must  wander 

Bright  VALHALl's  halls  to  view; 
To-day  can  I  go  yonder. 

Tomorrow,  haply  you!'  — 
XV, 

And  long  pause  FRITHIOF  made  not. 

That  play  he  finish  will; 
He  ANGURVADEL  stay'd  not,  — 

But  ATLE  yet  lay  still;  — 
Whereat,  His  heart  relenting. 

He  quick  held -in  His  brand 
And  check'd  His  wrath,  presenting 

The  fallen  foe  His  hand. 
XVI. 

Now  HALVAR  wam'd  right  loudly. 

And  rais'd  his  wand  of  white,  — 
*This  fray  ye  sport  so  proudly 

Here  causeth  no  delight: 
High -smoking  long  have  gold,  and 

Fair  silver,  dishes  stood; 
The  savoury  meats  grow  cold,  and 

My  thirst  doth  me  no  good!'  — 
xvn. 

Appeas'd,  each  now  advances 
Within  the  Jarl's  Hall -door; 

And  much  meets  frithiof's  glances 
He  ne'er  had  seen  before: 


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The  bare  walls  from  the  weather 
No  rough -plan'd  planks  protect, 

But  precious  rich -gilt  leather 

With  fruits  and  flow  rs  bedeck'd. 
xvm. 

There,  midst  the  floor,  ascended 

No  blazing  hearth -fire's  light. 
But  'gainst  the  wall  was  bended 

The  marble  chimney  bright? 
No  smoke  the  dark  roof  tarnish'd 

No  soot  the  beams  o'ercast; 
Glass  panes  the  windows  garnish'd. 

And  locks  the  door  held  fast. 
xrx.. 

There  many'  a  candle  brighten'd 

From  silver  arms;  no  torch 
With  crackling  blaze  enlighten'd 

The  champions'  rude  debauch. 
Whole -roast,  rich  odours  flinging, 

A  Stag  the  board  adorns. 
Its  gold  -  hoof  rais'd  for  springing. 

And  leafd  its  grove -like  horns. 
XX. 

Behind  each  Chief,  a  Virgin 

Stands  up  with  lily  dye. 
Just  like  some  Star  emerging 

From  out  a  stormy  sky; 
Each  step  brovsm  locks  discloses , 

Clear  sparkle  eyes  of  blue ,  — 
And,  like  to  rune-sprung  roses. 

Small  lips  bud  forlh  to  view. 


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XXI. 

But  liigh^  right  kinglj  seeming » 

Sat  th*  Jarl  in  silver  chair. 
His  Helm  with  sun -rays  streamjng. 

His  Mail  With  gold  wrought  fair; 
And  glist'ning  stars  o'er-powder'd 

His  Mantle  rich  and  fine. 
Its  purple  edging  border'd 

With  spotless  Ermeline. 
xxn. 
Steps  three  he  took,  to  meet  him. 

To'  his  Guest  his  hand  stretch'd  free. 
Then  friendly  thus  did  greet  him,  — 

'Gomel  Seat  thee  next  to  me! 
Full  many'  a  horn  I've  emptied 

With  THORSTEN,  my  good  fieri 
His  Son,  the  wide -commended. 

Shall  sit  his  Host  as  near!'  — 
xxin. 
The  Goblet  then  he  crowneth 

With  Sik'lo's  richest  wine. 
Its  flame -sparks  nothing  drowneth. 

It  foams  like  Ocean's  brine!  — 
'My  old  Friend's  Son,  I  send  Thee 

A  welcome  here  again; 
I  drink  —  *to  thorsten's  Mem'ry',  — 

Myself  and  all  my  men!' 
xxrv. 
A  Bard  from  morven's  mountains 

Now  sweeps  the  harp  along. 
From  Gaelic  music -fountains 

Springs  sad  his  hero -song; 


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But  in  Norranic  chaunteth 

Another,  ancient -wise. 
He  thorsten's  exploits  vaunteth 

And  takes  the  scaldic  prize. 
XXV. 

Now  th'  Jarl  to  ask  delighted 

Of  Northern  kinsmen  dear. 
And  fRiTHiOF  all  recited 

In  words  well-weigh'd  and  clear; 
Nor  Truth's  just  measure  broke  he. 

Impartial  was  his  doom; 
Like  Queenly  saga  spoke  he 

In  Memory's  holy  room. 

XXVI. 

When  next,  He  all  repeated 

On  the'  Ocean's  deeps  he'd  seen. 
And  how  'mid  waves  defeated 

The  King's  gidm  Imps  had  been;  ~ 
Then  joy  the  champions  proudly. 

Then  angantyr  smiles  too,  — 
And  shouts,  re-echo'd  loudly, 

His  brave  adventures  drew. 
xxvn. 

But  —  when  His  tale  He  changes 

To  ing'borg.  His  Belov'd, 
How  tender -sad  she  ranges. 

Her  grief  how  noble  prov'd ;  — 
Then  many'  a  damsel  sighing 

With  cheeks  on  fire  doth  stand; 
How  fain  she'd  press,  replying. 

That  true-love  Knight's  bold  hand! 


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xxvm. 

At  last,  the  young  Chief  *ginneth 

His  errand  tO  speak  about. 
And  th'  Jarl's  kind  ear  he  winneth 

Who,  patient,  hears  him  out;  — * 
*I  tribute -bound  was  never, 

My  People  too  is  free; 
Well  —  'bele*  —  drink,  but  ever 

His  friends  not  subjects  bel 
XXIXv 
*His  Sons  t  know  not;  Would  they 

Draw  taxes  from  Iny  land,  — 
As  all  brave  Princes  should,  they 

Can  ask  them  sword  in  hand; 
When  here  —  my  Falchion  reckons!  -^ 

Thy  Father  yet  was  dear!'  — 
Then  with  his  hand  he  beckons 

To'  his  Daughter  sitting  near. 
XXX. 
Then  up  that  flow'r- shoot  tender 

Sprang  quick  from  gold-back'd  chair. 
Her  waist  was  all  so  slender 

Her  breasts  so  round  and  fair ! 
That  little  rogue  young  astrild 

Her  dimpled  cheeks  disclose, 
Like  Butterfly  wind -carried 

To  some  just-op'ning  Rose.  — 

XXXI* 

To*  her  virgin -bow'r  she  speedeth. 
And  green -worVd  Purse  she  brings^ 

Where  many  a  wild  thing  treadeth 
In  woodland  -  wanderings ; 


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And  o*er  the  Sea,  sail-whil*ning. 
Do  silver  Moonbeams  shine,  —• 

Its  lock  are  rubies  bright'ning. 
Its  tassels  golden  twine, 
xxxn. 

Her  gentle  Sire  has  taken 

The  Purse  she  thus  doth  hold. 
And  fills  to  th'  brim,  down -shaken. 

With  far  -  off  minted  gold ;  — 
*My  welcome's -gift  I  bear  thee. 

Be'  it  us'd  as  best  it  may; 
But  now  shall  frithiof  swear  me 

All  winter  here  to  stay!' 
xxxin. 

*Mood  vanquishes  all  over,  — 

But  now  the  Storm-winds  reign , 
And  HEJD  and  HAM  recover 

I  fear,  their  strength  again; 
ELLIDA  springs  not  always 

So  luck-ful  as  before. 
Though  one  we've  miss'd,  the  billows 

Right  many  whales  ride  o'er!'  — 

Thus  quaffd  they  there  and  jested 

Till  morn  re -lit  her  torch. 
But  that  gold  wine -cup  zested 

A  feast  —   no  wild  debauch; 
At  last  a  brimming  Bumper 

They  drain  —  Ho  angaiItyr',  — 
And  FRITHIOF  thus  the  winter 

Pass'd  out  with  right  good  cheer! 


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CAHTO  XIL 


frithiots  iXituvn* 


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Argument. 

Frithiof  returns.  •—  Apd  behold  he  is  the  same,  equally 
faithful «  equally  hopeful,  equally  worshiping  his  Love.  But 
alas!  Hoiv  all  is  changed  around  him!  His  Home ^ Halls  a  smok- 
ing ruin,  —  his  mcEBORG  afar -off  and  given  to  another,  — 
the  ^sorrowful  and  houseless"  young  warrior  standeth  still  and 
^'wotteth  not  what  it  may  mean." 

But  HiLDiNG,  that  ^'ancient"  so  friendly  to  his  Foster-Child, 
has  watched  the  Framniis-steered  ellida  touch  the  strand,  and 
hastens  to  meet,  instruct,  and  console  him.  In  few  but  chosen 
words,  he  tells  him  of  the  unsuccessful  battle  fought  by  the 
Brothers,  King  binges  unrelenting  conditions  for  a  Peace,  the 
consequent  forced  marriage  of  their  Sister  with  the  armed  and 
venerable  suitor^  and  helge's  dastardly  revenge  in  setting  fire 
to  the  Homestead  of  the  absent  Tribute  seeker.  -^  frithiof's 
answer  is  worthy  of  any  Poet  of  any  age,  and  only  its  Author 
could  have  dictated  hilding's  reply  —  by  which  the  inflamed 
and  insulted  youth  is  silenced  —  but  not  convinced: 

'ALLFATHER  dooms',  muttcr'd  FRITHIOF,  glooming; 

*But  I,  too,  may  for  awhile  be  dooming. 

Tis  balder's  Midsummer  Holy  Feast,  — 

I  th'  Temple,  crown'd,  will  stand  his  Priest;  — 

Th^t  Arson -King,  who  his  Sister  blooming 

Has  sold,  ru  too  for  awhile  be  dooming! 


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CANTO  XII. 


Out  Spring  breathes  soft  in  yon  Heav'n  of  blue , 
And  Earth's  green  verdure  again  is  new : 
His  Host  then  frithiof  thanketh,  in  motion 
Once  more  out  over  the  plains  of  Ocean. 
On  sun -bright  pathway  His  coal-black  Swau 
Her  silv'ry  furrow  with  joy  ploughs  on. 
For  western  breezes.  Spring's  music  bringing, 
Like  JNigthingales  in  the  sails  are  singing; 
And  agir's  Daughters,  in  blue  veils  dight. 
The  helm  leap  round,  and  urge  on  its  flight.  — 
Ah!  pleasant  'tis  —  when,  from  far-off  sailing, 
Thy  prow  thou  turn'st  to  thy  Homeland!  —  hailing 
The  coast  where  smoke  from  thy  own  Hearth's  curl'd. 
And  Mem'ry  guards  her  fair  Childhood -world! 
The  fresh -stream'd  fountain  thy  Play -place  washes. 
While  Barrows  green  hold  thy  Fathers'  ashes; 
And,  full  of  longing,  thy  faithful  Maid 
With  sea -ward  gaze  on  the  cliff  is  staid!  — 
Days  six  he  sails,  on  the  seventh's  dawning 
A  dark -blue  stripe  he  discerns,  which  Morning 
At  Heaven's  far  border  shows  slowly  rise 
Till  rocks,  isles,  'land'  quick  salute  his  eyes! 
His  Land  it  is  from  the  deep  that  springeth. 
Its  shades  they  are  which  the  Green -Wood  flingeth. 


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lis  foaming  torrents  he  hears  war  there. 

As  breast  of  marble  the  rock  lays  bare.  — 

He  hails  the  headland,  the  strait  he  haileth. 

And  close  to  balder's  retreat  he  saileth. 

Wherein,  last  summer,  so  many'  a  night 

With  ing'borg  seated  he  dream'd  delight.  — 

•Why  comes  She  not?  —  Has  She  no  fond  presage 

How  near  I  swing  on  the  dark -blue  sea- surge? 

But  haply',  abandoning  BAI^DEr's  walls. 

She  sorrowful  sits  in  Her  regal  halls 

Her  Harp  soft  striking,  or  bright  gold  wea\eth!'  — 

The  Temple's  pinnacles  sudden  leaveth 

His  Falcon  then,  and  from  heav'n  hath  sped 

To  frithiof's  shoulder,  as  oft  he'd  fled. 

His  white  wing  ceaseless  he  flaps  above  him. 

And,  faithful,  thence  no  allurements  move  him; 

With  fire  "bright  talon  he  ceaseless  scrapes, 

Jfor  x^est  he  gives  nor  repose  he  tak^s. 

To  frithiof's  ear,  then,  his  crook'd  bill  wended 

As  though  some  message  to  give  'twas  bended. 

Perhaps  from  ING'^org,  his  dear-lov'd  Bride,  — 

But  broken  sounds  —  what  can  they  betide? 

ELLIDA,  rustling,  the  Cape  now  passes. 
Glad -bounding,  hind -like  o'er  verdant  grasses; 
For  well-known  waves  'gainst  the  keel  have  gonej 
But  frithiof,  joyful.  Her  prow  upon. 
His  eyes  oft  rubs,  and  his  hand  upholdeth 
Above  His  brow  ,  and  the  shore  beholdeth ;  — 
But  rub  He'  or  look  as  He  may,  no  more 
His  FRAMNAs'  home  shall  He  e'er  explore! 
The  naked  chimney  is  grimly  tow'ring. 


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Like  champion -skerton  in  grave -mound  low'ring; 

\Vhere  Court-halls  stood,  is  a  fire -clear  d  land; 

And  ashes  whirl  round  the  ravag'd  strand. 

Then  frithiof  quick  from  the  ship  advances^ 

O'er  burnt  demesnes  casting  angry  glances^ 

His  Father's  grounds  and  His  childhood's  walks;  — 

But  rough -hair'd  BRAN  up  to  meet  him  stalks. 

His  faithful  Dog  that  for  Him  bold  wrestled 

Full  oft  with  bears  in  the  forest  nestled; 

How  glad  his  gambols,  how  glad  his  leaps^ 

How  high  to'  his  Master  he  springing  keeps!  — 

His  milk-white  Courser,  (with  mane  gold -blended. 

And  hind-like  legs  and  a  neck  swan- bended,) 

Which  FRITHIOF  once  had  so  often  rode. 

With  lofty  bounds  from  the  dale,  too,  trode. 

And  turns  his  neck,  neighing  glad,  and  lingers 

And  bread  will  have  from  his  Masters  fingers:  — 

Poor  FRITHIOF,  poorer  by  far  than  they. 

Has  nought  for  his  fav'rites  howe'er  they  pray! 

As  sad  and  houseless  He  stands,  round -vie  wing 
For  land  he'd  heir'd  —  the  burnt  woodland -ruin. 
See !  aged  hilding  advances  there 
His  Fosterfather  with  silver  hair:  — 
*At  this  black  show  can  I  scarcely  wonder. 
When  the'  Eagle's  flown  they  his  dwelling  plunder. 
A  kingly  exploit  for  peace  I  see; 
Oath  HELGE  took,  right  well  keepeth  he,  — 
The  Gods  to  worship,  —  mankind  abhorring!  — 
His  'Progress'  call  we  an  Arson -warring. 
Not  grief,  but  anger  it  works,  I  swear; 
But  ing'borg's  —  tell  me  I  pray  thee  —  where?'  — 
'Dark  words  I  bring,'  said  this  Yeoman  hoary; 


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Not  glad,  I  ween,  wilt  Thou  find  my  story.  — 

Thou  scarce  hadst  saird,  when  King  ring  drew  nigh. 

Shields  five    gainst  one  could  I  well  descry. 

At  DISAR-DALE,  by  the  Stream,  they  battled. 

And  blood -red  foaming  its  waters  rattled. 

King  HALFDAN  jested  and  laugh*d  away, 

Nathless  he  struck  like  a  man  that  day; 

The  kingly  stripling  my  target  shielded , 

His  skilPs  first  trial  such  pleasure  yielded. 

But  short  enough  did  their  war -sport  last. 

For  —  HELGE  fled,  and  then  all  was  past! 

But  the'  ASA -Kinsman  in  all  haste  lighted 

Thy  Halls  so  fair,  as  he  'scap'd  affrighted.  — 

Now  two  hard  terms  for  the  Brothers  stand;  — ^ 

To  RING  they  yield  shall  their  Sisters  hand, 

(For  atonement  could  but  by  Her  be  tender  d) 

Or  —  land  and  crown  must  be  both  surrendered: 

And  Peaceful  Heralds  right  frequent  ride,  — 

But  now  King  ring  hath  ta'en  home  his  Bride!*  — 

*0!    Woman,  Woman!'  —  cried  frithiof  madly, 
*When  Thought  with  LORE  first  shelter d  gladly, 
A  Lie  it  was !  and  He  sent  it  then 
In  Woman's  shape  to  the  world  of  Men! 
Yes!  a  blue -eyed  Lie,  who  with  false  tears  ruleth, 
Encbanteth  always,  and  alway  fooleth; 
A  rose-cheek'd  Lie,  with  rich  -  swelling  breast. 
And  in  Spring -ice  virtue  and  Wind -faith  drest; 
With  guileful  heart  She,  deceitful,  glances, 
And  Perjury  still  on  her  fresh  lips  dances!  — 
And  yet  how  dear  to  my  soul  was  She  — 
How  dear  was  then ,  ah !  yet  is  to  me  I 


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In  all  my  sports,  far  as  Mem'rj  reaches. 

My  Mate  was  ing*borg!  Remembrance  teaches 

That  of  each  high  exploit  my  proud  Youth  dream'd. 

Herself  as  Prize  still  most  precious  seem'd.  — 

Like  two  fair  Trees ,  by  one  root  united ,  — 

Has  THOR  one  stem  with  His  lightnings  blighted. 

Straight  withers  the'  other,  —  is  one  all  green,  — 

With  verdure  crown'd  is  its  spouse -trunk  seen;  -^ 

So'  our  grief  and  gladness  were  thus  one  only! 

Not  us'd  is  FRITHIOF  to  think  him  lonely; 

Now  IS  he  lonely,  —  Thou  lofty  var! 

Where  pencil -bearing  Thou  joumiest  far. 

And  oaths  on  tablets  of  gold  inscribest  — 

Let  be  those  fooFriesJ   Thon  dreams  describest. 

Thy  tablets  marking  all  ftill  of  lies ; 

On  faithful  gold  —  what  a  pity  'tis! 

Of  balder's  nanna  some  tale  fame  telleth ; 

On  human  brow  now  no  Truth  more  dwelleth. 

In  human  bosom  all  Faith  is  spent,  — 

Since  ing'borg's  voice  has  to  guile  been  lent. 

That  voice  like  Zephyr  o'er  flow'r-meads  creeping. 

Like  brage's  music  —  His  harp -strings  sweeping] 

Ah  I  ne'er  mine  ear  shall  those  harp -tones  drink; 

Of  that  false  Bride  ne'er  again  I'll  think;  -^ 

The  dancing  storm -wave  shall  be  my  pillow. 

Thou  blood  shall  drink,  thou  wide  ocean -billow! 

Where  sword -blades  scatter  the  Barrows'  seed. 

O'er  hill  o'er  dale  shall  my  foot- steps  speed! 

All  crown'd,  perchance,  I  may  meet  a  stranger,  ^ 

I'd  know  if  then  I  shall  spare  from  danger! 

Some  youth,  perchance,  I  may  meet,  all  calm 

And  full  of  love  'mid  the  shields'  alarm , 


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Some  fool  on  honour  and  truth  depending,  <^ 
From  pity*  —  I'll  hew!  —  his  poor  life  quick  •ending: 
ril  save  from  shame;  he  shall  glorious  die  — 
Not  guil'd,  betray'd,  nor  despis'd  —  as  I!* 

*How  still  boils  over,'  now  hilding  pleaded, 
'Youth's  hot  fierce  blood;  and  yet.  Son!  how  needed 
To  cool  its  fervors  are  years  of  snow:  — 
That  noble  Maiden  nor  wrong  thou  so! 
My  Foster -Daughter  impeach  not!  •—  Better 
Impeach  the  NORNOR;  for  who  can  fetter 
Their  angry  Fates,  which  —  on  this  our  world  — 
Heav'n's  Thunder -land  hither  down  hath  hurl'd? 
Her  sorrows  nobly  to  none  proclaiming. 
E'en  legend -YIDAR  in  silence  shaming^ 
Her  grief  was  still ,  —  as ,  in  south-wood  side 
Some  turtle-dove's,  when  her  mate  hath  died. 
Her  heart,  nathless.  She  to  me  disclosed; 
And  —  endless  pangs  in  its  depths  reposed ! 
The  Water-bird  when  death •  pierc'd  her  breast. 
To  th*  bottom  dives,  with  one  comfort  blest  — 
That  burning  day  will  not  see  her  bruises. 
Lies  so  below  and  her  life-blood  loses;  — 
Thus  shrank  Her  pain  to  the  realms  of  Night , 
None  knew  but  I  all  Her  griefs  aright!  — 
*For  bele's  realm  they've  an  ofF'ring  bound  me 
And  Winter's  verdure  is  hung  around  me; 
While  fragrant  snow-flow'rs  bloom  round  my  hair, 
I'm  a  Peace -maid  now:  sure  the  victim's  fair! 
Ah!  Death  were  easy!  —  But  Death  pain  stilleth; 
Atonement  only  scom'd  balder  willeth, 
A  ling'ring  death,  —  no  repose  it  meets. 


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Its  heart  still  flatters,  its  pulse  still  beats!  — 

But  the  weak  one*s  struggles  reveal  thou  never. 

None  pity  shall,  though  I  grieve  for  ever; 

King  bele's  Daughter  Her  woes  will  bide.  — 

Yet  FRITHIOF  hail  from  his  once  hop*<l  Bride!'  — 

The  Wedding  day  came  at  last,  (^its  token 

rd  willing  see  from  my  rune-sta£P  broken^) 

To  th*  Temple  glided  a  long-drawn  train 

Of  white -rob'd  Virgins  and  sword -clad  men: 

A  gloomy  Minstrel  before  them  wended,  — 

O'er  black -hued  palfrey  the  pale  Bride  bended, 

Like  that  pale  Spirit  which  sits  up  o'er 

The  dusky  cloud  when  the  thunders  roar! 

My  Lily  tall,  from  Her  saddle  bearing, 

I  led  then  forth  through  the  Temple,  faring 

To  the'  Altar- Circle  where.  Priests  among, 

lofn's  vows  she  took  with  unfalt'ring  tongue. 

To  th'  White  God,  too.  She  long  pray'rs  presented; 

And  all,  save  only  the  Bride,  lamented. 

Then  first  the  ring  on  Her  tap'ring  arm 

Grim  helge  mark'd ,  and  straight  snatch'd  the  charm ; 

Now  BALDER  wearelh  the  glitt'ring  trifle.  — 

My  rage  I  then  could  no  longer  stifle. 

My  good  sword  quick  from  its  scabbard  forth 

I  drew,  —  then  little  was  helge  worth;  — 

But  ing'borg  whisper'd,  —  *Let  be!  a  brother 

Gould  this  have  spar'd  ,  —  I  had  borne  all  other; 

Yet  much  we  suffer  before  we  die,  — 

ALLFATHER  'tween  us  will  doom  on  high!* 

*ALLFATHER  dooms !'  —  mutter'd  frithiof  glooming; 
'But  I,  too,  may  for  awhile  be  dooming. 


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126 

*Tis  BALDER*s  Midsummer  holy  Feast, 
And  crown'd  i   th*  Temple  will  stand  his  Priest; 
That  Arson -King,  who  his  Sister  blooming 
Has  sold,  —  Pll,  too,  for  awhile  be  dooming!'  — 


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CAMTO  XIIL 


tta(l»)rrs  |l$r«* 


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Argument. 

Terrible  is  the  misery ,  grand  the  desolation,  presented  to 
us  in  this  exceedingly  massive  Canto.  Every  Line  is  a  sentence, 
every  Stanza  a  picture. 

The  bold  and  successful  Ocean -adventurer,  penetrates  into 
the  interior  of  balder's  Tenlple ,  at  whose,  altar  the  malignant 
and  bigot  ruffian -king  is  sacrificing.  Flinging  the  purse  in- 
stead of  giving  it,  he  fells  to  the  Earth  his  enemy;  then 
seizing  his  ^Arm-Ring  the  Good'  which  he  finds  adorning  the 
Image  instead  of  mcEBORG,  he  wrenches  and  pulls  till  the 
wooden  Idol  itself  gives  way,  falls  headlong  among  the  altar- 
flames,  —  and  in  a  moment  the  Temple,  that  sanctuary  so 
holy  and  so  venerable,  is  in  a  blaze!  Vain  are  all  efforts  to 
stop  the  flames;  timbers  snap,  metals  melt,  walls  yawn,  the 
Grove  blazes,  —  and  balder's  hage  is  no  more! 

Horror-struck  and  shuddering,  the  innocent  but  sacrilegious 
Temple -Firer  turneth  him  from  the  smoking  ruin,  and  ^weeps 
as  the  Mom  slow  breaketh." 


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BAI.D£R'£l  BYlUa. 


^<»tce. 


IHAFioforle. 


i 


^ii^-^^x/T 


4-  J.- 


^^  {'  If  f  If   ft 


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^Rtr-f0^^^&r  ^/'s^'-^frui'' ufy  t^'dn^^ ^um ,  a2l    "^^^^re^  ^?'ufjk^ 


Jio"-^  -^«^        iiW—^md-  eal^ ,-  J5^'       -u'tw   -ru^    datf      z/ 


fiLrgr  t^ifT-f-f--^!!^.  J  Ji^^ 


jiox   7wffttaA^y^eut*€'eeniS^€»t  it    m^u-    ^t^-  -^*rt<^-iui^.    Ji"    u^a^-ru^  datf.    eY 


111!  I'    I''   I'   Mr   ■^••^  ^  > 


^^ 


.7»<7«f      TH^At.  iff -pfi'fen^  i^^jft     vf      T€/ieir     •z*^  — yoen^ 


«f^ 


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CANTO  xin. 


Ualtitv'a  t^^re. 


r. 

IMidnight's  Sun,  all  blood- red  bright. 

Far- oflF  hills  o'erbended; 
It  was  not  day,  it  was  not  night. 

Between  them  it  was  suspended. 


n* 


balder's  Pyre,  of  the  Sun  a  Mark, 

Holy  Hearth  red-staineth; 
Yet,  soon  dies  its  last  faint  spark. 

Darkly  then  HODER  reigneth. 

m. 

Ancient  Priests  round  the  Temple -wall 
Stood,  and  the  pile -brands  shifted; 

Silver -bearded  and  pale,  they  all 
Flint -knives  in  hard  hands  lifted. 

IV. 

HELGE,  crown'd,  standeth  them  beside. 
Help  'mid  the  circle  profF'ring. 

Hark!  then  clatter,  at  midnight's  tide. 
Arms  in  the  grove  of  OfF'ring.  — 


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V. 


*bj6ks,  the  door  hold  close,  Man!  —  So! 

Pris'ners  they  '11  all  ohey  me; 
Out  or  in  whoe'er  would  go  — 

Cleave  his  skull,  I  pray  thee.' 


VI. 


Pale  waxeth  helge,  —  that  voice  too  well 
Knows  he^  and  what  presaging. 

Forth  trod  FRITHIOF,  and  dark  words  fell 
Storm  like  in  Autumn  raging. 


VII. 


*Here's  the  tribute.  Prince!  thy  breath 
Ordered  from  western  waters; 

Take  it!  Then  —  for  life  or  death  — 
Fight  we  at  balder's  auters: 


vm. 


*Back  shield -cov^r'd,  my  bosom  bare. 
Nought  shall  unfair  be  reckoned. 

First,  as  King,  strike  thou!   Beware 
Mind  —  for  I  strike  the  second. 


IX. 


*Yonder  door?  —  Nay,  gaze.  Fool,  here! 

Caught  in  his  hole  the  fox  is; 
Think  of  Framnas,  and  ing'borg  dear 

Fam*d  that  for  golden  locks  is!' 


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So  His  Hero -accents  rang; 

Th'  Purse  from  his  belt  then  freely 
Drew  He,  and  careless  enough  it  flang 

Right  at  the  Son  of  bele. 


XL 


Blood  from  his  Mouth  gush*d  out  straightway, 

Streaming  blackly  splendent; 
There ,  by  his  altar,  swooning  lay 

The'  ASAR's  high  descendant. 


xnt 


*What!   Thine  own  gold  bearst  not?  —  Shame! 

Shame!  coward -king  vile -shrinking; 
ANGURVABEL  none  e'er  shall  blame 

Blood  so  base  for  drinking! 


xm. 


*Silence!  Priests  with  oflTring- knife. 
Chiefs  yon  Moon  lights  dimly! 

Noise  might  cost  each  wretched  life. 
Back!  —  for  my  blade  thirsts  grimly. 


XIV. 


*Rageful  Thine  eye,  white  balder,  shines; 

Yet,  why  so  anger -swollen? 
Yon  fair  Ring  Thine  arm  round -twines. 

Pardon  me,  but  'tis  stolen! 


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XV. 


'Not,  sure,  for  Thee  vaulunder  kept 
Graving  that  jewel's  wonders; 

Violence  stole,  and  the  Virgin  wept,  — 
Down  with  all  scoundrel -plunders!'  - 


XVI. 


Brave  he  puU'd;  but  fast -grown  seem'd 
The'  arm  and  the  Bing  so  curious; 

When  loos'd  at  last,  where  the'  Altar  gleamed 
Brightest  —  the  God  leapt  furious  1 


xvn. 


Hark,  that  crash!  Gnawing  gold-tooth'd  flame 

Bafter  and  roof  o'er- (jui vers; 
BJdRN  turns  pale  as  he  stands,  and  shame 

FRITHIOF  feels  —  that  he  shivers. 


xvm. 


'BJdRN,  release  them!  Unbar  the  door; 

Guarding  is  now  all  0v€r: 
Th'  Temple  blazes;  pour  water,  pour 

All  the  Sea  thereover!'  — 


XIX. 


Now  from  Temple  and  grove  and  strand. 
Chain-like,  they  clasp  each  other; 

Billows,  wand'ring  from  hand  to  hand. 
Hissing  the  fires  would  smother. 


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XX. 


Rain- God  like»  sits  frithiof  there » 
High  o'er  beams  and  waters, 

AU- directing  with  lordly  air. 

Calm  *mong  the  hot  fire  -  slaughters. 

XXI. 

Vain!  fire  conquers;  rolling  past. 
Smoke-clouds  whirl,  and  smelted 

Gold  on  red-hot  sands  falU  fast. 
Silver  plates  are  melted. 

XXBT. 

All,  airs  lost!  From  half-bum'd  Hall 
Th*  fire -red  Cock  up- swinge  th!  — 

Sits  on  the  roof,  and,  with  shrilly  call 
Flutt'ring ,  his  free  course^  wingeth. 

xxm. 

MomingV  winds  from  the  NortK  rush  by. 
Heavenward  the  fire -wave  surges, 

BALDer's  grove  is  summer -dry. 

Greedy  the  fierce  blaze  gorges;  •^« 

XXIV. 

Raging,  from  branch  to  branch  it  flew. 
Still  round  the  goal  ne'er  closing; 

Ah!  how  fearful  that  wild  light  grew, 
balder's  pyre  —  how  imposing! 


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XXV. 


Hark!  —  how  it  snaps  i'  th*  gaping  root; 

See!  from  the  top  sparks  shoWer;  — 
^Gainst  muspel*s  Sons^  the  red,  what  boot 

Man's  art,  man's  arm,  man's  power? 


XXYI. 


Fire -seas  tumble  in  balder's  grove; 

Shoreless  the  JjiUows  wander: 
Sun -beams  rise,  but  frith  and  cove 

Mirrow  Hell's  flame -lights  yonder! 

XXYEU 

To'  ashes  soon  is  the  Temple  bum'd. 
To'  ashes  the  Grove  so  blooming:  - 

FRITHIOF,  grief- ful,  away  has  tum'd^ 
Day  —  o'er  HiS  hot  tears  glooming! 


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CANTO  ZIT. 


fvithiot  00jetlt  into 


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Arguments 

This  Canto  opens  with  an  unrivaled  Monologue,  frithiof 
hastening  his  unavoidable  exile  from  his  beloved  Fatherland ,  is 
steering  towards  Ocean ,  Vhile  the  smoke  of  the  Temple  still 
rises  from  the  strand.'  His  passionate  words  somewhat  ease 
his  full  hearty  and  he  ends  with  the  exclamation  — 

'My  Life -Home  given 

Thou  shalty  far -driven. 

My  Barrow  be. 

Thou  free  broad  Sea!' 
But  he  is  pursued!  helge,  with  his  fleet  of  Dragons ,  has- 
tens to  grasp  the  fugitive  ere  he  escapes  his  vengeance.  — 
This  danger ,  however ,  has  been  foreseen*;  bjOrn  has  scuttled 
the  vessels  9  and  they  are  tilling  rapidly,  helge  and  his  crews 
escape  with  difficulty  to  shore,  and  the  Tyrant  owes  his  life 
only  to  the  ineffable  contempt  of  his  noble  foe,  who  then  chaunt- 
eth  a  Farewell  Song  to  his  Country's  Genius,  and  is  carried 
by  heaven's  fresh  breezes  to  those  'plains  blue-spreading'  on 
whose  broad  bosom  all  'unknown 

Are  despof  s  glances 

And  tyrant's  fancies!' 


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CANTO  XIV. 


j^viitfiof  goetfi  into  l$ani0|iment 


-His  ship's -deck  slight  ' 

r  th*  summer -night,  I 

Bore  th'  Hero  grieving. 

Like  waves  high -heaving,  ' 

Now  rage  now  woe 
Thro'  His  bo6om  flow.  — 

Smoke  still  ascended,  ' 

The  fire  not  ended.  I 


*Thou  Temple -smoke 
Fly  up!  —  Invoke 

From  high  VALHALLA 

The  rage  of  balder; 
Send  th'  white  God's  wrath 
To  blight  my  path! 
Fly  up!  and  chatter 
Till  the'  arches  clatter 
Say  —  Temple -round 
Burnt  thus  to  th'  ground; 
Thus  down  fell  sudden 
Thine  Image  wooden. 
Like  all  wood  lay 
And  burn'd  away!  -^ 
The  Grove,  too,  mention 


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138 

Secure  since  falchion 
Had  thigh -girt  been. 
Now  waste;  not  e'en 
Was  the'  honor  gotten 
To  sink,  time -rotten.  — ■ 
This,  —  more  thereto 
Which  all  may  view,  — 
To  BALDER  carry; 
Nor  fail,  nor  tarry. 
Mist- Courier!  high 
To  th'  Mist-God  fly!  — 

•Each  Scald,  sure,  raises 
Mild  H£LGE*s  praises 
Who  thus  has  bann  d 
From  yond  my  Land;  — 
From  Him  bans  never!  — 
Well!  nought  can  sever 
From  that  blue  realm 
Where  billows  whelm.  — 
Thou  may'st  not  rest  Thee, 
Thou  still  must  haste  Thee, 
ellida!  —  out 
Th'  wide  world  about. 
Yes!  rock  on!  roaming 
Mid  froth  salt -foaming 
My  Dragon  good! 
Nor  drop  of  blood 
Will  hurt,  thou  knowest. 
Where'er  Thou  goest. 
When  storms  hoarse  cry. 
My  House  Thou  'rt  by; 


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139 


For  BALDER*s  —  Brother  — 
He  burn'd  mine  other. 
Yes!  Thou'rt  my  North, 
My  Foster -earth; 
From  that  down  yonder 
I  now  must  wander. 
Yes!  Thou'rt  my  Bride, 
Black  weeds  Thy  pride; 
For  ah!  how  dare  one 
Trust  Her,  that  Fair  One?  — 

*Thou  free  broad  Sea! 
Unknown  to  Thee 
Are  despot's  glances 
And  tyrant's  fancies. 
Where  freemen  swing  — 
Is  he  thy  King, 
Who  never  shivers 
However  high  quivers. 
With  rage  oppress'd. 
Thy  froth -white  breast! 
Thy  plains,  blue  -  spreading , 
Glad  chiefs  are  treading;^ 
Like  ploughs  thereon 
Their  keels  drive  on; 
And  blood -rain  patters 
In  shade  the'  oak  scatters. 
But  steel -bright  there 
The  corn -seeds  glare! 
Those  plains  so  hoary 
Bear  crops  of  glory. 
Rich  crops  of  gold : 


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140 


Thou  billow  bold 
Befriend  me !  —  Never 
m  from  thee  sever!  — 
My  father's  Mound 
Dull  stands,  fast -bound. 
And  self-  same  surges 
Ghaunt  changeless  dirges; 
But  blue  shall  mine 
Through  foam-flowVs  shine, 
•Mid  tempests  swimming. 
And  storms  thick  dimming. 
And  draw  yet  mo 
Down,  down,  below.  — 
My  Life -Home  given. 
Thou  shalt,  far -driven  I 
My  Barrow  be  — 
Thou  free  broad  Se^!'  — 

Thus  fierce  he  grieveth. 
And  sorrowing  leaveth 
His  prow  so  true 
The  reeds  it  knew,  — 
All  gently  gliding 
'Mong  rocks  still  biding 
To  watch  i'  th'  North 
The  shallow  firth.  — 
But  vengeance  wakens: 
With  twice  five  Dragons 
Swam  HELGE  round 
And  closed  the  Sound. 
Then  each  loud  crieth;  — 
•Now  HELGE  dieth 


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141 


This  one  fight  o'er  — 
Then  thrives  no  more. 
The  bright  Moon  under. 
That  valhall's  wonder; 
Above  He'll  rise 
To'  His  home,  the  skies; 
That  blood  immortal. 
Seeks  oden's  portal.' 

The  word  scarce  said. 
With  unseen  tread 
Some  Pow'r  fast  clingeth 
To'  each  keel  that  swingeth! 
And  see !  they  slow 
Are  drawn  below 
To  dead- rich  RANA; 
Nay!  e'en  King  helge 
From  half-drown'd  prore 
Scarce  svnms  ashore. 

But  glad  BJCJRN  proudly 
Shouts,  laughing  loudly,  — 
•Thou  ASA -blood. 
That  trick  was  good! 
Unseen,  unfearful, 
I  scuttled  cheerful 
The  ships  last  night; 
The  thought  was  bright! 
What  RAN  enfoldeth 
I  hope  she  holdeth. 
As  heretofore: 
Yet,' pity  sore. 


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142 


They  went  to  th*  bottom 
Their  Chief  forgotten!' 

In  angry  mood 
King  HELGE  stood. 
Scarce  death -delivered; 
His  drawn  Bow  quiver  d. 
Steel- cast  and  round, 
*Gainst  rocky  ground; 
Himself  not  knew  it. 
How  hard  he  drew  it. 
Till  th*  steel -how  sprang 
With  snapping  clang. 

But  FRITHIOF  weigheth 
His  Lance,  and  sayeth:  — 
^Held  hack,  this  free 
Death -Eagle  see! 
If  out  He  dashes 
He  mortal  gashes 
That  tyrant -thing 
A  coward -King 
Who  —  needless  shrinketh: 
My  Lance  ne'er  drinketh 
A  craven's  blood. 
Ay!  'tis  too  good 
For  such  achievements! 
'Mong  rune-stone  grievements 
It  carv'd  may  stand. 
But  ne'er  shall  brand 
That  scoundrel -framing 
Which  thy  name's  shaming! 


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143 


Thy  manhood's  bloom 
Finds  shipwreck's  doom , 
And  scaping  hither 
On  shore,  will  wither,    -^ 
Rust  steel  may  break. 
Not  thou.  —  m  take 
A  mark  far  higher 
Than  base  peace-buyer: 
Take  care  how  near 
Thine  own  appear!'  — 

To'  an  oar  cut  down.  He 
Then  grasps  a  pine-tree, 
(That  mast -pine  fell 
In  Gudbrand's  dell,) 
Its  mate  then  heaveth. 
And  the'  ocean  cleaveth. 
Strong  pulls  He  takes.  -^ 
As  reed -shaft  breaks. 
As  cold -blade  snappeth.  — 
Each  oar  quick  crackethi  — 

Day's  Orb  now  shin'd 
Hill -tops  behind; 
Fresh  breezes  bounded 
From  shore,  and  sounded 
Each  wave  to  dance 
In  Morning's  glance. 
Where  th'  high  surge  leapeth 
ELLIDA  sweepeth. 
Glad  stretch'd  her  wings.  — 
But  FRITHIOF  sings : 


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144 


I. 

'Heimskringla*s  forehead , 

Thou  lofty  North! 
Away  I'm  hurried 

From  this  thine  Earth. 
My  race  from  Thee  goes, 

I  boasting  tell; 
Now ,  nurse  of  heroes  — 

Farewell!  Farewell! 
n. 
•Farewell ,  high  -  gleaming 

VALHALLA'S  Throne, 
Night's  Eye,  bright- beaming 

Midsummers  Sun! 
Sky !  where ,  as  in  Hero's 

Soul,  pure  depths  dwell,  — 
And  thronging  Star -rows,  — 

Farewell!  Farewell! 
ni. 
•Farewell,  ye  Mountains, 

Seats  Glory  for; 
Ye  tablet- fountains 

For  mighty  thor! 
Ye  lakes  and  Highlands 

I  left  so  sel'. 
Ye  rocks  and  islands. 
Farewell!  Farewell! 
IV, 
•Farewell,  Cairns  dreaming 

By  wave  of  blue ,  — 
Where,  snow-white  gleaming, 

X Limes  flow'r-dust  strew! 


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145 


But  SAGA  spieth 
And  doometh  well 

I  the'  Earth  what  lieth ;  — 
Farewell  I  Farewell  I 


•Farewell,  ye  bowers. 

Fresh  Houses  green. 
Where  youth  pluck'd  flowers 

By  murm'ring  stream: 
Ye  friends  of  childhood 

Who  meant  me  well. 
Ye'  re  yet  remember'd;  — 

Farewell!  Farewell! 

VI. 

'My  Love  insulted. 

My  Palace  brent. 
My  Honour  tarnish'd. 

In  Exile  sent,  — 
From  Land  in  sadness 

To  th'  Sea  we'  appeal,  — 
But  Life's  young  gladness  — 

Farewell!  Farewell!' 


10 


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OAMTO  XT. 


€hc  ^iUiufj^^^ohi. 


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The  ^VIKING -code'  follows,  an  admirable  digest  of  the 
battle-breathing  maxims  acted  upon  by  the  freebooters  of  the 
North.  But  still  tegner's  genius  has  thrown  the  Rain-bow  of 
Pity  over  the  Deluge  of  Blood! 

*'Tis  enough  shouldst  thou  conquer!  —  Who  prays  thee 
for  peace  9  hath  no  sword ,  —  and  cannot  be  thy  foe. 

Pray'r  is  Valhalla's  Child ,  hear  the  pale  Virgin's  voice; 
yes!  a  scoundrel  is  he  that  says  no!* 

In  many  a  sweetly  -  flowing  Stanza  is  then  related  the  deep 
melancholy  of  the  love-stricken  youth,  his  struggles  to  ennoble 
the  pirate-life  he  professed,  his  isavage  reckless  death-seeking 
bravery  in  battle,  his  sorrowful  home-longing  in  peace  —  till 
at  last  he  concludes; 

'There's  the  flag  on  the  mast,  to  the  Northland  it  points, 
and  the  North  holds  the  Country  I  love; 

Back  to  Northward  I'll  steer,  gladly  following  the  course  of 
the  breezes  fresh-blowing  above!' 


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Voice. 


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CANTO  XV. 


I. 

Jbar  and   wide,   like  the   Falcon   that   hunts  through   the 
sky,  flew  He  now  o'er  the  desolate  Sea; 

And  his  Vikinga-Code,  for  His  champions  onboard,  wrote 

he  well;  —  vnli  thou  hear  what  it  be? 

U. 

*0n  thy  ship  pitch  no  tent ;  in  no  house  shalt  thou  sleep ; 

in  the  hall  who  our  friends  ever  knew? 
On  his  shield   sleeps   the  Viking,  his   sword  in  his  hand, 

and  for  tent  has  yon  Heaven  the  blue, 
m. 

*With   a    short-shafted   hammer    fights    conquering    THOR, 
FREY*s  own  sword  but  an  ell  long  is  made ; 

That's  enough.     Hast  thou    courage!     Strike   close   to  thy 
foe :  not  too  short  for  thee  then  is  thy  blade ! 
IV. 

*When  the  storm  roars  on  high ,    up   aloft  with   the   sail ; 

ah!  how  pleasant's  the  Sea  in  its  wrath: 
Let  it  blow,   let  it  blow!    He's  a  coward  that  furls;  rather 

founder  than  furl  in  thy  path. 
V. 

*0n  the  shore,  not  on  board,  mayst  thou  toy  with  a  maid; 

FREJA's  self  would  prove  false  to  thy  love : 
For  the   dimple    deceives   on  her  cheek,    and    her   trusses 

would  net -like  entrap  thee  above! 


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150 

VI. 

♦Wine  is  VALFATHEr's  drink;   a  carouse  thou  majst  have; 

but  yet  steady  and  upright  appear: 
He  who  staggers   on   shore  may  stand  up,    but  will  soon 

down  to  sleep -giving  RAN  stagger  here. 

vn. 

*Sails  the  merchant-ship  forth  ^  thou  his  bark  mayst  protect, 

if  —  due  tribute  his  weak  hand  has  told: 
On    thy  wave   art   thou   King;   he's   a   slave    to  his  pelf, 

and  thy  steel  is  as  good  as  his  gold! 
vin. 
*With  the  dice  and  the  lot  shall  the  booty  be  shard;  and 

complain  not,  however  it  goes: 
But  the    Sea-King  himself  throws   no   dice  on  the  deck, 

only  glory  He  seeks  from  his  foes. 
DC. 
•Heaves  a  Viking  in  sight  —  then  come  boarding  and  strife  , 

and  hot  work  is  it  under  the  shield; 
But  from  us  art  thou  banish'd  —  forget  not  the  doom  — 

if  a  step  or  a  foot  thou  shalt  yield! 
X. 
*'Tis  enough,  shouldst  thou  conquer!  Who  prays  thee  for 

peace,  has  no  sword  —  and  cannot  be  thy  foe: 
Pray'r  is  VALhali^a's  child,  hear  the  pale  Virgin's  voice; 

yes!  a  scoundrel  is  he  who  says  no  J 
XL 
^Viking-gains  are  deep  wounds,  and  right  well  they  adorn 

if  they  stand  on  the  brow  or  the  breast. 
I^et  them  bleed!    Twice  twelve  hours  first  must  circle  ere 

biuds  them  —  who  Vikinga«comrade  would  rest!*-^ 

xn. 

Thus  His  Laws  carv'd  He  out ,  and  fresh  Exploits  each  day 
and  fresh  fame  to  strange  coast-lauds  he  brought ; 


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And  his  Like  found  He  none  on  the  blue-rolling  sea,  and 
his  champions  right  willing  they  fought. 

But  Himself  sat   all   darkly,    with  rudder  in   hand,    and 

looked  down  on  the  slow- rocking  spray;  — 
'Deep  thou  art !  Peace  perchance  in  those  depths  still  may 

bloom  ^  but  above  here  all  peace  dies  away. 
XIV. 
*Is  the  White    God   enrag'd?  —  Let  him  take   His  good 

sword,  I  will  fall  should  it  so  be  decreed; 
But  He  sits   in  yon  sky,    gloomy   thoughts  sending  down; 

ne'er  my  soul  from  their  sadness  is  freed!'  — 
XV. 
Yet  when  battle  is  near,    like  the  fresh  eagle  flying,  his 

spirit  fierce  soars  with  delight; 
Loudly  thunders  His  voice,  and  with  clear  brow  He  stands, 

like  the  Light'ner  still  foremost  in  fight. 
XVI. 
Thus    from  vict'ry    to    vict'ry    He    ceaselessly   swam,    on 

that  wide -foaming  grave  all  secure; 
And  fresh  islands  He  saw,   and  fresh  bays  in  the  South, 

till  fair  winds  on  to  Greek-Land  allure, 
xvn. 
When  its  groves  He  beheld,    in  the  green  tide  reflected, 

its  temples  in  ruin  bent  low;  — 
FREJA  knows  what  He  thought,  and  the  Scald,  and  if  e'er 

thou  hast  known  how  to  love  —  thou  wilt  know!  — 
xvm. 
*Here   our  dwelling  had  been!    Here's  the  isle,  here's  the 

land;  of  this  Temple  my  Sire  oft  would  tell; 
Hither  'twas,  hither  'twas,  I  invited  my  Maid ;  —  ah!  She, 

cruel,  the  North  lov'd  too  well! 


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152 

XIX. 

''Mong  these  happy  green  vales  dwells  not  Peace?  and  Re- 
membrance, ah!  haunts  she  not  columns  so  fair? 

Like  the  whisp'rings  of  lovers  soft  murmur  those  springs , 
and  with  bridal -songs  birds  fill  the  air. 
XX. 

*Where  is  ingeborg  now?  —  Is  so  soon  all  forgot  —  for 
a  Chief  wither  d,  grey-hair'd,  and  old?  — 

I,  I  cannot  forget!   Gladly  gave  I  my  life,  yet  once  more 
that  dear  form  to  behold! 
XXI. 

*And  three  years  have  gone  by  since  my  own  land  I  saw, 

kingly  Hall  of  fair  Saga  the  Queen! 
Rise    there   yet    so   majestic   those    mountains  to  Heav'n, 

keeps  my  Forefathers'  dale  its  bright  green? 
xxn, 
*0n  the   Cairn  where  my  Father  lies  buried,   a  Lime-tree 

I  planted  —  ah!  blooms  it  there  now? 
Who  its  tender  shoot  guards?  —  Give   thy  moisture,   O 

Earth!  and  thy  dews,  O  thou  Heaven,  give  Thou! 
xxni. 

TTet  why  linger  I  here,  on  the  wave  of  the  stranger?  — is 
tribute,  is  blood,  then  my  goal? 

I  have  glory   sufGcient,   and   beggarly  gold  and  its  bright- 
ness —  deep  scorneth  my  soul. 
XXTV. 

^There's  the  flag  on  the  mast,  to  the  Northland  it  points, 
and  the  North  holds  the  Country  I  love; 

Back  to  northward  III  steer,  and  will  follow  the  course 
of  the  breezes  fresh-blowing  above !'  — 


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CANTO  XVI. 


ffijarn  anh  fritkiot 


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Argument. 

This  Canto  is  very  characteristic.  Nothing  could  more 
effectually  have  painted  bjOrn  the  Viking-champion ,  and  fri- 
THIOF  the  Champion -hero  9  of  Scandinavia. 

In  a  charming  dialogue  on  board  ellida,  as  she  lies  fro- 
zen-in  on  the  Norwegian  coast ,  frithiof  declares  his  resolution 
to  set  out  on  a  visit  to  —  the  Court  of  King  rictg,  his  success- 
ful and  dangerous  rival! 

'Go  not  alone!" 

interrupts  his  faithful   Foster -Brother;  —  'Nor  do  I,'  says  fri- 
thiof, —  'my  Sword's  at  my  side!' 


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CANTO  XVI. 


Ufom  atiH  jfrittiiot 


FRITHIOF. 

JDj5rn!  Fm  awearied  of  surge  and  of  sea! 

Billows,  at  best,  are  tumultuous  urchins; 

Northland's  firm,  fast- rooted,   dear^belov'd  Mountains 
Wondrously  tempt  me,  afar  though  they  be.  — 

Happy  whom  never  his  land  has  out -driven. 
None  ever  chas*d  from  his  Father's  green  grave ! 

Ah!  too  long,  yes  too  long  have  I  striven, 
Peaceless  and  sad,  on  this  Ocean's  wild  wave!'  — 

bjOrn. 

*Ocean  is  good,  blame  it  not;  for  out  yonder 

Freedom  and  gladness  abide  on  its  breast; 

Nothing  know  I  of  weak  womanish  rest. 
Onward  I  love  with  the  billows  to  wander.  — 

When  I  am  old,  on  the  blossoming  Earth 
I,  too,  will  grow  soil-fast  as  the  grass  is;  — 

Goblet  and  battle  shall  now  be  my  mirth , 
Now  I'll  enjoy  each  young  hour  as  it  passes!'  — 


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156 

FRITHIOF. 

*Yet,  by  hard  ice  we  are  hunted  on  land; 

See !  round  our  keel  the  big  waves  He  all  lifeless. 

Winter  I  waste  not,  the  long  and  the  strifeless. 
Here  *mong  the  rocks  of  a  desolate  strand. 

Yule  shall  again  in  the  Northland  delight  me. 
Guesting  with  RING  and  the  Bride  that  he  stole. 

Yes!  ril  again  view  those  locks  streaming  brightly. 
Tones  still  so  lov'd  shall  yet  speak  to  my  soul!'  — 

BJOrn. 

*Good!  Hint  no  longer.     Revenge  is  our  duty; 

RING  skall  acknowledge  a  Viking*s  is  dire. 

Sudden,  at  midnight,  his  Palace  we*ll  fire. 
First  bum  the'  old  Warrior,  then  ravish  the  Beauty. 

Haply  it  chances,  in  Vikinga-wise, 
Isle -duel  worthy  the  Chieftain  thou  deemest; 

Or,  Thou  mayst  challenge  to  Host -fight  on  ice; 
Say!  —  Fm  prepar'd  for  whatever  Thou  schemest!'  — 

FRITHIOF. 

^Arson ,  oh  name  not !  and  think  not  of  war : 

Peaceful  I  go.     The  good  King  has  not  wrong*d  me  ^ 
She  too,  is  guiltless.  — Yes!  Gods  avenge  strongly  — 

I  their  insulter  —  the  crimes  they  abhor. 

Little  on  Earth  may  I  hope.     There  remaineth 

Now  but  to  part  from  the  Bride  I  hold  dear:  — 

Part,  ah!  for  aye.  —  When  soft  Spring  again  reigneth. 

Then,  if  not  sooner,  I  haste  to  thee  here.' 

BjOrn. 

*FRiTHiOF,  I  cannot  excuse,  Man!  Thy  madness.  — 
What!  for  a  Woman  lament  so  sore! 


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157 

Women,  good  lack!  the  whole  Earth  swarm  o'er; 
Thousands,  one  gone,  will  soon  banish  ihy  sadness. 

Quick,  if  Thou  will,  where  the  South  Sun  glows 
Cargoes  I'll  bring  of  such  wares,  more  than  others 

Gentle  as  lambs  and  as  red  as  the  rose,  — 
Then  draw  we  lots,  or  divide  them  like  Brothers!'  — 

FRITHIOF. 

*JWdRN!  Thou  art  open  and  glad,  like  as  frey; 

Boldness  in  fight,  skill  in  counsel,  thou  showest; 

ODEN  and  THOR  both  together  Thou  knowest; 
FREJA,  the  Heav'nly,  Thou  dost  not  obey. 

Speak  we  not  now  of  the  pow'r  each  God  keepeth ; 
Rouse  not,  enrage  not,  the'  Eternal  again;  — 

Sooner  or  later,   the  sparkle  that  sleepeth 
Wakes  —  in  the  bosom  of  Gods  and  of  Men!'  — 

bjOrn. 
*Go  not  alone.  —  Seldom  way -laid  returneth,' 

FRITHIOF, 
*Well  am  I  foUow'd:  —  My  sword's  at  my  side.' 

BjflRN. 
*HAGBART,  forget  not,  of  hanging  died!'  — 
FRITHIOF. 
'He  who  is  taken,  his  hanging  well  earnethi'  — 


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bjOrn. 

TalFst  Thou,  War-Brother!  Til  Venge  Thee  well; 
Blood-eagle  lines  on  Thy  foe  shall  be  flowing.* 

FRITHIOF. 

*bj6rn!  *tis  not  needed.    The  cock*s  loud  crowing 
Hears  he  no  longer  than  I.  —  Farewell!*  — 


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OAHTO  zvn. 


;ftUhicif  comtih  to 


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Argument. 

Again  a  Ballad,  —  aud  a  delightful  one  it  is!  What  a 
succession  of  touching  incidents  in  the  Hall  of  the  Patriarch- 
Monarch! 

In  an  old  man's  disguise,  'frithiof  the  dauntless'  has 
penetrated  to  the  Court  of  his  foe.  A  slight  quarrel  draws  ring's 
attention  to  the  unknown  Stranger,  and  perceiving  by  his  air 
and  answers  that  he  was  no  common  guest,  he  bids  him 

^But  yon  disguise  let  fall  now,  and  like  thyself  appear, 
Disguls'd  thrives  Gladness  never,  and  III  have  Gladness  here.' 

The  Stranger  obeys,  and  answers  ring's  wassail -oath  by 
exclaiming  — 

4  swear  to  shelter  frithiof,  though  all  the  world  withstood^ 
So  help  my  fav  nng  NOtiN'A,  and  this  my  Falchion  good!' 

This  dauntless  chivalry  of  spirit  pleases  the  old  King,  and 
he  orders  his  fair  young  Spouse  (who  has  already  recognized 
her  Lover)  to  fill -up  the  Drinking -Horn  for  the  noble  Cham- 
pion. Thereafter,  the  aged  Prince  kindly  presses  his  visitor  to 
remain  his  Guest  till  Spring,  —  and  the  Songs  of  the  Scalds 
long  and  late  animate  die  Banquet  of  the  Brave! 


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CANTO  XVII. 


d^rttl^tof  tomttff  to  ming  Uinq. 


I. 

JtiLmg  RING,  on  High-Seat  resting,  at  Yule  drank  mead  so 

bright. 
His  Queen  was  sat  beside  him,  all  rosy-red  and  white; 
Like  Spring  and  Autumn  seem'd  they,  each  other  near, 

to  be. 
The  fresh  Spring  ing'borg  liken'd,  — the  chilly  Autumn  he. 

Unknown ,  an  ancient  Wand'rer  now  treadeth  in  the  Hall, 
From  head  to  foot  all  darkly  his  thick  fur-garments  fall; 
A  staff  he  feebly  holdeth ,   and  bent  they  see  him  go ,  — 
That  old  man  yet  was  taller  than  all  the  rest,  I  trow. 

ni. 

He  sat  him  on  the  bench  there,  right  down  behind  the 

door; 
For  that  the  poor  man*s  station  is  now,  and  was  before ;  — 
The  courtiers  eye  each  other,  and  basely  him  deride. 
And  many'  a  finger  pointeth  to  that  grim  bear's  rough  hide. 

IV. 

Then  like  two   vivid  lightnings  the  Stranger's  eyes  fierce 

flash. 

While   one   hand    graspeth     quickly  a    lordling-youth   too 

rash;  — 

11 


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162 

Right  warily  the  courtier  he  twirleth  round  about. 
Then  silent  grew  the  others-^ as  we  had  done,  no  doubt! 

V. 

'What    noise   is   that   down   yonder?  —  Who   breaks   our 

kingly  peace!  — 
Come  up  to  me,  old  fellow!   Your  words  to  me  address! 
Your  name,   your  will,    whence  come  ye?*    —   Thus  the* 

angry  King  demands 
Of  the*  aged  man,   half- hidden   by   th*  corner  where  he 

stands.  — 
VI. 

'Right  much,    O   King,   Thou  askest!   Yet  answer*d  shalt 

Thou  be; 
My  name  I  give  not,  that  sure  can  matter  none  but  me. 
In  Penitence  Vm  foster'd,  and  Want  was  all  I  heir'd. 
The  Wolf  from  came  I  hither,  for  last  his  bed  I  shard. 

vn. 

'In  former  days  I,  joyous,  the  Dragon's  back  bestrode; 
With  wings  so  strong,  he  gladly  and  safe  o'er  Ocean  rode: 
Now  lies  he  lam'd  and  frozen,   full  close  along  the  land. 
Myself,  too,  am  grown  old  and  burn  salt  upon  tha  strand. 

VIU. 

^came  to  see  thy  wisdom,  through  all  the  Country.known, 
And  was  not  made   for  the*  insults  thy  people  here  have 

shown; 
By  th*  breast  a  fool  I  lifted,   and  round  about  did  swing. 
Yet  stood  he  up  uninjur'd  —  forgive  me  that,  O  King!'  — 

IX. 

'Not  ill*,  the  Monarch  crieth,  'Thou  joinest  words  and  wit. 
And  the'  ag'd  one  ought  to  honour;  come  —  at  my  board 
here  sit. 


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163 

But  yon  disguise  let  fall  now,  and  like  thy  self  appear; 
Disguised  tlirives  Gladness  never,  and  I'll  have  Gladness 
here ! ' 

X. 

From  off  the  Guest's  high  head,  then,  the  hairy  bear-hide 

feU, 
And,  'stead  of  him  so  ancient,  a  stripling  all  see  well; 
His  lofty  temples  shading,  bright  ringlets  flow'd  unbound. 
Like  some  gold   wave   encircling  his  full  broad  shoulders 

round. 

XI. 

And  proud  he  stood  before  them,   in  velvet  mantle  blue. 
With  hand -broad   silver  girdle  where   beasts  green  woods 

range  through; 
With  cunning  skill  had  the' Artist  emboss'dthem  out  to  day. 
And  round  the  Hero's  middle  each  other  hunted  they. 

xn. 

His  Armlet,  red  gold  trinket,  to'  his  arm  right  splendid 
clung; 

Like  standing  heav'n-snatch'd  Lightning,  his  shining  War- 
Sword  hung; 

His  Hero-glance  slow  wander'd  all  calm  o*er  guest  and  ha'. 

He  stood  there  fair  as  balder,  and  tall  as  ASA-THOR. 

xin. 

The'  astonish'd   Queen's  pale  cheeks,    how    fast -changing 

rose-tints  dye!  — 
So  purple  Northlights  ,  quiv'ring,  on  snow-hid  meadows  lie  : 
Like  two  white  water-lilies  on  storm-wave  wild  that  rest. 
Each    moment  rising,    falling,  —  so  heaves  her  trembling 

breast! 


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164 

XIV. 

Then   loud  blew   signal -trumpets:   —   death -still  became 

all  there; 
For  now  was   the'  hour  of  Promise,    and  frey's  Boar  in 

they  bear: 
His  grim  mouth  holds  an   apple,   his    shoulders   garlands 

graced. 
And  down  on  silver  Charger  four  bended  knees  he  plac'd. 

XV. 

And  quick  King   RING  he   riseth,    with   grey  locks   thinly 

crown'd , 
Then,  first  the  Boar's  brow  touching,  his  vow  thus  speaks 

around ; 
*I  swear  to  conquer  frithiof  ,  stout  champion  though  he  be. 
So  help  me  frey  and  oden,   and  THOR  more  strong  than 

He!' 

XVI. 

With  mocking  laugh,  undaunted,  the  Stranger-chief  uprose. 
While,  flash-like,    hero -rage  o'er  his  scornful  face  quick 

goes; 
His  sword  upon  the  table  he  dash'd  with  fearful  clang. 
And  up   from    the'   oaken  benches    each   warrior   sudden 

sprang. 

xvn. 

*And  hear  thou,  good  Sir  Monarch!  for  I'll  too  make  my 
vow; 

Young  FRITHIOF  is  my  kinsman,  I've  known  him  up  till 
now;  — 

I  swear  to  shelter  frithiof,  though  all  the  world  with- 
stood, — 

So  help  my  fav'ring  NORNA  and  this  my  Falchion  good !'  — 


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165 
xvin. 

With  smiles  the  King  him  answer  d;  *Full  bold  thy  accents 

fall. 
Yet  words  were  never  fetter'd  in  Northern  Kingly  Hall.  — 
Queen  J  fill  for  him  that  Horn  thei;^,  with  wine  thou  pri- 

zest  best^ 
Till  Spring  returns ,  the  Stranger  I  hope  will  be  our  guest.' 

XIX. 

The  Horn  which  stood  before  her,  the  Queen  then  rais'd 

with  care. 
From  the'  Urns'  forehead  broke, —  'twas  a  jewel  rich  and 

rare; 
Its  feet  were  shining  silver,  with  many'  a  ring  of  gold. 
While  wondrous  runes  adorn'd  it,  and  curious  shapes  of 

old. 

XX. 

The  Goblet  to  the  Hero  She  reach'd ,  with  downcast  eyne,  — 
But  much  Her  hand  it  trembled  and  spill'd  the  sparkling 

wine; 
As  Ev'ning's  purple  blushes  on  snowy  Lilies  stand , 
So  bum'd  those  drops  all  darkly  on  ing'borg's  fair  white 

hand. 

XXI. 

Straight  from  the  noble   Ladye   glad  took  the   Guest  that 

Horn, 
Not  two  men  could  have  drain'd  it,  as  men  are  now  y-bom; 
But  easily  and  willing,   the   gentle   Queen  to  please. 
The  mighty  Stranger  drain  it  —  in   but   one    draught  — 

She  sees. 


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166 

The  Scald,  too*,  his  Harp   awak'ning,   as  hy  ring's  board 

he  sate, 
A  heart-sprung  legend  chaun'ted  of  Northern  Lovers*  fate  ;  — 
Of  HAGBART  and  fair  ^igne  he   sang  with  voice  so  defep^ 
That  steel-clad   bosoms  melted  —  each  stern   eye  longed 

to  weep, 
xxm. 

Then  harp*d  he  VALHALL*s  glories,  rewards  the'  Einheriar 

gaind. 
And  eke  their  Fathers'  exploits,  by  land  and  sea  obtain'd;  — 
His  sword  then  grasp'd  each  warrior,  enkindled  ev'ry  look. 
And  —  ceaseless  round  the'  assembly  its  course   the  full 

Horn  took! 
XXIV. 

So,  —  deeply  in  that  King's-House  they  drank  all  through 

the  night,  — 
A  Yule -carouse  each  champion  enjoy'd  with  such  delight; 
And  then  to  sleep  loud  haste  they,  so  glad  and  free  from 

care. 
But  aged  ring   he  slumber'd  —  by  INg'borg's  side  the  fair! 


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GANTO  ZVin. 


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Argument. 

"The  next  Canto,"  says  Professor  Longfellow,*  "de- 
scribes a  sleigh-ride  on  the  ice.  It  has  a  cold  breath  about  it. 
The  short,  sharp  stanzas  are  like  the  angry  gusts  of  a  north- 
wester." 

The  venerable  Ring  and  his  lovely  Spouse  will  sledge 
across  the  'clear  mirror*  of  the  frozen  lake.  The  Stranger 
warns  in  vain,  —  the  ice  gives  way,  —  and  only  Frithiof's 
vigourous  activity  can  save  them.  —  He  hastens  to  the  side  of 
his  Beloved, 

'And  then,  without  effort,  pulls  up  with  one  spring. 
On  the'  ice,  as  before,  —  Sledge,  Charger,  and  Ring!' 


♦  North  American  Review,  N:o  XCVI,  July  i837,  p.  177. 


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THE    ^SlvEDGE   EXCURSI0:V. 


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CANTO  xvin. 


Etft  SleUifle^aPTmrsion. 


JiLing  RING  to  a  banquet  sets  out  with  his  Queen, 
So  clear  sweeps  the  mirror-Hke  lake's  frozen  sheen. 

n. 

*Keep  back!'  said  the  Stranger,  *that  icy  path  shun; 
'Twill  give  way;    cold  and  deep  for  a  bath  its  waves  run!' 

in. 

fNot  so  soon,*  answers  ring,  'can  a  King  be  drown'd; 
Let  the  coward  who  fears  it  the  lake  go  round!'  • — 

IV. 

Fierce  frowns  the  tall  Champion,  dark  threats  in  his  eyes. 
And  quick  on  his  feet  steel  scate-shoes  He  ties. 

V. 

Then  away  darts  the  Courser,  away  in*his  might; 
He  fl^me-snorting  gallops,  —  so  wild  his  delight. 

VI. 

*0n!  speed  thee!'  cries  ring;  'On!  my  Swift-of-foot good ! 
Let  us  see  if  thou  springest  from  sleipner's  high  blood!' 

vn. 

Like  the  Storm  in  its  wrath,  they  dash  o'er  the  lake; 
RING  heeds  not  the  cry  of  His  Queen —  *It  will  break!*  — 


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170 

vni. 

Nor  idleth  the  steel-footed  Warrior;  —  His  speed 
Outstrips »  when  He  wills  it,  yon  fast-flying  Steed. 

IX. 

And  many  a  rune,  too,  on  the*  ice  He  engraves; 
Fair  ing*borg  drives  o'er  Her  own  Name  on  the  waves. 

X. 

Thus  forward  they  rush  on  the  glassy-smooth  path. 
But  beneath  them  false  RANA  her  ambush  hath: 

XI. 

In  Her  silvery  roof  a  deep  fissure  she  reft,  — 
And  the  Royal  Sledge  lies  in  the  opening  cleft. 

xn. 

Then  pale,  pale  as  death,  waxes  ring's  lovely  bride. 
But  —  a  whirlwind  no  swifter  —  the  Guest's  at  Her  side ! 

xm. 

With  iron-heel  boring,  He  the'  ice  firmly  treads;  — 
So,  the  Charger's  mane  grasping,  his  hands  deep  embeds; 

XIV. 

And  then,  without  efibrt,  —  He  pulls,  at  one  spring. 
On  the'  ice,  as  before,  —  Sledge,  Charger,  and  ring.  — 

XV. 

*Full  sootji,'  cries  ring  quickly,  *my  praise  hast  thou  won; 
Not  better  could  strong-handed  frithiof  have  done!'  — 

XVL 
So  back  they  return  to  the  Palace  once  more;  — 
The  Stranger  will  there  the  long  winter  pass  o'er* 


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CANTO  SIX. 


frithwts  €empt«ti0tt. 


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Argument. 

Xhifl  Canto  is  of  a  ^'ryghte  excelloDt  cuDnyng/*  A  chao- 
giog  flow  of  soft  melancholy  or  rich  wild  vigour  pervades  its 
stanzas  9  and  a  wonderful  knowledge  of  the  human  heart  ele- 
vates its  moral  lessons. 

The  aged  ring  and  all  his  Court  will  to  the  "merry  green 
wood/*  He  is  followed  by  the  blooming  ingeborg  and  the  Stran- 
ger-favourite. As  the  chase  waxes  hot^  however,  the  old  King 
and  FRiTHiOF  find  themselves  in  a  verdant  dale,  separated  from 
their  attendant  Train,  ring  pretends  great  sleepiness ,  and 
shortly  after  falls  into  an  apparently  profound  slumber  on  the 
young  Warrior's  knee,  as  ^calrn  as  the  infant  on  its  mother's  arm.' 

Then  rises  'The  Temptation'  before  the  troubled  Imagination 
of  the  impetuous  Sea-King; 
'Here  no  human  eye  can  see  fhee,  silent  is  the  dark  deep  grave.' 

But  —  though  ''a  single  individual  seems  alone  to  stand 
between  him  and  supreme  felicity:  and  the  age  is  an  age  of  fe- 
rocity; might  and  right  are  well  nigh  synonymous;  the  Viking 
sports  with  human  life  as  with  the  billow;  the  very  minister  of 
religion  imbrues  his  hand  in  the  blood  of  his  fellow-ereatures ;  a 
death  of  violence  is  accounted  a  blessing,  since  it  opens  the 
gates  of  Valhalla,"  *  —  the  generous  and  noble  Youth  resists 
the  black-plumed  Fiend,  throws  'Lightning's  Brother'  far  into 
the  wood,  and  —  the  Sleeper  waketh! 

An  explanation  succeeds,  ring  reproaches  the  Viking  with 
the  secrecy  of  his  visit,  but  does  homage  to  his  virtue  and  va- 
lour, and  proposes  to  him  a  residence  of  regard  and  sonship 
till  —  the  course  of  Nature  shall  give  him  the  Throne  and 
INGEBORG.  This,  the  wounded  spirit  of  the  *varg  i  veum'  re- 
fuses, —  and  the  Canto  closes  with  frithiof's  passionate  and 
despairing  'Hail'  to  his  'good  Dragon',  the  'clang  of  shields'  and 
Death! 

♦  Strong  J    p.  234. 


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CANTO  XIX. 


j^vit^ioV&  Cettiptation. 


I. 

Opring  IS   come;   birds  sweedy  warble,   smiles  tlie   sun, 

the  woods  are  green. 
And,  unchain'd,  the  murm'ring  streamlets  dancing  seaward 

down  are  seen. 
Glowing  red   as  freja's   cheeks,  young  opning  rose-buds 

freshly  part. 
And  to  Life's  glad  joys  to  hope  and  courage  wakes  Man's 

heav'n-touch'd  heart.  — 
II. 

The'   aged   King  to   hunt  will  go ;   the  Queen ,  too ,  shall 

attend  the  sport; 
And   in   motley  groups   assembles   gay  deck'd,  thronging, 

all  the  Court. 
Bows  are   clatt'ring,  quivers  rattle,  fiery  coursers  paw  the 

ground , 
And  the'  impatient  hooded  falcon  screams  upon  his  prey 

to  bound, 
ni. 

See!  there  comes  the  Hunt's  proud  Mistress.  —  frithiof! 
ah!  nor  look  nor  heed! 

Star-like  on  a  spring-cloud  resting,  so  She  sits  her  milk- 
white  steed. 


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174 

Half  a  FREJA,  half  a  ROTA,    both  eclips'd    if  She    were 

by.  - 
From  Her  rich,  light,  purple  bonnet  plumes  blue-tinted 

wave  on  high. 

Look  not  on  those  eyes'  bright  azure!  look  not  on  those 

locks  of  gold ! 
Ah!    beware   that   waist  —  *tis  tap'ring;   nor  such  round 

»  full  breasts  behold: 

Gaze  not  at  the  rose  and  lily  on  Her  changing  cheek  that 

meet; 
List  not   to   that  voice  so   dear,  like  Springes  soft  music 
sighing  sweet. 
V. 

Now  the  long-stretch'd  line  is  ready.   Hark  away!  o*er  hill 

and  dale.  — 
Horns   sound    shrilly,    and  straight  up  to  OD£N*s  Hall  the 

glad  hawks   sail. 
Quick  to  lair  and  covert  fly  the  screaming  game  from  such 

affray , 
But,  with  outstretched  spear,  the  fair  Valkyria  gallops  on 

Her  prey. 
YT. 

Old   and  feeble,   RING  can  now  the   lengthened  chase  no 

longer  keep; 
FRITHIOF  only,  dark-brow'd,  silent,  near  him  rides  as  forth 

they  sweep; 
Sad,  sore,  gloomy  thoughts  are  rising  thickly  in  his  troubled 

breast,  — 
And,  go  where  he  will  still  croak  they,  mutt'ring  ceaseless, 

words  unhlest.  — 


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175 
VII. 

*Why,   alas!    free   Ocean  left  I?  —  to  my  danger  rashly 

blind;  — 
Grief  fares  hardly  on  the   billows,    scatter  d  by  the  fresh- 

ning  wind. 
Droops  the  troubled  Viking!  —  Danger  soon  to  tread  the 

war- dance  charms. 
And  away  his  black  dreams  Tanish ,  dazzled  by  the  glance 

of  arms. 

VIII. 

*Here  how  changed  all  is !   Unutterable  longings  whirl  their 

wings 
Flutt'ring  round  my  burning  forehead.    Trance-like  are  my 

wanderings ; 
baldbr's  Sanctuary  never  can  /orgotten  be ;  —  nor  yet 
The'  oath  She  sware,  not  She,   no!   no!  the  cruel  Gods 

have  broken  it. 
IX. 

*Yes!   the  race  of  Man  they  hate;  its  joys  they  view  with 

wrathful  look. 
Fiends!  —  to  plant  in  Winter's  bosom  —  rose-bud  mine 

they  grimly  took: 
Winter!  —  He  the  Rose's  guardian;  —  What!    His  heart 

to  feel  its  price? 
No!  —  bud,  leaf,   and  stalk  his  cold  breath  slow  enfrosts 

with  glitt'ring  ice!' 
X. 

Thus  lamented  He.    And  now  they  came  where,  threatening 

rocks  amon^. 
Birch  and  elm  high  o'er  a  valley  darkly-cluster'd  shadows 

flung.  — 


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176 

*See  this  pleasant  dell,  how  cool!*  The  King,  his  charger 

leaving,  said; 
'Gome!    Fm  wearied;   here  FU  slumber;   yon  green  bank 

shall  be  my  bed.*  — 

XI. 

*Rest  not  here,   o  King!    the  ground  too  hard  and  cold  a 

couch  would  be; 
Heavy  sleep   would  follow.    Rise!    regain  thy  Halls,   led 

back  by  me.'  — 
*Sleep*,    said   ring,    *like   the'    other   Gods,    when  least 

expected  comes;  my  guest 
Surely  will  not  grudge  his  Host  one  balmy  hour's  unbroken 

rest!'  — 
xn. 

FRITHIOF  now  his  rich-wrought  mantle ,   loosing ,   on  the 
green  turf  laid. 

And  upon   his   knees    secure,    hi»  head   the    white-hair d 
Monarch  staid. 

Heroes  so,    on  war-shield  pillow'd  —  hush'd   the   battle's 
wild  alarm,  — 

Peaceful  slumber;   so  rests  the'  infant,  cradled  on  its  mo- 
ther's arm. 
xra. 

Calm  He  sleeps.  —  But  hark!   a  bird  all  coal-black  sings 

from  yonder  bough;  — 
'Haste  thee,  frithiof;  slay  the  dotard!  End  at  once  your 

quarrel  now. 
Take  his  Queen;  She's  thine;  Her  sacred  kiss  of  plighted 

troth  she  gave. 
Here  no  human  eye  can  see  Thee!    —   Silent  is  the  dark 

deep  grave!'  — 


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177^-. 

xiv. 
FRITHIOF  listens.  —  Hark!    a  snow-white  bird  then  sings 

from  yonder  bough , 
*Though  no  human  eye  should  see  thee ,  oden*s  eye  would 

see  it.  —  How!  — 
Wouldst  thou.    Scoundrel,   murder  sleep?    Shall  helpless 

age  thy  bright  sword  stain? 
Know,   whate'er   thou  winnest.    Hero- fame   at  least  thou 

wilt  not  gain ! ' 
XV. 
Thus  contending   sang   the   Birds.  —  But  FRriHiOF  seiz'd 

his  Falchion  good. 
And  with  hoiTor  threw  it  from  him,  far  into  the  gloom- 

ful  wood: 
Down  to  NASTRAND  flies  the  coal-black  tempter;  but,  light 

wings  his  stay. 
Like  a  harp-tone  warbling,  hieth  the'  other  sunward  quick 

away. 

XVI. 
Straight  awakes,   then,   the'   aged  Sleeper.  —    *Sweet  in- 
deed my  rest  hath  been; 
Well  they  slumber  in  the  shade  whom  Warrior  guards  with 

war -blade  keen! 
But  —  where  is  thy  war-blade ,  Stranger !  Lightning's  bro- 
ther's left  thy  side; 
Who  has  parted  friends  that  never  from  each  other  should 
divide?'  — 
xvn. 
/Little    boots  it'!    answer'd  frithiof;    *ne'er   the  North  I 

brand -less  knew; 
Sharp,   O   King,   the   Sword's   tongue  is.     Yes!   words  of 
peace  it  speaks  but  few. 

12 


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178 

Imps  of  darkness  haunt  the  steel,  —  Hell -Spirits  sprung 

from  Mlffelhem, 
Sleep  itself  they  spare  not,  —  and  e*en  silver  locks  but 

anger  them!*  — 
xvni. 

•Youth!  I  slept  noil  Only  would  I  thus  thy  hero -soul  first 

try;  — 
Fools   may  the'   untried  man  or  sword  all    fondly  trust; 

so  will  not  I! 
Th<:>u  art  frithiof!   I  have  ktiown  Thee  «iate  Tbou  fiifet 

my  Halls  didst  find; 
RING,  though  did,   has  long  pei^eiv'd   his    ckvcflr  4[uest*6 

most  secret  mind. 

•Wherefore  to  my  Palace  creptst  Thou!   nameless  and  in 
close  disguise? 

Wherefore ;  —  but  to  make  an  aged  <]hieftain*s  Bride  thy 
stolen  prize! 

Never,    frithiof,    *mid  glad  guests  her   station   Honour 
nameless  took; 

Sun-bright  is  Her  shield;  Her  open  face  would  spurn  dis- 
sembled look: 
XX. 

•Fame  a  frithiof*s  exploits  rumour'd,  terror  both  to  Gods 

and  Men; 
DespVate,  careless  which ,  that  Viking  shields  would  cleave 

or  Temples  bren! 
Soon,   methought,    this   Chief  wiU   march   with  upborne 

shield  against  my  Land; 
Soon  He  came,  —  but  hid  in  tatters,  and  a  Beggars  staff 

in  hand!  — 


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179 

XXI* 
*Whj  those  down-cast  glances?  I,  too,  have  been  young; 

Fve  Ml  that  truth  — 
Life  is  but  a  life -long  contest,   and  its  Berserk's- Course 

is  Youth: 
Youth,  'mid  shields  pound? pressing  ficFce,  shall  strive  till 

passion's  rage  expire; 
I  have   prov'd  and  pardonM,  —  I  have  pitied  and  forgot 
mine  ire. 
xxn. 
^Listen!   ^rr-  Old  I  wax,   and,  feeble,   soon   shall  in  my 

Cairn  recline; 
Then  my  Kingdom  take,  young  Warrior;  take  my  Queen 

too.  She  is  thine! 
Be,  till  then,  my  Son;  and  share  my  Hall's  free  welcome 

as  before  I 
Swordless  Champion  shall  protect  me ;  so  our  ancient  feud 
is  o'er'.— 

9LXIH. 

*Thief  like',  answer d  FHivaiOF  grimly,  \came  I  not  with- 
in thy  Hall; 

Had  I  wish'd  to  seize  chy  Queen,  say  —  who  could  stand 
me,  who  appal? 

Ah!  I  fain  would  see  my  Bride!  —  once  more,  but  once! 
Her  charms  would  view; 

And,  weak  madman  like,  my  love's  half- slumb ring  flame 
I  wak'd  anew! 
XXIV. 

*RING,  I  go!  —  Its  guest  thy  Court  too  long  already  shel- 
ter'd  hath; 

Gods  implacable  upon  my  head  devote  pour  all  their  wrath* 

BALDER  with  the  bright-bued  tresses.  He  whose  love  each 
mortal  shares, 

Me  alone  fierce  hates,  of  all  mankind  rejects  alone  my  pray'rs  I 


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180 

XXV. 

'Yes!  His  Fane  I  laid  in  ashes !  —  VARG i  VEUM  am  I  hight ! 
Sounds  my  name  —  loud  shrieks  the  child,   and  festive 

boards  Joy  flies  affright. 
Yes !  Her  long-lost  Son  my  Country  has  rejected  and  opprest ; 
Outlaw'd  in  my  Home-Land  am  I;  outlawed,  peaceless^  in 

my  breast! 
XXVI. 
*On  the  fresh  green  Earth  no  longer,  peace  vain-seeking, 

will  I  live; 
'Neath  my  foot  the  ground  bums  hotly,   and  the  tree  no 

shade  will  give. 
INGEBORG ,  my  own  —  I've  lost !  His  spoil  the  white-hair'd 

King  retains; 

Set,  extinguish'd ,  is   my  Life's  bright   Sun  —  and  round 

me  darkness  reigns. 
xxvn. 

*Hencc,   then,  to  my  Ocean  will  I:  —  Out  my  Dragon- 
ship  !  —  Hurrah ! 

Glad  one!  Bathe  again  thy  pitch-black  bosom  in  salt  waves  afar; 

Flap  thy  wings  in  storm-clouds  bravely!    Hissing  cut  the 
high-dash'd  foam; 

Fly  where'er  a  Guide-Star  kindles,  far  as  conquer'd  billows 
roam ! 

xxvra. 

'Rattling  tempests  horrid  rolling  —  deep -voic'd  thunders  — 
will  I  hear; 

FRiTHiOP's  soul  is  then  most  calm  when  most  the  crashing 
din  is  near. 

Hark!    old    Chief,  —  shields  clang  —   darts  hiss,  —  out 
on  mid  Ocean  roars  the  Fray:  — 

Joyful  shall  I  fall  —  to  hear  the  Gods ,  appeas'd ,  my  par- 
don say ! '  — 


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o 
5  I 

El 

i 

s 

52 


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CANTO 


Iti]f0  l^inffs  ^eath. 


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Argument. 

Tender,  solemn,  decisive.  Is  this  beautiful  Canto.  The 
music  of  CRU6ELL  is  its  best  and  shortest  incarnation.  It  is, 
however,  as  to  the  metre  very  difficult  to  translate;  and  our 
Version  is,  in  this  instance,  more  than  usually  (we  hope) 
inferior  to  the  Original. 

Covered  with  years  and  glory,  and  feeling  that  the  hand 
of  Death  is  on  him,  ring  reproveth  frithiof  for  his  ^girl-like 
plainings'  and  intended  departure,  aud  — ,  shrinking  from  the 
^straw-death'  so  unwelcome  to  the  old  Scandinavian  Hero,  —  he 

^runes  catr^d  to  ontnC 
on  breast  and  on  arm. 

Then,  pledging  in  one  long  last  draught  his  Home-Land 
the  North,  —  he  pressed  the  hand  of  frithiof  and  of  inge- 
BORG,  and  his  soul 

*Flew  back,  with  a  sigh,  up  to'  allfather  ag^ni' 


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Voic-©. 


KIKCi  RINQ^j)  DEATH. 


TraTioforte.^ 


^ 


y 


^i'Jilliu 


f=&= 


^ 


fj    >  'M  J  U  [.  ^ii    J  If  ,^^ 


t/KTMEdXtfj      .fi^eam^r^  *^K£tnt»^f»i^j^%r0^^  Tvture^     JJ^roi^ifiAm/^^ymt^: . 


f=^ 


H*- 


;  c^T  cj'i  '7 


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CANTO  XX. 


mnq  mna'tt  nt&i% 


I. 

Skinfaxe,  ^tre^imiug 

Af^e- gold -fire,  raises 
Spring's  Sun  from  Oce^n^  more  fair  than  before: 
Morn's  Ray^  bright  beaming. 
Twice  lovely  blades. 
And  plays  in  the  Hall.  —  Hark!  who  taps  on  the  door? 

Buried  in  sorrow, 

FRITHIOF  advanceth; 
Pale  sits  the  King:  fair  ingeborg's  breast 
Heaves  like  the  billow.  — 
Faint  •trembling,  chanteth 
The  Stranger  'Farewell'  to  the  Halls  of  his  rest:  — 

in. 

*My*  wing'd  Steed  out  yowler 
Waves  bathe  so  gay,  now; 
My'  Sea- Horse  is  longing  to  dash  from  the  Strand: 
Far  must  he  wander.  — 

Th'  Guest  must  away,  now. 
Away  from  the  friend  that  he  loves  and  his  Land. 


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184 

IV. 

*ing'borg!  the'  unbrokeu 
Ring  I  restore  Thee ; 
Mem'ries  all  sacred  within  it  remain :  — 
Give  not  the  token! 

Pardons  I  o'er  Thee 
Speak »  —  for  on  Earth  Thou  ne'er  seest  me  again! 

V. 

'Never  again  the 

Fire's  light  curl'd  daughters 
See  I  from  th'  North  rise.  —  Man  is  a  slave;  — 
Nornor  they  reign!  —  the 
Wild  waste  of  waters. 
There  is  my  Fatherland,  there  is  my  Grave! 

VI. 

Wor  on  the  strand  go, 

RING,  with  Thy  consort;  — 
Least,  when  pale  stars  gleam  bright  o'er  the  bay:  — 
For  'mid  the  sand,  o 

Chief!  may  be  up-toss'd 
The'  Outlaw'd  young  Viking's  bones^  bleach'd  in  the  spray!'— 

vn. 

.    Saith  RING;  —  *How  it  wearies, 
List'ning  to  live-long 
Plainings  from  Men,  as  from  Girls  when  they  cry! 
Loud  in  mine  ear  is 

Long  since  my  death  -  song 
Echoing: — what  then? — Who  are  born  —  they  must  die! 


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185 
vm. 

^Strengths  none  deliver. 
Tears  ne*er  atone  ^  no 
Strugglings  avail,  from  the  nornor's  decree. 
RING  is  the  giver! 

ing'borg's  thy  own ;  —  so 
My  Son's  firnx  defence  in  my  realm  shalt  Thou  be ! 

IX. 

*Friends  oft  have  spoken. 
Seated  in  HaUs  here; 
Well  have  I  lov'd  golden  Peace  all  around. 
Yet  have  I  broken 

Shields  in  the  valley. 
Shields  on  the  sea  —  nor  grew  pale  at  the  Sound. 


*Bleeding  now,  Geirsodd 
Quick  will  I  carve  me, 
North-Kings  it  fits  not  to  die  in  their  bed: 
Little  this  final 

Exploit  will  cost  me ; 
Living  —  we're  scarce  more  at  ease  than  the  deadi* 

XI. 

To'  ODEN  then  truefast 

Carves  He  fair  Runics, 
Death-runes  cut  deep  on  his  arm  and  His  breast; 
Sparkling  the  contrast! 

See!  how  those  streams  mix, 
Silver  hairs  purpling  on  bosom  at  rest! 


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186 

xn. 

Wine  bring  so  mellow!  — 
Hail  to  thy  Memory , 
Hail  to  thy  glory  Thou  North  blooming  bright! 
Harvests*  deep  yellow. 

Minds  thinking  clearly. 
The*  achievements  of  Peace ,  -^  were  on  earth  my  delight. 

xm. 

'Oft  sought  I,  fruitless. 

Peace  where,  'mid  slaughter. 
Wild  Chieftains  dwelt;  —  but  she'd  flown  far  away: 
Now  stands  the  bloodless 
Tomb's  gentle  daughter, 
Fay'rite  of  Heay'n  and  awaits  me  to  day! 

XIV. 

*Gods  all,  I  hail  ye! 

Sons   of  VALHALLA! 

Earth  disappears;  to  the*  ASAR's  high  feast 
GJALLAR-HORN  bids  me; 
Blessedness,  like  a 
Gold-helmet,  circles  their  up-coming  guest!*  — 

XV. 

With  one  hand  then  clasp'd  He 

iNG*BORG,  His  Dear  One; 
The'  other  to*  His  Son  and  the  Viking  He  bends:  — 

So,  closing  gently 

His  Eyes  to  the  clear  Sun,  - — 
Sighing,  the  King's  Soul  to'  ALLFATHER  ascends ! 


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CANTO  XXI. 


Hint's   Bir^je* 


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Argument. 

How  maBsive^  how  sublime ^  is  this  Song!  Glorious  the 
Genius  that  could  imagine  its  inspiring  loftiness! 

Rmo  is  immured  in  his  Cairn.  —  But  see!  Valhall  opens; 
crowding  Gods  welcome  the  wise  Chief ,  the  peaceful  warrior, 
to  their  Paradise,  —  and  brage  chaunts  to  his  sounding  harp 
the  praises  of  virtue  uplifted  to  Heaven! 

The  peculiar  alliterative  construction  of  this  Canto,  whose 
distinguishing  features  we  have  endeavoured  to  preserve,  may 
be  regarded  as  a  fair  specimen  of  the  old  Northern  poetry  in 
general,  and  of  that  of  the  Icelandic  Sagas  etc.  in  particular. 


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rij^g;s  diroe 


Pi.i«iioi'<»rtr, 


.7a  /iryo-.rjn'ffntit/oi  '/Y/t^//Jfyir  vn^^^'s'ffaT^i^uf.MvUeUl^ie'. 


fe^J  J;|J^   J|^j;|-^j^.[J  J 


.  ^i€2e  7t/^/*fJSitci'le^€riv  tuvn  .  /^^^d^^./^-^J^ j*3/>^*l?!ri^ 


i 


J    J-'iT: 


^ 


^—a^ 


;^'fvV:  ;^1 


V^/.v>^/  /^ Y;^^4^/^>^^^^fc»i%^(»  jff  i>?y/-nfeMri>!^- 


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CAJVTO  XXI. 


iltns'0  Utrge. 


I. 

1  h'  Hero-sprung  SovVeign 
Sits  in  His  Barrow, 
Battle-blade  by  Him, 
Buckler  on  arm:  — 
Chafing,  his  Courser 
Close  to  His  side  neighs. 
Pawing  with  gold-hoof 
The'  Earth-girded  grave. 

n. 

Royally  ring  now 
Rides  over  bifrost. 
Rocks  with  the  burden 
The'  arch-bended  bridge. 
Wide-ope  spring  VAlhall's 
Vast- vaulted  portals. 
The'  ASAR  His  hands  glad 
Hurry  to  grasp. 


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m. 

Far  on  a  foray 

Fights  puissant  THOR,  but 

Welcomes  with  wine-cup 

ALLFATHEE*5  Wink. 

FREY  round  the  Chieftain's 
Crown  plaiteth  corn-ears, 
FRIGGA  binds  bright-hued 
Blue-flow'rs  among. 

IV. 

White-bearded  Bard ,  ag'd 
BRAGE,  his  gold-harp 
Sweeps  —  and  yet  softer 
Stealeth  the  lay: 
Luird  by  the  lyre-tones 
VANADis  listens. 
Bent  o*er  the  board  her 
Bosom  of  snow :  — 
V. 

^Swords  *mid  cleft  helmets 
Savagely  sing^  and. 
Fierce-boiling  billows 
Blood-red  still  run. 
Arm-strength^  which  good  Gods 
Give  to  the  warrior. 
Brutal  as  Berserk 
Bites  on  the  shield. 

VI. 
Hail!  then  to  VAI.HAI-L 
Heav'n-honour'd  Prince,  whose 
Shield  His  sav'd  Country 
Shelter  d  with  —  peace ! 


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Type  of  tried  strength  soft 
Temper'd  by  iove^  like 
Incense  rich-risittg^ 
ReacFdst  thon  die  sky! 

*Words  wise  and  chosen 

VALFATHER  whlSperS  , 
Seated  by  SA<iA, 
Soquaback's  Maid;  — 
So  clang  the  Chieftain's 
Silver-clear  tones,  like 
mdier's  fount,  flowing 
Freshly  and  deep, 
vnr. 

'Furious  feudmen 
forset'  appeases, 
Doomer  where  urda's 
Welling  waves  flow;  — 
So  on  the  doom-stone. 
Dreadful  but  dear,  wise 
RING  hastened  Heroes' 
Hands  to  disarm. 
IX. 

'Generous  gifts,  too. 
Gave  He,  —  rich-scatt'ring 
Round  Him  Dwarf-Day-shine , 
Dragon-bed  bright; 
Glad  fSpom  His  princely 
Palm  went  the  present; 
Light  from  His  lips  flew 
Love,  Pity,  Hope! 


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X. 

*Welcome,  then^  Wise  One! 
VALHALL's-Heir,  Welcome! 
Long  shall  the  North-Land 
Laud  thy  lov'd  name. 
BRAGE ,  the  mead-horn 
Holding,  hails  courteous,  — 
RING,  nornor's  Peace-Pledge, 
Prince  from  the  North  !*  — 


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C2 
> 

5 
^  > 


C5 
D1 


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y 


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CANTO  ZXIL 


tthi  auction  to  titje 


13 


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Argument* 

Rmc's  vacant  throne  roust  be  filled.  The  free  yeomen  of 
the  land  assemble  to  elect  a  successor. 

Willingly  will  they  persuade  the  daring  and  renowned 
FRiTHiOF  to  marry  the  widowed  Queen,  and  assume  the  dia- 
dem. But  that  Chief,  impelled  by  a  spirit  of  chivalrous  deli- 
cacy, and  borne  down  by  oppressive  and  consuming  remorse 
—  ^ill  choose  his  bride  himself/  and,  unreconciled  to  the  of- 
fended BALDER,  dare  not  claim  mGEBORo's  hand. 

Having,  therefore,  procured  the  electi<m  of  bung's  yvong 
Son  *  to  the  tiirone,  which  be  promises  to  protect,  flie  peace- 
seeking  Viking  kisses  the  Child's  fair  brow,  and  disappears 
slowly  over  the  heath. 


*  "Of  such  recorded  deviations  from  the  rule  of  regular  inheri- 
tance, our  Poet  has  taken  advantage  to  exhibit  his  Hero  superior 
to  the  temptations  of  ambition,  as  already  he  had  proved  himself 
elevated  above   the  meaner   seductions   of  vengeance  and  desire.'* 

.    Strong* s  Frithiof^  p.  373. 


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CANTO   XXII. 


Ztfe  QSUttion  to  tj^e  mtngHom. 


I. 

To  ting!  Away!  O'er  dale  and  hill 

The  Fire-Cross  speeds; 
King  RING  is  dead ;  —  His  throne  to  fill  — 

A  Diet  needs. 

n. 

To'  his  wall-hung  Sword  each  yeoman  flies. 

Its  steel  is  blue ;  — 
And  quick  its  edge  his  finger  tries. 

It  bites  right  true. 

in. 

On  shine  so  steel-blue  joyful  gaze 

His  laughing  boys; 
The  blade's  too  big  for  one  to  raise. 

It  two  employs. 

IV. 

From  spot  and  stain  his  daughter  frees 

The  Helm  with  care; 
But  how  she  blushes,  when  she  sees 

Her  image  there! 


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His  Shield's  round  fence,  a  Sun  in  blood. 

Last  guards  his  mail.  — 
Hail  iron-limb'd  Freeman !  Warrior  good ! 
Hail  yeoman,  hail! 
VI. 

Thy  Country's  honour,  —  glory,  —  all  — 

Thee  gone,  would  cease; 
In  battle  still  thy  brave  Land's  wall. 

Its  voice  in  peace!  — 
vn. 

Thus  gather  they,  with  clang  of  shields 

And  arms'  hoarse  sound. 
In  open  ting,  for  Heav'n's  blue  fields 

Sole  roof  them  round. 
vin. 

But,  standing  on  the  TING-Stone  there. 

See  FRiTHiOF  hold 
(A  child  as  yet)  the  King's  young  heir 

With  locks  of  gold.  — 
IX. 

*Too  young's  that  Prince,'  —  loud  murmur  then 

The'  assembled  throng; 
*Nor  Judge  he'll  be  among  his  men  ^ 

Nor  War-Chief  strong.'  — 
X. 

But  FRITHIOF  on  His  shield  lifts  high 

The  Son  of  ring  ;  — 
^Northmen!  not  yet  your  Land's  hopes  die;  — 

See  here  your  King! 


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XI. 

'See  here  old  oden's  awful  Race 

In  image  bright; 
The  shield  he  treads  with  youthful  grace ;  — 

So  fish  swims  light, 
xn. 

*I  swear  his  Kingdom  to  protect 

With  sword  and  spear; 
Till,  with  his  father's  Gold-wreath  deck'd, 

I  crown  liim  here ! 
xni. 

*FORSETE,  BALD£R*S  high-bom  Son, 

Hath  heard  mine  oath; 
Strike  dead,  forset*,  if  ere  I'm  won 

To  break  my  troth!'  — 
XIV. 

But  thron*d  King  like,  the  lad  sat  proud 

On  shield-floor  high; 
So  the'  Eaglet  glad,  from  rock-hung  cloud. 

The  Sun  will  eye! 
XV. 

At  length  this  place  his  young  blood  found 

Too  dull  to  keep; 
And,  with  one  spring,  he  gains  the  ground  — 

A  royal  leap! 

XVI. 

Then  rose  loud  shouts  from  all  the  ting,  — 

*We,  Northmen  free. 
Elect  thee!  —  Shield-borne  Youth!  like  ring,. 

Thy  father,  be! 


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XYU. 

^ 'Neath  frithiof^s  guardian  counsels  live. 

Thy  realm  his  care:  — 
Jarl  FRITHIOF,  as  thy  bride  we  give 

His  Mother  fair!*  — 
xvin. 

*To-day ,'  —  the  frowning  Chief  replied ,  — 

*A  King  we  choose. 
Not  marry ;  —  when  I  take  my  Bride , 

None  for  me  wooes. 

XIX. 

*To  balder's  sacred  Grove  I  go ; 

My  NORNOR  dread 
I  swore  should  there  be  met;  —  and  know 

They  wait  my  treads 
XX. 

*Yes,  all  my  fortunes,  all  my  love, 

I  them  will  tell; 
Time's  spreading  Tree  beneath,  above. 

Those  Shield-maids  dwell. 
XXI. 

•balder's,  the  light-hair'd  pale  God's,  wrath 

Still  'gainst  me  burns; 
None  else  my  heart's  young  Spouse  ta'en  hath. 

None  else  returns!'  — 
xxu. 

His  brow  slight  kissing,  ring's  fair  Child 

Salutes  He  low; 
Then,  silent,  o'er  the  heath-plain  wild 

He  vanish'd  slow. 


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CANTO  XZIII. 


on  ti« 


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Argument. 

Events  hasten  to  their  completion.  This  Canto,  which 
abounds  in  the  tenderest  and  most  affecting  interest ,  leads  to 
the  ''final  end/' 

The  wearied,  heart-broken,  humbled  young  Sea-King  revisits 
his  Home -fields  and  the  Cairn  of  his  Father.  His  thoughts 
there  how  agonizing,  his  repentance  how  moving,  his  prayer  how 
deep  i 

And  BALD£R  hears! 

The  Celestial  Temple  that  rises  before  him  in  gorgeous 
beauty,,  intimates  at  once  the  answer  and  its  condition. 

To  see  is  to  feel,  to  feel  —  to  resolve. 

'Here  on  my  shield  Fll  sleep  —  and  dreaming  wonder 
How  Man's  appeas'd,  and  Gods  forget  their  thunder!' 


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PMTHIOF  O^  HIS  l^ATHEtfS  BARROW^. 
Voice. 


pfe-fe^Al)  JJ4pb^-^ 


Piayio  forte. 


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^A( .   ?//*/(    eft>lf/rn    t"/?^*-/^.  ^/^<5*w    n^izM -Me     ^fY-'/fiW 


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CANTO  XXIII. 


iftitfiiof  on  U»  ifat|ier'«  isartoto. 


I. 

'xxow  lovely  smiles  the  Sun ,  how  friendly  dances 
From  branch  to  branch  Her  mildly-soften'd  beam; 

In  Ev'ning's  dews  Allfather's  look  bright  glances. 
As  in  His  Ocean-deeps,  with  pure  clear  gleam! 

How  red  the  dye  that  o'er  yon  hill  advances. 
On  balder's  Altar-stone  all  blood  its  stream! 

Soon  sleeps  the  buried  land  on  Night's  black  pillow, 

Soon  She,  yon  golden  shield  —  sinks  'neath  the  billow. 

n. 

^ut  first,  on  those  dear  spots  I'll  gaze  and  ponder. 
My  childhood's  friends,  where  charm'd  so  oft  I've  stood. — 

The  self-same  flow'rs  still  scent  the  Eve,  and  yonder 
The  self-same  birds'  soft  music  fills  the  wood; 

And  round  that  rock  the  tumbling  waves   still  wander,  — 
O  happy  he,  who  ne'er  has  plough'd  their  flood! 

To  Fame  and  Name  and  Exploits  false  waves  wake   thee. 

But  far,  ah!   far  from  Homeland's  vales  they  take  thee! 

III. 

^Stream!  well  I  know  thee;  oft,  my  heart  by  sadness 
Unblighted  yet ,  I  brav'd  thy  waters  clear. 

Dale!  well  I  know  thee;    there   we  swore,  weak  madness! 
An  endless  faith  —  such  faith  we  find  not  here. 


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Ye  Birches,  too!  %vhose  bark  in  Lovers  young  gladness 

I  carv'd  with  many*  a  rune,  unchang*d  appear 
With  silv*ry  stems,    and  leaf- crowns  graceful  bended:  — 
All,  all's  the  same,  *tis  my  fond  Dream  that's  ended! 

IV. 

*Is  all  the  same?  —  Ah!  here  no  Framnas  towers. 
No  BALDER*s  Temple  gems  the  sacred  strand. 

Yes!  fair  they  were,  my  childhood's  vales  and  bowers. 
Now  waste  and  spoil'd  by  sword  and  flaming  brand; 

Man's  vengeance,  and  the  wrath  of  valhall's  Powers 
Dark  warnings  speak  &om  this  black  fire-brent  land,  — 

Hence,  Pilgrim!  here  no  pious  step  abideth. 

For  balder's  Grove  wild  forest-creatures  hideth! 

V. 

Through  all  our  life  a  Tempter  prowls  malignant. 
The  cruel  nidhogg  from  the  world  below. 

He  hates  that  ASA-Light,  whose  rays  benignant 

On  th'  Hero's  brow  and  glitt'ring  sword  bright  glow. 

Each  scoundrel-deed  which  Passion's  rage  indignant 
Prompts ,  He  commits ,  curs'd  tax  to  realms  of  woe ; 

And  when  successful,  when  the  Temple  blazes,  — 

His  coal-black  hands  the  Fiend  loud-clapping  raises! 

VI. 

'Far-shining  VALHALl!  —  Is  wo'  Atonement  granted? 

Mild  blue-ey'd  balder!  wilt  Thou  take  no  fine? 
Blood -fines  take  we^  when  kinsmen  fall;  the'  undaunted 

High  Gods  themselves  are  sooth'd  when  altars  shine. 
O  Thou,  of  all  the  Gods  for  Love  most  vaunted. 

Some  off 'ring  ask,  —  whate'er  Thou  wilt  is  thine. 
Could  FRITHIOF  dream  the  flames  would  upward  muster?  — 
Give  back,  then,  Hero-God!  my  Shield's  stain'd  lustre. 


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203 
vn. 
'Remove  Tliy  burden;  'lis  too  heavy  for  me! 

Extingui^  in  my  soul  these  spectres  drear. 
Repentance  sues*    The  crime  one  moment  saw  m« 

Dare^  let  a  glorious  life  atone.    Though  here 
The  LigMner  stood ^  I  swear  he  would  not  awe  me! 

The  pale-blue  hel  herself  I  would  not  fear;  — 
At  Thee,  whose  looks  the  Moon's  white  beams  resemble. 
And  Thy  revenge,  o  gentle  God,  I  tremble!  — 

vm. 
*Here  stands  my  Father's  Cairn.  —  Sleeps  He  hereunder? — 

Ah!  Thither  rode  He  whence  returneth  none! 
Yon  starry  tent  His  home ,  the  shields'  loud  thunder 

Now  hears  He  glad,  or  mead-draughts  has  begun.  — 
From  Heav'n's  fields  look,  thou  ASA-Guest!  nor  wonder  — 

Thy  SON  invokes  Thee,  thorsten  vikingsson! 
Nor  runes  I  have,  nor  spells,  nor  wizard-token,  — 
But  say,  how  ASA-balder's  rage  is  broken!  -  -  -  - 

IX. 

*Has,  then,  the  Grave  no  tongue?  —  From  out  his  barrow 

Spake  strong-arm'd  ANGANTYR  for  sword  of  steel ; 
But  what  was  tirfing's  price ,  though  like  swift  arrow 

It  struck,  to  what  I  ask?  —  No  sword  reveal. 
An  Isle-fight  such  will  give,  —  but  wounds  that  harrow 

The  soul,  O  teach  me,  asgard- Chief,  to  heal! 
My'  uncertain  gaze  direct;  O  lead  my  guesses;  — 
Sore,  balder's  wrath  a  noble  mind  distresses! 

X. 
*Thou  speak'st  not.  Father! — Hark!  in  tones  soft-blended 

The  Billow  murmurs;  let  its  words  be  thine! 
The  Storm -wind  rises;  on  His  wings  suspended, 

O  whisper  ere  He  go,  some  hint  divine! 


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204 

Like  golden  rings  the  sun -set  Clouds  are  bended;  — 

Let  one  of  them  Thy  thought's  bright  Herald  shine !  — 
No  word!  —  no  Sign! — ^Thy  Son's  distresses heed'st  Thou 
Dear  Father?  —  Ah!  poor  Death!  what  pity  need'st  Thou?' . . . 

XI.  , 

The  Sun  is  quench'd;  and  Ev'ning's  breeze  is  trolling 

To  the*  Earth's  tir'd  race  its  cloud-sprung  lullaby; 
And  Ev'ning's  blush  drives  up.  Her  chariot  rolling 

With  rose-red  wheels  along  the  dark'ning  sky; 
Like  some  fair  YALHALL- vision,  men  consoling,     3 

She  flies  blue-tinted  hills  and  vallies  by,  — 
Then  sudden,  o'er  the  Western  waters  pendent. 
An  Image  comes,  with  gold  and  flames  resplendent* 

xn. 
An  air-bom  Phantom  call  we  such  heav'n- wonder, 

(In  YALHALL  sounds  its  name  more  fair  I  ween;) 
O'er  balder's  groves  it  hovers,  night's  clouds  under. 

Like  gold  -  crown  resting  on  a  bed  of  green. 
Above,  below,  —  its  rich  hues  YALHALl's  plunder  — 

It  glows  with  pomp  ne'er  'fore  by  mortal  seen. 
At  last,  to'  a  Temple  settling,  firm  'tis  grounded,  — 
Where  balder's  stood,  another  Temple's  founded! 

xni. 

Of  BREIDABLICK  an  Image ,  o*er  the  rifted 
And  cavem'd  cliff,  high  walls  like  silver  shone: 

The  steel-cut  pillars  deep -blue  tints  quick  shifted. 
One  splendid  jewel  was  its  Altar- stone: 

Light  hung  the  Dome,  as  though  by  sprites  uplifted. 
And  clear  and  pure  as  Winter's  starry  zone; 

And  high  therein,  rich  sky-blue  dresses  wearing. 

Sat  YALHALl's  Deities,  bright  gold -crowns  bearing. 


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XIV. 

And  see!  the  NORNOR  in  the  Porch  assembled. 
On  rune-caiVd  shields  supported  gallantly; 

Three  rose-buds  in  one  Urn  the  group  resembled »  — 
All  solemn  sweetness ,  charming  dignity. 

And  URDA,  silent^  points  where  th*  ruins  trembled. 
But  SKULDA  shews  the  new  Fane's  Majesty.  — 

And  scarce  had  FRITHIOF,  glad  and  wond'ring,  banish*d 

His  troublous  dread  —  when  straight  the  Pageant  vanished ! 

XV. 

'Enough,  ye  Maidens,  Time's  pure  spring  attending! 

Thy  Sign  it  was,  o  Hero-Father  good! 
The  ruin'd  Temple  shall  again,  o'erbending 

The  steep  as  erst,  stand  beauteous  where  it  stood. 
How  sweet  —  with  peaceful  exploits  thus  contending  — 

To'  atone  the'  impetuous  rage  of  youth's  hot  blood!  — 
Once  more  the  fierce-rejected  hopeful  liyeth; 
Appeas'd  and  mild  —  the  white  god  now  forgiveth! 

XVI. 

*Hail!  Welcome!  Stars,  up  yonder  wand'ring  nightly; 

Your  silent  courses  glad  I  see  once  more. 
Hail!  Northern-Lights,  up  yonder  flaming  brightly; 

Red  Temple-fires  ye  were  for  me  before. 
Green  flourish,  Cairn!— And,  from  the  wave  trill'd  lighdy 

Again,  thou  wondrous  Song,  soft  music  pour!  — 
•  Here  on  my  shield  I'll  sleep,  and  dreaming  wonder 
How  Man's  appeas'd,  and  Gods  forget  their  thunder!'  — 


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t*1  V 

I3| 


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CANTO  XZIT. 


^h0  necondlmtwn. 


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Argument. 

l^ith  a  deeply-affected  heart,  we  trace  our  last  outline  of  the 
concluding  scene  of  this  noble  Poem.  May  the  peace  and  blessing 
of  'the  second  balder*  ever  abide  with  its  illustrious  Author! 

As  if  by  magic,  the  New  Temple  rises,  still  more  magni- 
ficent, where  the  former  stood.  frithiof*s  work  it  is.  Yes!  It 
is  Passion's  Atonement,  the  Sacrifice  of  Self,  the  Token  of  a 
holier  and  a  purer  life.     And  'the  White  God*  —  sheweth  mercy. 

'Great  bald£R*s  Priest  Supreme' 
approaches  the  steel-clad  worshiper,  tenderly  instructs  his  ignor- 
ance, telleth  of  helge's  fate,  persuades  to  Reconcilement  with 
the  cowering  halfdan,  and  thereafter  unlooses  and  reverses 
the  awful  sentence  of  the  'varo  i  vedm'  who  again  stands  boldly 
forth,  excommunicate  no  more,  —  reconciled  to  God  and  to  his  foe! 

And  INGEBORG  —  ah! 
'Then  to  her  heart's  first  best  Belov'd,  Her  childhood's  friend^ 
She  gives  her  lily  hand 
In  nuptial  band. 
As  before  pard'ning  balder's  altar  both  low  bend!' 

We  have  not  preserved  the  original  metre  *  of  this  last 
Canto.  It  was  too  near  prose,  to  be  safe  in  [otir  hands,  tegnj^r 
writes  it,  and  it  has  a  majestic  march  suitable  to  the  didactic 
nature  of  the  subject.  But  in  our  version,  we  fear,  would  only 
have  been  found  the  even  monotony  of  a  peculiar  blank -verse 
style,  without  the  sweetness  and  brilliancy  with  which  tegni&r 
has  adorned  it.  We  have  therefore  broken  up  the  Canto  into 
a  scries  of  stanzas  of  various  and  irregular  metres,  according 
to  the  spirit  of  every  paragraph.  Happy  shall  we  be,  if  we  have 
thereby  laid  an  embargo  upon  those  "arms  of  morpheus",  with 
which  he  is  so  inclined  to  embrace  the  unfortunate  readers  of 
unfortunate  verse! 


*)  The  Iambic  Trimeter  (unused  in  English),  except  in  the  Ilird, 
Xth,  and  parts  of  the  Vllth,  XXIInd  and  XXlVth  Stanzas,  as 
specimens. 


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CANTO  XXIV* 


Etft  Uetontiliation. 


u 

Jbinish'd  great  balder*s  Temple  stood! 
Round  it  no  palisade  of  wood 
Ran  now  as  erstt 
A  railing^  stronger  >  fairer  j  than  the  first 
And  all  of  hammer'd  iron  ^  each  bar 
Gold-tipp'd  and  regular  — 
Walls  BALD£R*s  sacred  House.     Like  some  long  line 
Of  steel-clad  champions ,  whose  bright  war  -  spears  shine 
And  golden  helms  afar  —  so  stood 
This  glitt'ring  guard  within  the  holy  wood! 
II. 

Of  granite  blocks  enormous,  join*d  with  curious  care 
And  daring  art,  the  ma'ssy  pile  was  built;  and  there 
(A  giant- work  intended 
To  last  till  Time  was  ended,)' 
It  rose  like  upsal's  Temple,  where  the  North 
Saw  VALHALl's  Halls  fair  imag'd  here  on  Earth. 

DI* 

Proud  stood  it  there  on  mountain-*steep ,  its  lofty  brow 
Reflected  calmly  on  the  sea's  bright-flowing  wave. 
But  round  about ,  some  girdle  like  of  beauteous  flowVs , 
Went  BALDER'sDale,  with  all  its  Groves*  soft-murmur'd  sighs^ 
And  all  its  birds'  sweet-twitter'd  songs,  —  the  Home  of  Peace. 

14 


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IV. 

High  was  the  bronze-cast  Portal,  and  two  rows 

Of  circling  columns  on  their  shoulders  strong 

The  Dome's  arch'd  I'ound  bore  up;  and  fair  as  shows 

A  gold-shield  bright 

All  vaulted  light,  — 

So  fair,  so  light,  above  the  Fane  that  Dome  it  hong. 

V. 

Farthest  within,  the  God's  High-Altar  rested. 
Hewn  all  of  one  sole  block 
From  Northern  marble  rock; 
And  round  thereon  its  scroll  the  Serpent  twisted. 
With  solemn  rune 
Each  fold  thick  strewn. 
Whose  words  from  HAVAMAL  and  VALA  taken 
Deep  thoughts  in  ev'ry  human  bosom  waken,  — 
While  in  the  wall  above 
A  niche  was  seen  with  stars  of  gold 
On  dark -blue  ground;  and  there,  behold! 
All  mild  and  gentle  as  the  silver  Moon 
Sitting  HeavVs  blue  aboon. 
The  silver  Image  stands  of  balder  ,  God  of  Love !  — 

VI. 

So  seem*d  the  Sanctuary.  —  Forth  in  pairs  now  tread 
Twelve  Temple-virgins ;  vests  of  silver  thread 
Adorn  each  slender  form,  and  roses  red 
O'er  ev'ry  cheek  soft  graces  shed. 
And  spread 
O'er  ev'ry  innocent  heart  a  fragrant  fair  rose-bed.  — 

Before  the  White  God's  Image »  and  around 
The  late-bless'd  Altar,  dancing,  —  light  they  bound 


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As  Spring -winds  leap  where  rippling  fount- waves  sound. 
As  Woodland-Elves  that  skip  along  the  ground. 
Skimming  the  high-grown  grass 
Which  Morning's  dew 
Still  hangs  with  sparkling  gems  of  evVy  hue ;  — ■ 
Ah!  how  those  jewels  tremble  as  the  Fairies  pass! 

VII. 

And,  while  the  Dance  went  round ,  a  holy  Song  they  sung 
Of  BALDER  —  that  mild  God  —  and  how  he  was  belov'd 
By  ev'ry  creature,  till  he  fell  by  hoder's  dart. 
And  Earth  and  Ocean  wide  andHeav'n  itself — sore  wept! 
How  pure,  how  tender  that  Song  it  pealeth! 
Sure  never  sprang 
Such  tuneful  clang 
From  mortal  breast!  No  —  Heav'n  revealeth 
Some  tone  from  breidablick,  from  out  the  God's  own  Hall, 
All  soft  as  lonely  Maiden's  thoughts  on  him  she  loves. 
What  time  the  Quail  calls  deeply  'mid  the  peace  of  night; 
The  North's  tall  birches  bath'd  i  th'  Moon's  pale-quiv'ring 

sheen. 

vm. 

And  FRITHIOF,  leaning  on  His  Sword,  whose  glance 

Shines  far  around,  stood  lost  as  in  a  trance. 
And  charm'd  and  silent  gaz'd  upon  the  dance!  — 
Thereat  His  Childhood's  mem'ries  how  they  throng 
Before  his  raptur'd  eye!  —  A  jocund  train,    and  long^ 
And  innocent  and  glad  and  true. 
With  eyes  like  Heav'n's  own  blue. 
And  heads  rich-ciixiled  by  bright-golden  tresses ,  *— 
His  former  youth-friend,  each  with  some  sweet  sign  addresses: 
Then  all  his  Viking-life, 


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With  scenes  of  murdVous  strife 
And  bold  adventures  rife*. 
Like  some  dark  bloody  shadow  sinketh 
Fast  down  to  Night;  —  Ah!  glad  he  drinketh 

Forgetfulness^  sweet  cup,  and  thinketh, 
'Repose,  at  last,  those  Sea-King  exploits  have,  — 
I  stand  a  flow'r-crown'd  Bauta-Stone  upon  their  Grave  !* 

IX. 

High  and  still  higher  mounts  the  sweet-ton'd  lay. 
And  upward  as  its  warbled  harm'nies  roll  — 
The  Heroes  soul 
Wings  glad  its  flight 
To  VALASKJALF  the  bright. 
From  Earth's  low  vallies  far,  far,  far  away!  — 
As,  from  the  Mountain's  breast. 
In  ice-mail  drest. 
Its  winter-cuirass  melts  and  falls 
When  back  again 
^  To  Gods  and  Men 
Spring's  Sun  life's  joys  recalls;  — 
So  human  vengeance  vanishes. 
So  human  hate  He  banishes; 
And,  as  he  stands  in  silent  extasy. 
His  Hfero -bosom  swells  with  Peace's  sun^lit  seal  — 

X. 

Yes !  'twas  as  if  he  felt  the  heart  of  Nature  beat 
Responsive  to  his  own;  as  if,  deep-mov*d,  bed  press 
In  brotherly  embrace  Heimskringla's  Orb ,  and  Peace 
Straight  make  with  all  Creation  —  while  the  God  looks  on !  — 
Then  up  the  Temple  trode  great  balder's  Priest  supreme. 
Not  young  and  fair,  the  White  God  like,  but  tall  of  mien 
With  heav'nly  mildness  on  his  noble  features  stamp'd. 


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And  grac'd  with  silver  beard  that  down  to'  his  girdle  flow'd.  — 
Unwonted  rev'rence  frithiof*s  haughty  soul  now  felt. 
And  the'  eaglje-pinions  on  bis  Helm  he  bended  deep 
As  the'  age-crown'd  Seer  advanc'd;  —  who  words  of  peace 

thus  spoke ,  — 

XI, 

*Son  FRITHIOF,  welcome!   Yes,  I've  long  expected 
That  Thou  shouldst  come,  —  for  Force,  tis  true,  still 

wanders 
Round  land  and  sea  afar,  wild  Berserk  like 
That  pale  with  rage  the  shield's  hard  border  biteth; 
But  yet,  at  last,  it  home  returns  again 
Outwearied  and  all  calm.  —  The  strong-arm'd  THOR 
Full  oft  'gainst  giant  Jotunheim  did  wend  — 
But  spite  his  Belt  celestial,  spite  his  Gauntlets, 
Utgarda-LOKE  still  his  throne  retains;  — 
Evil,  itself  a  force,  to  force  yields  never! 

xn, 

^Goodness,  not  join'd  with  Strength,  must  childVplay  be;  — 
On  agir's  bosom  so,  the  Sun  shines  prettily: 
But  fickle  as  the  flood  the  graspless  splendour  see! 
As  sink  or  rise  the  billows  —  thus,  all  changeably. 
The  fairy  brightness  flitteth,  moving  endlessly.  — 
And  Force,  from  Goodness  sever'd,  surely  dies; 
Self- eating,  self  -  consum'd ,  as  sword  that  lies 
In  some  damp  Cairn  —  black  rust  corrodes  the  prize: 
Yes!  Life's  debauch  fierce  Strength's  mad  riot  is! 

But  ah!  Oblivion's  Heron  flutters  still 
O'er  goblet-brim  that  traitorous  sweet  draughts  fill , 
And  deep's  the  waken'd  Drunkard's  shame  for  deeds  of  ill ! 


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xm. 

•From  the*  Earth  all  Strength  proceeds,  from  ymer's 

body; 
The  wild  tumultuous  waters  are  its  veins. 
Its  ev'ry  sinew  is  of  smithied  brass ; 
But  still  'tis  empty  all,  and  bare,  and  barren  — 
Till  HeavVs  bright  Goodness  rise. 
Till  fruitful  sun-beams  stream  from  laughing  skies. 
Then  blooms  the  grass ,  then  purple  flow  rs  their  broid'ry 

weave , 
Then  rounds  the  golden  fruit,  fresh  crowns  the  forest  leave. 
And  Men  and  animals  from  Mother-Earth  new  life  receive. 

XIV. 

*Thus  'tis  with  ASKER's  children.  —  In  the  scale 
Of  ev'ry  human  life  Allfather  placeth 
Two  weights,   each  other  balancing  —  when  right 
The  beam  is  pois'd;  and  Earthly  Strength  we  call 
The  one,  while  the*  other  hight  is Heav'nly  Goodness. — 
Strong  is  great  THOR,  no  doubt,  when  Megingjard 
He  braces  tightly  o'er  his  rock-firm  loins. 
And  strikes  his  best;  —  and  ODEN  too,  I  trow. 
Is  wise  enough,  by  urda's  silver  wave 
Sitting  and  gazing  downwards,  while  his  Eagles, 
Swift  messengers!  come  flying  from  afar 
And  tell  to  the'  ASAr's  Sire  this  round  world's  tidings ;  — 
But,  Son!  They  both  grew  pale,  the  vivid  brightness 
Of  both  Their  crowns  half-faded ,  —  when  White  BALDER, 
The  gentle  Deity,  the  banding  Gem 
Iw  VALhall's  wreath  divine,  —  all  sudden  fell!  — 
Then  on  Time's  wide-stretch'd  Tree  its  leaf-crown's  glory 
Fast  wither'd,  while  grim  N1DH6GG  bit,  triumphant. 
Its  deep-torn  roots!  —  Then  old  Night's  prison'd  forces 


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Broke  loose  at  once,  while  Midgdrd^s  Serpent  dash*d 

With  venom'd  tail  the  far-empoison*d  skies, 

Aud  FENRis  howl'd  and  i2oar*d ,  and  surtur's  fire-blade 

From  Muspelheim  blaz'd  bright.  —  Wherever,  since. 

Thy  vision  gazes  —  still  through  all  Creation 

The  rocking  battle  goes!  —  The  gold-comb'd  Cock 

The  Gods  in  VALHALL  loudly  crow'd  to  arms; 

The  blood-red  Cock  as  shrilly  summons  all 

On  Earth  and  down  beneath  it.  — 

XV. 

*Ah!  Peace  till  then 
Sat  ihron'd  in  VALHALL,  —  sat  enthroned  'mong  Men — ; 
In  human  bosom,  and  in  each  God*s  breast 
Breath'd  heavVly  rest! 

XVI. 

*But  here  what  happens,  hath  already  happened 
On  a  still  grander  scale  above  us.  —  Man's 
But  VALHALL  imag'd  faintly,  —  HeavVs  soft  light 
Reflected  dim  in  SAGA*s  rune-grav'd  shield. 

xvn. 

*Each  heart  its  balder  hath.  —  Hast  Thou  forgot,  my  Spn! 

Those  days,  ere  Life's  dark  struggles  had  begun. 

When  all  existence  was  so  glad,  so  fresh,  so  one 

As  is  the  woodland  Songster's  dream 
When  Summer-Eve's  warm  breezes  gently  stream 

Lulling  each  drowsy  flow'ret's  head. 
Rocking  that  Songster's  own  soft  leaf-green  bicd?  — 
Ah!  then,  thou  ASA-born,  thou  moving  Image  fair 
Of  glorious  VALHALL !  —  still  in  thy  spirit  pure 
Did  bALDER's  life  endure! 


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To  til*  Chili  tbe  God  lives  ever,  and  wbene*ep 

A  new-born  Infant  sees  the  day  — 
HELA,  that  Goddess  grim,  restores  her  prey, 
xvni. 

*But  in  each  humAn  soul  we  find 
That  Night's  dark  HdDER,  balder's  brother  blind. 

Is  born  and  waxeth  strong  as  he; 
For  —  blind  is  ev'ry  Evil  born,  as  bear-cubs  be.  '— 
Night  is  the  cloak  of  Evil ;  but  all  Good 
'  Hath  ever  clad  in  shining  garments  stood. 
The  busy  loke.  Tempter  from  of  old. 
Still  forward  treads  incessant,  and  doth  hold 
The  blind  one's  murder-hand,  whose  quick-launch'd  spear, 
Pierceth  young  balder's  breast,    that   Sun  of  VALHALL*s 

sphere ! 

XIX. 

•Then  waketh  HATE;  for  prey  springs  Violence  quick  ; 
And  hungry  roameth ,  hill  and  valley  round , 
I'he  Sword's  grim  Wolf,  while  Dragons  wildly  swim 
O'er  redly-flowing  billows;  — '  for  pale  Virtue 
Sits  hopeless,  strength-less,  shadow -like,  with  hel 
All  dead  amongst  the  dead,  and  balder's  House 
Once  tow'r'd  so  high ,  now  lies  a  black'ning  ruin ! 

XX. 

'The  lofty  ASAr's  life  thus  images 
The  lower  course  of  Man's  Existence ;  —  both 
Are  great  allfather's  thoughts,  and  alter  never! 
What  hath  been,  as  what  shall  be,  knoweth  well 
The  mystic  VALa's  chaunt;  that  chaunt,  the  sweet-ton'd 
Soft  cradle-lullaby  of  infant  Time , 


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Its  death-dirge  also  pealetb.     Yes!  tte  records 
Of  wide  Helmskringla  echo  VALA's  Song, 
And  Man  therein  his  own  sad  story  readeth. 

XXI. 

*The  VALA  asks  Thee,  —  mark,  my  Son!  her  words, — 
*Grasp  Ye  the  Sense,  or  no?' 
xxn. 

*Thou  wilt  be  reconcil'd.  But  Reconcilement's  —  what? 
Nay!  Youth,  undaunted  meet  my  gaze  and  turn  not  pale: 
The'  Atoner  wanders  round  our  Earth,  —  and  Death  he's 

hight. 
All  Time  is,  in  itself,  a  troubled  streamlet 
From  yast  Eternity;  all  earthly  life 
From  great  ALLFATHEr's  throne  hath  fall'n.  Atonement 
Restores  us  thither  back,  all  cleans'd  and  pure. 
Yes!  the'  ASAR,  ev'n,  have  fall'n;  and  Ragnaroh 
Is  their  great  day  of  reconcilement.     Ah! 
A  bloody  day  'twill  be,  on  VI grid's  boundless 
Wild  death-strewn  Plain  —  for  there  shall  the'  ASAR  perish ! 
But  unaveng'd  they  fall  not;  No!  all  Evil 
Pies  there  an  endless  Death,    while  Goodness  riseth , 
From  that  great  World-fire,  purified  at  last. 
To*  a  liife  far  higher,  better,  nobler  than  the  past! 

xxm.  * 

*Yes!  tho'  from  Heav'n's  proud  brow  the  garland  drops 
Of  faded  stars,  and  Earth  sinks  in  the  deep  — 
Fairer  and  newly-born  her  flow'r-crown'd  head 
Again  shall  rise  above  the  crystal  flood; 
And  younger  stars  shall  hold,  with  purer  lustre. 
Their  silent  course  above  the  new  creation. 


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xxrv. 

*Bul  BALDER  then,  where  verdant  hills  fresh  rise,  shall  rule 
The  new-born  ASAR,  and  the  pure-made  race  of  Men: 
And  those  fair  golden  Runic-Tablets  lost,  alas! 
In  Time's  young  Dawning —  valhall*s  Children,  reconcil'd, 
'Mong  IDA- valley's  fragrant  grass  shall  find  once  more ! 
Thus  is  the  death  of  fallen  Goodness  only 
Its  reconcilement,  its  fierce  furnace-proof. 
Another  birth  to  a  far-other  life. 
Which  backward  flies  whence  first  it  emanated 
And  innocently  playeth,  infant- like 
On  parent-knee  upborne.     Ah!  after  all  — 
The  best,  the  happiest,  noblest,  of  existence 
Beyond  the  Tomb  we  find,  that  green-deck'd  portal 
Of  gimle's  Paradise.    Yes!  low,  and  with  but  ill 
Deep  stain'd  is  what  we  meet  beneath  Heav'n's  star-lit  hill! 

XXV, 

*Yet  ev'n  this  life  Atonement  hath,  —  its  lowly  path 
Dim  Antitype  of  that  still  higher.  The  last  Day's  fire! 
Imperfect  and  yet  sweet  it  is. 
Like  Minstrel  -  harmonies 
When  deep-skill'd  Scald  with  ready  finger  sweeps 
The  waking  Harp, 
And  broken  chords  doth  strike,  and  keeps 
Now  low,  now  sharp. 
Tuning  the  quiv'ring  strings 
With  dream-like  fragment  echoings; 
Till,  high  up-borne  at  last  on  Music's  wings. 
With  fidl  tones  richly  peal'd,  entranc'd  he  sings 
Of  exploits  and  of  heroes  brave ; 

Awaking  from  their  grave 
The  mighty  Forms  of  old,  — 


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While,  char^'d,  his  beaming  eyes  behold 
All  VALlhall's  glories,  all  great  ODEn's  pillar d  gold! 
,   .  XXVI.  *♦ 

*Earlh  is  Heav'n's  shadow  —  human  life  the  porch 
And  outer  court  of  balder's  heav'nly  Temple. 
The  Vulgar  offer  blood  —  they  bring  proud  steeds. 
With  gold  and  purple  deck'd,  before  the  altar  — 
It  is  a  symbol,  rightly  read,  that  blood 
Is  the  red  dawn  of  every  day  of  grace. 

xxvn. 

'But  still  the  token 
Can  ne'er  the  substance  be; 
What  thou  thyself  hast  broken 
None  but  thy  self  atones  for  thee ! 
The  dead  are  reconcil'd  in  great  ALLFATHEr's 
Bosom  celestial;  but  the  sole  Atonement 
Of  him  who  lives ,  is  in  his  own  deep  breast. 
There  is  one  ofTring,  which  the  Gods  prefer 
To  thousand  hecatombs,  —  the  sacrifice 
Of  that  wild  hate  and  burning  fierce  revenge 
Harbour'd  in  thine  own  bosom.     Canst  Thou  not 
Their  thirsty  sabres  charm  to  peace  again  — 
Ah!  canst  Thou  not  forgive  —what  will  Thou,  Youth! 
In  balder's  mansion  here  ?  —  What  meant  Thou,  say  — 
With  this  arch'd  Temple,  built  to  Peaceful  Powers? 
*No  pil'd-up  stones  atone! 
Such  off'rings  balder  will  have  none. 
No!  —  with  mild,  merciful,  pure  Peace  alone 
Atonement  lives; 
In  Heav'n,  on  Earth,  'ds  only  Peace  that  Pardon  gives! 
First  with  thyself  and  with  thy  foe  united  be,  — 
Thou  then  art  reconcil'd  with  yon  pale  Deity! 


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xxvm. 

In  lands  far  south ,  *tis  said , 
Is  some  new  baldbr  worshiped; 
He,  the  pure  Virgin's  Sou,  from  Heavn  who  sped. 
Sent  by  the'  ALLFATHER's  self  to  explain  the  dim 
And  yet  unfathom'd  runes  which  crowd  the  rim 
Bord'ring  the  shield  of  Darkness ,  that  dread  shield 
Worn  by  the  NORNOR.  —  Never  would  this  balder  wield 
Our  Earth's  dark  blood-stain'd  arms.  No!  still  in  his  glad  field 
Was  Peace  His  battle  cry.  His  bright  sword  Love, 
And  o'er  His  silver  helmet  sat  the  Dove 
Of  brooding  Innocence.  —  His  pious  days 
In  sweet  instruction  pass'd,  or  pray'r  or  praise; 
And  when  He  died.  His  dying  voice  forgave,  — 
And  now,  'neath  far-off  palms,  still  stands  His  shining  grave. 
This  doctrine,  say  they,  spreads  o'er  ev'ry  land. 
Melting  hard  hearts  and  joining  hand  in  hand. 
And  on  this  Earth,  now  reconcil'd  again. 
Upraising  gentle  Peace's  wide  domain. 
Not  yet,  alas! 
Hath  human  lip  to  mine  ag'd  ear  explain'd  aright 
This  Creed;  but  still,  when  better  moments  o'er  me  pass. 

My  dim  gaze  darkly  sees  afar  its  streaming  light.  — 
Ah!  where  is  human  heart  that  hath  not,  like  as  mine, 
Presag'd  its  truths  divine?  — 
But  this  I  know:  —  One  day,  with  dove-white  wings 
She  comes,  and  gently  floats  along,  and  sings 
O'er  all  the  hilly  North.  —  But  then  no  North 
Will  send,  as  now,  its  savage  Warriors  forth;  — 
No  !  while  new  Chieftains  reign,  shall  flourish  other  men; 
And  deep  in  Hero-cairns,  forgotten  then. 
Our  bones  will  lie; 
While  Northland's  oaks  above  us  deeply  sigh.  — 


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Ye  happier   Race,  ye  Sons  who  then  shall  drink 
That  new  Light's  lustre  foaming  o'er  the  brink 
Of  Tnith's  bright  beaming  goblet ,  —  hail  I  all  hail ! 
Yes!  words  would  fail 
To  speak  how  bless'd  ye'U  be. 
If  far  from  off  your  Heav'n  those  shadows  flee 
Which  have  so  gloomily. 
As  yet,  hung  thickly  stretch'd  on  high. 
Hiding  like  some  damp  veil  Life's  sunny  sky! 
But  still,  ye  Sons,  despise  not  us,  your  Fathers*  Line;  — 
Ah!  with  what  eager  gaze,  our  eyne 
Have  ceaseless  sought  to  drink  those  rays  divine 
Shining  from  Life's  and  Light's  bright  Sun:  — 
Know !  He  hath  many  Envoys,  — but  the'  ALLFATHER's  One ! 

XXIX. 

*Thou  ha  test  BELE*s  Sons;  —  but  wherefore  hate  them? — 
For  sooth,  because  that  —  to  a  Yeomati's  child 
They  would  not  give  their  Sister  —  She  —  descended 
From  sewing's  blood,  the'  illustrious  oden's  offspring!  — 
Yes !  sprung  from  VALHALL's  thrones  is  bele's  race , 
Bright  genealogy,  just  source  of  pride! 
But  birth  is  chance,  is  fortune,  —  thou  observest  — 
And  cannot  be  a  merit.  —  Know,  my  Son, 
That  Man  still  boasts  of  fortune ,  not  of  Merit.  -— 
Say!  is't  not  gen'rous  Gods  who  were  the  givers 
Should  any  noble  quality  adorn  us?  — 
With  haughty  pride  Thou  art  thyself  inflam'd 
At  all  thy  Hero-exploits,  all  thy  fierce  -  nerv'd 
Resistless  strength;  but  didst  Thou  give  thyself 
This  force?  —  Was't  not  great  ASA-thor  who  strung 
Firm  as  gnarl'd  oak  Thy  tough  and  sinewy  arm?  — 
Say!  is't  not  Goc?-sprung  courage  that  so  gladly. 


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So  loudly,  throbs  within  that  shield-hung  fortress 
Thy  fast-arch'd  breast? —  And  that  clear-flaming  glance 
Leaping  from  out  thine  eye,  — say!  is*t  not  lightning 
From  Heav'n  that  playeth  there?  —  The  lofty  nornor 
E'en  at  thy  cradle  sang  the  princely  Legend 
Of  all  Thy  life's  adventures!  —  Ah,  from  these 
Thou  hast  no  greater  merit,  than  have  King  bele's 
Two  boasting  Sons  that  —  'twas  a  King  begat  them  I 
Condemn  not,  judge  not,  others'  pride!   then  none 
Will  judge  thine  own.  — 

^King  HELGE  is  no  more!'  — 
*King  HELGE,  He'  —  said  FRITHIOF,  —  'when,  where,  how?* 

*Thyself  knowst  well,  that  whilst  thou  here  hast  builded 
This  Temple  to  the  God,  —  King  IIELGE  march'd 
On  painful  foray,  'mong  the  heathen  Fins 
Scaling  each  mountain-wall.     In  Finland's  borders, 
Rais'd  on  a  barren  time-worn  peak,  there  stood 
An  ancient  Temple  consecrate  to  jumala: 
Abandon'd  and  fast-shut,  for  many  ages. 
This  desolate  Fane  had  been,  its  ev'ry  rite 
Long  since  forgotten;  but,  above  the  portal. 
An  old  and  monstrous  Idol  of  the  God 
Stood,  frail-supported,  trembling  to  its  fall. 
This  Temple  none  dar'd  enter,  scarce  approach; 
For  down  from  Sire  to  Son  an  eld  tradition 
Went  dimly  warning,  that  whoever  first 
The  Temple  visited  should  jumala  view! 
This  HELGE  heard,  and  in  his  blind  fierce  rage 
The  pathless  wilds  trod  'gainst  this  Deity 
So  hated  from  of  old,  all  bent  on  razing 
The  Temple's  heathen  walls.     But  when  he'd  march'd 


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Up  where  the  ruin  ihrealen'd,  lo!  all  fast 
The  massy  moss-grown  door  wa«  clos'd;  and,  cover d 
With  thiqk  brown  rust,  the  key  still  sat  within  it. 
Grim  HELGE  then,  the  door-posts  griping  hard. 
With  rude  uncivil  strain  the  mould'ring  pillars 
Fierce  shook,  and   straightway  —  with  tremendous  crash 
The  sculptur'd  Image  fell  —  burying  beneath  it 
Valhalla's  impious  Son;  and  so  dread  jumala 
His  eyes  behold.  —  A  ^messenger  in  haste. 
These  tidiugs  brought  ere  yet  last  night  was  ended.  — 

XXXI. 

*Now,  only  HAlfdan  sits  on  bele's  chair. 
Thy  hand,  brave  frithiof,  offer  him!     Revenge 
And  Passion  sacrifice  to  HeavVs  high  Gods; 
This  balder's  shrine  demandeth^  —  I  demand,  too. 
As  balder's  Highest  Priest  —  in  token  meet 
That  Peace's  gende  Chief  thou  hast  not  mock'd 
With  vain  professions  and  an  empty  homage.  •— 
Decide,  my  Son!  —  shall  balder's  Peace  be  broken?  — 

If  so,  in  vain  Thou'st  built  this  Fane,  the  token 
Of  mild  forgiveness ,  and  in  vain  Ag'd  Priest  hath  spoken!'  — 

xxxn. 
Over  the  copper  threshold  HALFDAN  now, 

With  pallid  brow 
And  fearful  fitful  glance,  advanceth  slow 
Tow'rds  yonder  tow'ring  ever-dreaded  foe,  — 
And,  silent,  at  a^  distance  stands.  — 
Then  FRITHIOF,  with  quick  hands. 
The  Cbrslet-hafer,  angurvadel,  from  his  thigh 
Unbuckleth,  and  his  bright  Shield's  golden  round 
Leaning  'gainst  the'  Altar,  thus  draws  nigh;  — 
While  his  cow'd  enemy 


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He  thus  accosts,  with  pleasant  dignity.  — 
'Most  noble  in  this  strife  will  He  be  found 
Who  first  his  right  hand  good 
Offers  in  pledge  of  peaceful  brotherhood!'  — 
Then  halfdan,  deeply  blushing,  doffs  with  haste 
His  iron-gauntlet  and ,  —  with  hearty  grasp  embraced ,  — 
Each  long,  long,  severed  hand 
Its  friend-foe  hails,  steadfast  as  mountain-bases  stand! 

xxxni. 

That  ag'd  and  awful  Priest  then  glad  removeth 
The  curse  that  rested  on  the  VARG  i  VEUM, 
FRITHIOF  THE  OUTLAW,  and  as  th*  last  deep  accents 
Of  Reconcilement  and  of  Blessing  sounded;  -— 
Lo!  ing'borg  sudden  enters,  rich  adorn'd 
With  bridal  ornaments,  and  all  enrob'd 
in  gorgeous  ermine ,  and  by  bright-ey'd  Maidens 
Slow-foUow'd,  as  on  Heav'n's  broad  Canopy 
Attending  star-trains  guard  the  Regent-Moon!  — 
But  the  young  Bride's  fair  eyes. 
Those  two  blue  skies, 
Fill  quick  with  tears » 
And  to  her  Brother's  heart  she  trembling  sinketh ;  — • 
He,  with  his  Sister's  fears 
Deep-mov'd,  Her  hand  all  tenderly  in  frithiof's  linketh. 
His  burden  soft  transferring  to  that  Hero's  breast. 
Its  long-tried  faith  fit  place  for  ing'borg's  rest* 
Then,  to  Her  heart's  first,  best,  Belov'd  Her  Childhood's 

friend. 
In  nuptial  band 
She  gives  Her  lily  hand. 
As  before  pard'ning  balder's  Altar  both  low  bend !  — 


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NOTES 


AND 


INDEX. 


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NOTES. 

Canto   I. 

{Stanza  15,  "(Iiest  the  reader  should  qaail  at  this,  or  haply  some 
other  exploit  of  the  hero,  it  may  he  prodent  to  repeat,  that  the  age  was  one 
of  iron  heart  and  iron  limb,  and  that  Frithiof  was  even  then  regarded  as  a 
prodigy  —  a  giant  in  the  eyes  of  giants.  Snch  a  trial  of  strength,  though  not 
oonrted  by  the  modem  hnnter,  is  not  without  parallel  in  the  annals  of  the  chase. 

"Upon  another  occasion,  Mr.  Falk  states,  a  badly-wounded  bear  rushed 
upright  on  his  hind  legs  on  a  peasant,  who  had  missed  fire,  and  seized  him  by 
the  shoulders  with  his  fore  paws.  The  peasant,  on  his  side,  laid  hold  of  the 
bear's  ears  and  shaggy  hair  thereabouts.  The  bear  and  the  hunter,  a  man  of 
uncommon  strength,  were  twice  down  and  got  up  again  without  loosening  their 
holds;  during  which  time  the  bear  had  bitten  through  all  the  sinews  of  both 
arms  from  the  wrists  upward,  and  was  at  last  approaching  the  exhausted 
peasant's  throat  when  the  author  in  lucky  time  arrived  and  by  one  shot  ended 
the  conflict."  (Fidd  Sports  of  the  North,  by  L,  Uoyd,  Esq.)"  Stroog,  p.  11, 
who  also,  p.  32,  gives  "the  following  extract  from  a  Saga  of  the  tenth  Century. 
"Finnbogi  perceiving  that  a  bear  which  had  done  considerable  injury  to  the 
flock  of  his  host,  was  still  reposing  beside  the  mutilated  carcase  of  a  sheep, 
thus  addressed  the  animal.  'Stand  up,  bear,  and  try  thy  strength  for  once  with 
me;  better  so  than  to  lie  by  the  fragments  of  thy  wretched  preyl'  The  crea- 
ture raised  himself,  surveyed  his  appellant,  and  resumed  his  position.  Finnbogi 
recommenced:  'Deem'st  thou  that  I  am  too  fully  arm'd?  If  so,  will  I  lay  aside 
defence.'  Then,  taking  o£f  his  helm  and  setting  down  his  shield,  he  exclaimed, 
'Stand  up,  if  thou  have  courage  1'  the  bear  erected  himself,  shook  his  head,  and 
couched  once  more.  'I  understand  thee,'  replied  Finnbogi,  'thou  wouldst  meet 
on  equal  terms,  whereupon  he  cast  away  his  sword.  *Be  it  as  thou  please:  but 
stand  up  now  if  thou  have  a  heart  like  thy  race,  and  not  like  a  pusillanimous 
brute.'  Then  rose  the  bear,  bristling  and  furious;  and  a  combat  ensued,  in 
which  Finnbogi  was  victorious  having  broken  the  back  of  his  grisly  foe." 

Stanza  16,    Dry  den,  in  Alexander's  feast,  has  the  same  thought: 
"Happy,  happy,  happy  pair! 
None  but  the  brave. 
None  hut  the  brave, 
None  but  the  brave  deserves  the  fair!" 


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stanza  t7.  STen  so  early  as  the  time  of  Frithiof,  many  a  mytholo- 
gical Chaant  and  Legendary  Saga  was  doubtless  committed  to  the  "nmeoovered 
tablets"  of  the  period.  ''Reading  the  old  Sagas  (saugu-lesiur)  is  to  this  day* 
one  of  the  highest  pleasures  of  the  Icelander.  It  is  with  this  he  passes  the 
long  winter-erenings;  this  is  the  amosement  of  the  company,  when  many  have 
assembled  together.  The  Master  of  the  Hoose  first  begins  the  reading,  and  the 
others  eontinoe  it  when  he  is  tired.  Some  of  them  Iraow  Sagas  by  heart,  othera 
use  printed  copies,  or,  for  want  of  these,  fair  mannscripts  «—  not  seldom  written 
by  the  peasant  himself."  ^  Henderson  observes  {•:  ''A  winter-evttmig,  in  soa 
Icelandic  fiunily,  presents  a  scene  in  the  highest  degree  interesting  and  pleasing. 
Between  three  and  fonr  o'clock  the  lamp  is  hong  np  in  tiie  had^ttofa,  bath- 
room,  or  principal   apartment;   and   ail   the   memben  of  the  family  take  their 

station  with  their  work  in  their  hands. The  work  is  no  sooner  began,  than 

one  of  the  family  selected  en  porpose,  advances  to  a  seat  near  the  lamp,  and 
commences  the  evening  lecture,  which  generally  consists  of  some  old  Saga,  er 
such  other  histories  as  are  to  be  obtained  on  the  island." 

Stanza  18.  "Light  hair  was  common  in  the  North,  black  more  rare, 
bright-yellow  a  beauty  in  either  sex.  Gold  or  silk  coloured  hair,  light-yellow 
tresses,  bright-gold  locks  &c.  almost  always  belong  in  the  Saga  to  the  descrip- 
tion of  a  Beauty.  As  late  as  the  time  of  Eric  XIV  we  find  yellow  more  admi* 
red  than  darkish  hair."ff  "In  an  old  poem  we  find  a  hero's  'body  like  the 
flowing  gold;'  and  an  old  Cornish  song  extols  a  pretty  maid  for  her  white  face 
and  yellow  hair.  Flowing  locks  of  this  colour  were  praised  as  most  graceftd 
and  becoming,  by  the  bards  who  addressed  the  sun,  as  'the  golden-haired.'  This 
was  admired  by  the  Celtic  youth  of  former  times,  and  'the  yellow-haired  laddie* 
and  'lassie  wi'  the  lint-white  locks'  continue  favourites  with  their  descendants  to 
the  present  day."f-H'  —  It  may  be  added,  that  even  when  wigs  were  first  in- 
troduced into  Britain,  flaxen  was  the  favourite  colonr. 

Stanzas  24,  25,  The  inhabitants  of  the  old  North  were  as  remarkable 
as  their  modern  descendants,  for  their  ingenuity  in  all  manner  of  handiwork. 
The  females  excelled  in  embroidery,  of  which  we  find  many  graphic  descriptions 
in  the  Sagas.    We  translate  literally  one,  from  Ssemund's  Sdda:  ffff 


*  We  translate  from  "Svenska  folhets  Eistoria,  of  Strinnholtn,"  t.II.  p.  249.  — 
f  'Iceland,'  p.  283.  —  f  f  From  the  Swedish  Translation,  by  Prof.  IMje- 
gren,  of  G&nge  Rolfs  Saga,  note  p.  205.  —  fff  Logan,  Scottish  Gael,  I. 
105.  —  f+ff  Gudrtm's  GrUf  str.  14,  15,  16. 


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"She  (Thora,)  for  to  glad  me  Sword-hosU  and  helm-hofti 

Work'd  is  gold  thread  Hig^  ChieCa  foilowiBg; 

Southlandish  Halls,  and 

Swaoi  of  the  Danei  "Ships  of  Sigmond 

Svept  from  land,  with 

"Oak  taUeta  ve  figar'd  Gay-gilt  deekmenta  and 

The  sports  of  Heroes,  •    Grar'd-oat  stems; 

And  on  onr  hand-worfc  We  broider-d  on  broad  tap'stry 

High  Kings'  Champions,  How  they  were  battling 

Bright  red  backlers,  Sigar  and  Sigeir 

Brave  Hnn  Chieftains,  South  on  Fivi." 

''Great  delight  had  they/'  adds  the  VoUtmga  Saga,  "in  this  their 
needle-work,  and  greatly  was  Gndmn's  sorrow  eased  thereby".  We  need  not 
add,  that  the  celebrated  and  inTalnabie  Bayeux^Tapeitry  was  the  product  of  the 
Scandinavian  needle. 

Stanza  24»  'And  billows  bine'.  "In  mare  purparenm."  Virg.  Georg, 
IV.  373.  In  British  parlance,  "the  ^een  sea"  is  a  phrase  so  familiar,  that  in 
justification  of  the  favourite  epithet,  blue  or  purple,  of  our  northern  bards,  it 
may  be  advisable  to  cite  further  the  authority  of  an  acute  observer.  "The  water 
of  the  main  ocean  is  well  known  to  be  as  transparent  and  as  colourless  as  that 
of  the  most  pure  springs;  and  it  is  only  when  seen  in  very  deep  seas  that  any 
eeitain  and  unchangeable  colour  appears.  This  colour  is  commonly  ultrama- 
rine blue."  * 

Stanza  31.  This  has  always  been  true;  but  that  it  was  especially  so 
in  the  period  of  Frithiof  —  witness  the  Norse  adventures  and  North-man 
exploita  and  conquests  in  every  part  of  Europe  and  even  in  Africa  and  Asia, 
from  the  commencement  to  the  close  of  those  Sea-King  expeditions  which  disco- 
vered and  colonized  America,  Greenland,  and  Iceland,  —  which  tvsict  subdued 
England  itself,  —  and  which  left  Europe  remodeled! 

Canto  IL 


Sianm  It  According  to  the  Younger  Edda  f ,  the  vault  of  Heaven  is 
supported  by  four  Dwarfs,  East,  West,  North  and  South. 

Stanza  13.  The  Falcon,  the  sacred  bird  of  Egypt  and  of  Greece,  was 
also  the  bird   of  Oden   in  Seandinavia.    Angurship  from  its  entrails  was  very. 


*  Scoreshifs  AreUe  Herons,  copied  from  Strong,  p.  15.  —  +  Gylfag.  ch.  VIII. 


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oommon»  and  Oden  hinueif  -was  invoked  to  gmde  the  decision  of  Hw  Ang^on; 
that  is  to  say»  —  an  intrigoiog  Priestcraft  floorishes  eveiy  where,  when  it  can 
find  dopes. 

BtoMa  14,  The  SeandinaTians,  like  the  German  warriors  of  old^  ador- 
ned their  shields  with  earrings,  engravings  or  paintings  of  flowers  &o. 

Stanza  16.  Who  is  not  here  reminded  of  Pope's  magnificent  and  in- 
dignant burst  — 

"Stack  o'er  with  titles,  and  hang  round  with  strings, 

That  thou  ma/st  be,  hj  kings,  or  whores  of  kings; 

Boast  the  pure  blood  of  an  illostrioos  raoe. 

In  quiet  flow  from  Lnereoe  to  Lucrece: 

But  by  your  fathers'  worth  if  yours  yon  rate. 

Count  me  those  only  who  were  good  and  great 

Go  I  if  your  ancient,  but  ignoble,  blood 

Has  crept  through  scoundrels  ever  since  the  flood, 

Gol  and  pretend  your  family  is  young; 

Nor  own  your  fathers  have  been  fools  so  long. 

What  can  ennoble  sots,  or  slaves,  or  cowards? 

Alas!  not  all  the  blood  of  all  the  Howards."  ' 

Stanza  24,  The  Kingship  of  the  old  North  was  originally  as  it  ahonld 
be,  <—  an  Elective  Presidency;  though  the  history  of  the  Scandinavian  King- 
doms afifords  melancholy  proof  enough,  how  respect  for  the  "divine  races*'  (as 
the  families  said  to  be  descended  from  Oden  were  called)  overwhelmed  the  land 
with  destructive  minorites  or  imbecile  manhood.  With  the  "hereditary  prin* 
ciple,"  whether  monarchic  or  aristocratic  equally  cementing  Dynasties  formed  in 
Kingdoms  gained  by  the  sword,  came  in  also  "hereditary  degradation."  How 
beautifully  energetic  is  our  inimitable  Pope,  on  this  subject  I  — 

"Who  first  taught  souls  enslaved,  and  realms  undone, 

Th'  enormous  faith  of  many  made  for  one; 

That  proud  exception  to  all  nature's  Laws, 

To*  invert  the  world,  and  counterwork  its  cause  P  — 

Force  first  made  conquest,  and  that  conquest,  law; 

Till  Superstition  taught  the  tyrant  awe. 

Then 'shared  the  tyranny,  then  lent  it  aid, 

And  Gods  of  conquerors,  slaves  of  subjects  made."  f 

Stanzas  26,  27,  &c.     See  Index,  art.  havahal. 


•  Essay  on  Man,  IV.  205—216.  —  f  Ibid,  IH.  241—248. 


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stanza  37»  ScandmaTian  Sea-Kings  and  Warriors  are  often  mentioned 
in  tlie  Sagas  as  choosing  their  bnrial-plaee  by  bays  and  arms  of  tbe  sea;  as  if« 
even  when  dead,  they  could  not  be  parted  firom  their  favonrite  element!  —  The 
latter  half  of  this  verse  has  a  striking  parallel.*  We  translate  only  what  im- 
mediately relates  to  the  subject.  —  ''King  Tngrar  made  peace  with  the  Danes; 
then  took  he  to  ravage  along  the  East-Sea.  Bnt,  one  summer,  he  drew  oat  his 
men,  hasted  np  to  Estland,  and  all  the  summer  plundered  that  district  bight 
Sten:  then  came  the  Est-men  down  with  a  mighty  host,  and  so  they  battled 
there;  but  the  land-troops  were  so  many,  that  the  Sviar  (Swedes)  could  not 
stand  against  them.  So  Yngvar,  the  King,  fell  —  and  his  host  fled  away. 
There  rests  he  in   his   Cairn,   right  along  by  the  salt  wave's  side  ....  thus 

saith  Thiodolfer; 

And  th'  East-Sea  Ocean's  Song  — 

For  Svea-King  To  joy  him  —  channted!" 

Canto  m. 


Page  29,  'In  th'  earth!'  The  HAuair<K)LLD,  Hill-Age  (Barrow  or 
Burial  Age),  which  succeeded  the  bsuna-olld,  Bum  or  Pile  Age,  commenced 
in  Scandinavia  with  Tngve  Frey.  f 

Id.  'Successors.'  It  was  not  uncommon,  in  these  times,  for  two  sons 
or  a  father  and  son  to  reign  together. 

Page  30,  'Ten  twelves.'  The  duodecimal  mode  of  computation  is  still 
common  in  Britain,  as  well  as  in  Scandinavia.  The  long'  or  'great  hundred' 
or  'thousand'  &c.  are  well  known  in  most  trades. 

Page  31,  'Chimney'.  "The  circumstance  so  prettily  introduced  implies 
rather  an  orifice  in  the  roof  than  the  lengthened  funnel  of  modem  chimnies. 
Beckman  draws  a  similar  inference  from  a  passage  of  Herodotus,  "who  relates 
(L.  YIII.  c.  137)  that  a  king  of  Lebaea,  when  one  of  his  servants  asked  for 
his  wages,  offered  him  in  jest  the  Sun,  which  at  that  time  shone  into  the 
house  through  the  chimney."  ff 

Page  33.  'Giant.'  "This  anecdote  belongs  to  the  Saga  of  Thorstein. 
The  legend  informs  us  that  the  name  of  the  fair  who  had  the  good  fortune  to 
attract  the  attention  of  this  elegant  and  disinterested  suitor,  was  Hunvor;  and 
that  she  possessed  distinguished  beauty,  and  unrivalled  perfection  in  all  the  arts 


*  Ynglinga-Saga  ch.  36.  —  +  fifn.  Sturleson,  K.  Sag.  Preface.  —  H  Strong's 
Translation  of  Fritkiof,  p.  47. 


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ftod  MeomplishmeBtB  beseeming  her  age  taoA  statran.  A  Tirgtn  Pnekfpe,  howe- 
m,  she  prefentd  the  nlkeii  web  of  her  broidery  to  the  silken  tranun^  of 
Hymen,  so  that  many  accounted  this  proposal  to  be  a  jidgement  npon  her."  * 
See  Index,  art  ikon-hxad,  tivell,  tikiico  TiFiLZ.saoH. 

Id,  'Sun's  Gates.  Tradition,  facts,  and  etymology  unite  in  assertiDg 
that  the  Tribes  whom  Oden  led  over  to  conquer  and  colonize  the  North  — 
came  from  Western  Asia,  probably  the  regions  lying  around  the  Caspian  See. 

JPtige  34^  *The  twelve  Immortals'  ware  (without  reckoning  Oden) 
Thor,  Balder,  Niord,  Frey,  Brage,  Heimdall,  Hoder,  Yidar,  Ale  or  Vale,  Uller, 
Forsete  and  Loke. 

Page  35.  'Antumn-Judge/  The  Scandinavians  held  their  judicial  Tliag 
or  Diet  (Assize)  in  the  antnmn. 

Page  3d.  'And  live  Self.'  Burial  while  living  is  not  without  example 
in  the  Sagas.  For  instance:  f  "And  as  he  (Thrain)  was  now  so  old,  that  he 
could  fight  no  more,  he  caused  himself,  while  yet  living,. to  be  placed  within 
his  Barrow  with  much  goods."  The  whole  chapter  is  highly  entertaining. 
Again:  -H*  "Northward  in  Naumn-dale  were  two  brothers,  both  kings,  Herlaugr 
and  Hrollaugr.  For  three  summers  had  they  been  building  them  a  Barrow. 
Of  wood,  stones,  and  lime  was  the  Barrow  made.  Now  when  as  this  Cairn 
was  finished,  got  the  Brothers  tidings  that  Harald  was  in  full  march  against 
them  with  his  army.  Then  caused  King  Herlaugr  much  food  and  drink  to  be 
carried  into  his  mound,  and  thereafter  went  he  in  to  the  Barrow  together  with 
XII  men.  After  this,  he  had  the  Cairn  closed  up  again  after  him."  —  Of  the 
above  characteristic  fact,  the  talented  and  tasteful  Ohlenschlager  has  made  an 
extremely  picturesque  use,  in  the  last  Scene  of  his  'Helge'.  —  As  to  the  inter- 
ment of  war-vessels  also.  Strong  observes,  p.  50:  "That  occasionally  the  corpse 
was  inhumed,  seated  in  a  galley  or  ship,  has  been  already  noticed;  and  we  can 
scarcely  hesitate  to  trace  the  practise  to  the  symbolical  character  of  A  sepulchre, 
attributed  to  the  ark.  P.  B.  Muller,  nevertheless,  attributes  this  expensive  usage, 
like  the  Lapland  practise  of  interring  in  a  boat,  to  the  prevailing  desire  to 
provide  the  departed  with  suitable  equipage  in  a  future  state."  —  This  latter 
is,  doubtless,  the  correct  opinion.    See  the  Saga  of  HdJcan  the  Good,  ch.  ^. 


'  Strong  p.  48.  —  +  Romund  Greipson's  Saga,  ch.  4.  —  f  f  Harald  the  Fair- 
hatred's  Saga,  ch.  8. 


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JPage  40.  'Thor's  own  place*.  "So,  at  least,  according  to  Adam  of 
Bremen,  he  sat  in  the  Temple  of  Upsala:  —  '"Nobillissimnm/'  &c.  "that  nation 
(the  Swedish)  hat  a  most  noble  temple,  which  is  entitled  Uhtola.  In  this 
temple,  which  is  entirely  fitted  up  with  gold,  the  people  venerate  the  statues 
of  three  gods:  so  situated  that  the  most  potent,  Thor,  has  a  distinct  seat  in 
the  centre,  Woden  and  Fricco  being  placed  on  his  right  and  left."  * 


Canto   IV. 


Staiaa  18.    See  Index,  art  oexssodd. 

8tanaa  20.  It  was  extremely  common,  in  old  times,  to  hold  public 
meetings  and  assemblies  on  the  Barrows  of  celebrated  Kings  and  Warriors. 
Owing  to  the  gradual  elevation  of  the  ground,  all  present  could  easily  behold 
the  presiding  Judge  or  chief  speaker.  It  was  in  compliance  with  this  custom, 
which  the  Northern  Kings  long  preserved,  that  Gustavus  Yasa  addressed  the 
assembled  Dalecarlians  from  Frey's  Barrow  (called  also  Ting-Hill)  near  Upsala, 
and  the  men  of  Helsingland  from  Norrala  Kimgsgard  (royal  ch&teau). 

Stanza  25,  This  was  no  'figure  of  speech.'  The  Scandinavians  firmly 
believed  in  the  dead  life  of  the  buried  hero,  or  rather  that  a  kind  of  double 
spirit  from  him  inhabited  the  cairn,  f 

Stanza  28.  The  word  'man*  here  is  degrading,  and  signifies  one  in 
the  King's  immediate  service  and  depending  upon  his  pleasure.  Frithiof  himself 
thus  inherited  from  his  father  twelve  mercenaries  liable  to  service.  Such  hired 
warriors  lived  in  numbers  (a  kind  of  body-guard)  at  the  royal  courts,  besides 
the  servants  employed  by  the  prince  in  his  household.  Heroes  themselves  often 
entered  the  service  of  a  Monarch  in  this  way,  no  exact  pay  being  stipulated, 
but  sure  of  being  rewarded  by  gold  and  lands.  In  general  however,  the  free 
possessor  t>f  land  and  goods,  proud  of  his  independence,  would  have  been  asha- 
med to  become  the  lackey  of  a  prince,  and  only  took  up  arms  in  defence  of  his 
native  country  when  endangered  by  a  foreign  invasion. 


Strong,  p.  52.  —  f  See  on  this  curious,  but  hitherto  not  sufficiently  ex- 
plained, subject,  Prof.  Liljegrens  Swedish  Trans,  of  G&nge  Rolfs  Saga, 
note,  p.  252.  Odjers  Svea  Rikes  H&fder,  I.  278  and  Grundtvigs  Nordena 
Mythologies  art.  Niflheim. 


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Canto  V. 

Skuusa  IS,  The  old  Northeni  custom  preveiited  either  host  or  guest 
from  speaking  of  the  oeeasion  for  the  letter's  visit,  till  he  had  fireely  partaken 
the  rights  of  Hospitality. 

Stanza  16,  BiTiiiation  from  the  entrails  of  a  slaughtered  horse  'vas 
costomary  with  the  ancient  Northmen.  The  sacred  steeds  (white  and  nnprofa- 
ned  hy  lahonr)  also  showed  hy  their  neighing,  snorting,  and  manner  of  lifting 
the  foot  whether  the  victim  was  aceeptahle  to  the  Gods.  &c.  The  same  super- 
stition we  find  among  the  old  Persians.  * 

Stanza  20,  Striking  the  War-Shield  was  a  Scandinavian  hattlesnm- 
mons  which  all,  far  and  near,  were  obliged  to  obey.  This  custom  is  also 
mentioned  by  OMtanf,  "The  King  took  his  deathful  spear,  and  struck  the 
deeply-sounding  shield:  his  shield  that  hung  high  in  night,  the  dismal  sign 
of  war." 

Canto  VI. 

Stanza  2.  TTet  a  Pawn.'  Unfortunately  the  expressive  and  cutting 
pun  of  the  original  cannot  be  preserved  in  an  English  Translation.  The  word 
*bonde'  means  both  'Pawn',  and  'Peasant'  or  'Yeoman'  (free,  and  often  powerful, 
landed  proprietor).    Consequently  Frithiof  s  answer  — 

"Fralsas  kan  han  med  en  bonde^\ 

Yet  a  Pawn  (Peasant)  can  all  recover,  — 
refers  to  the  expression  of  the  taunting  Helge,  in  the  IVth  Canto 

"Vir  syster  ar  ej  for  en  bonde-son," 

Our  Sister  is  not  for  a  Peasant's  Son  I 
We   may   as   well   remark   here  once  for  all,  that  the  Northern  Sagas 
abound  with  specimens  of  punning,  witticism,  double  entendre  and  enigma.    The 
wit  displayed,  however,  was  sometimes  sharp  as  steel. 

Canto  VH. 


stanza  6,    'Like  Saga  in  a  marriage  room',  —  the  Goddess  of  History 
meditating  upon  the  line  Qf  heroes  to  emanate  from  the  recent  union."  f  f 


*  Crewtzer,  V.  70.  VI.  19.  —  f  Temora,  b.  VII.  —  H  Strong,  p.  93. 


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233 

Stama  7,    'Northlaiid's  Nighlingales*.    Siroms  says,  p.  93,  the  Song- 
thrush,  Turdm  micfictM;  but  Mohntke  prefers  the  Red-wing,  Turdus  ilmcuM, 

Statma  IB.    So  Southey  says  (of  Love) 

"Its  holy  flame  for  ever  burneih, 

From  Heav'n  it  came,  to  Heay'n  returueth." 

Stama  14.    See  Index,  art.  einheriar. 

Stanzas  10,  90,     So  in  Shakespeare}  f 

Jul.   "AVilt  thou  be  gone?  it  is  not  yet  near  dayj 

It  was  the  nightingale  and  not  the  lark,  .  •  «  • 

Believe  me  love ,  it  is  the  nightingale 

Yon  light  is  not  daylight.     I  know  it,  I; 

It  is  some  meteor  that  the  sun  exhales." 

Canto   VIII. 


Page  75,  %insman',  'Cousin'.  The  royal  maid  claims  kindredship 
with  the  God,  as  being  descended  from  the  Asar.  The  Scandinavians 
long  reverenced  the  Houses  sprung  from  the  deified  Heroes.  See  Index , 
art.  SEMiNG. 

Paife  80,  *  Greek-land's  Ocean'.  The  Viking-expeditions  of  the 
Northmen  were  often  extended  to  the  most  distant  coasts.  Besides  discov- 
*  ering  so  many  unknown  lands ,  tlieir  fleets  (unguided  by  any  compass) 
traversed  Europe  and  ravaged  Africa  and  even  Asia!  The  Varingar  or 
Varanges,  who  were  in  the  service  of  the  Byzantine  Emperors,  and  con- 
stituted their  incorruptible  and  unconquerable  body-guard,  were  for  the 
most  part  Scandinavian  adventurers. 

Page  89,    Xet  him  deny  who   dares,   and  hears   my  reason!'  It  is 
rather  difficult  to  convey  properly  the  ikreat  implied  in  the  original :  — 
"Jag  har  ett  ord  att  saga  den  som  vagrar." 

Canto  IX. 

Stoma  7.  *0n  his  hand'.  "The  ancient  English  illuminators  liave 
uniformly  distinguished  the  portrait  of  King  Stephen  by  giving  him  a 
hawk  upon  his  hand,  to  signify  I  presume,  by  that  symbol,  that  he  was 


*  Aomeo  and  Juliel,  Act.  IIT.  sc.  5. 


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itobly  thougli  nol  royally  born."  *  Rolf  Krake  and  Ms  twelve  champions, 
when  visiling  the  treacherous  Adel  King  of  Sweden,  had  all  —  the  better 
to  disguise  which  was  Rolf  —  falcons  upon  their  shoulders* 

Canto   X. 


Stoma  7.    *Bear-paw\  ~  a  pun ;  Bjorn  means  Bear. 

Stama  8.  *Martcn',  "Mnslela  martes;  the  pine  marten.  In  proof  of 
the  facility  wiih  which  this  liule  animal  scales  tlie  yet  unfelled  masts  of 
the  forest,  it  may  be  staled,  on  the  authority  of  Buffon,  that  it  usurps 
the  nest  of  the  squirrel  and  of  the  buzzard,  and  dislodges  the  wood-pecker 
from  its  mine."  +    See  Index,  art.  bear,  whalb. 

Canto  XI. 


6iamM  a,  'Unnerves  the  sword  from  slaying'.  The  expression  of 
the  original  is  "svard  kan  dofva,"  in  other  words,  so  exorcise  the  sword 
of  his  adversary  that  it  shall  become  blunt  and  incapable  of  biting,  wound- 
ing. —  "However  confident  in  personal  power,  the  heroes  of  the  North 
did  not  scruple  to  court  the  alliance  of  the  magic  art.  Brynhildr  accord- 
ingly instructs  Sigurd: 

"Sigrunar  skaltu  kunna  Would  the  Chief  in  arms  excel , 

ef  thu  vilt  snotr  vera  Runes  of  Conquest  read  thou  well! 

ok  rist  a  hjalli  hjors  Graving  on  thy  gauntlet's  hide, 

d  vettrunum  On  the  liilt  that  girds  thy  side , 

ok  a  valbystum  On  thy  war-spear's  bristled  oak , 

ok  nefna  tvisvar  Ty.  Twice  the  mighty  Tyr  invoke."  ft 

"The  practise  alluded  to  might  be  deemed  scarcely  consistent  with  the 
heroic  character  of  the  age;  but  it  should  be  recollected,  that  if  runic 
spells  were  called  in  to  blunt  the  edge  of  the  sword,  sorcery  had  been 
previously  employed  to  impart  to  the  blade  an  unearthly  temper.  Oden 
himself,  we  are  informed,  instructed  the  Aser  in  the  mysteries  of  the 
magic  art  through  runes  aud  chaunts  —  Galldrarj  —  and  such  science ,  ac- 
cording to  the  ancient  lay  Big^t-mal,  formed  part  of  the  education  of  a 
young  potentate:  — 


♦  Strutfi  $port$  ^nd  pattimen  ^c,  EU.   l833  p.  a4.  —  +  Strong,  p.   l37.  — +f  D:op.  i53. 


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"En  konr  iingr  Prince  was  versed 

knnni  mnar  In  runic  lore , 

eefinn  rnnar  Aunes  coeval, 

oc  alldr  rnnar:  Runes  of  yore, 

meir  kunni  hann  Men  could  fend 

monnum  biarga  With  magic  spell , 

eggiar  deyfa  Swords  could  blunt, 

elldi  at  Isegia."  And  fire  could  quell,"  * 

This  superstition  was  not  yet  extinct  in  the  middle  ages,  and 
Major  Snodjjfratt  mentions  f  a  similar  belief:  —  A  part  of  the  mountaineers 
inliabiting  the  borders  of  China,  were  employed  in  the  Burmese  service 
under  the  command  of  three  young  and  beautiful  women  of  high  rank, 
-who  believed  they  could  render  the  bullets  of  the  English  ^larmless*. 
Of  course,  they  all  fell  victims  totheir  superstitious  rashness. —  Something 
of  the  same  sort,  in  which  however  the  Catholic  Priest  was  the  wizard, 
was  common  among  the  "wild  Irish",  daring  the  famous  and  well-founded 
rebellions  there. 

Siatma  18.  *Glas8  panes.'  "It  must  be  in  the  recollection  of  every 
one  who  has  liad  an  opportunity  to  peruse  the  very  curious  old  House- 
hold-Book of  the  Norlhumberland  Family,  that  whenever  the  Earl  re- 
moved from  Alnwick  Castle  to  London,  not  only  tlie  arras  was  taken 
down  in  all  the  rooms,  but  the  glass  was  also  carefully  taken  out  of  the 
windows."^  +f 

Id.  *And  locks*.  Even  at  this  day,  a  latch  is  the  only  door* 
fastening  in  Norlhcrn  Scandinavia,  some  parts  of  Switzerland,  and  various 
other  sequestered  districts. 

Siama  19,  ^Candle'  is  elegantly  introduced  here,  as  being  an 
evident  and  comparatively  modern  addition  to  the  luxuries  of  a  Northern 
Chief.  Formerly  young  boys  attended  with  pine-torches  to  light  up  llie 
banquets  of  the  great.  Such  turpentine-wood  torches  are  still  used  ])y  the 
common  people  of  the  high  North  and  of  Scotland.  They  arc  fastened 
between  the  boards  of  the  walls. 

Canto   XH. 

Pagt  191,  'And  bread  will  have.*  This  line  refers  to  a  custom  uni- 
versal in  tlie  North ,  of  treating   and  encouraging   the   horses   by   giving 


♦  Strong,  p.  3x5.  —  f  Narrative  of  the  Burmese  War.  —  -H-  i»f r  Kinif,  Arch.  VI.  284. 


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tliem,  occasionally,  pieces  of  a  coarser  sort  of  the  hard  rye-bread  (a  kind 
of  Scotch  cakes)  nsed  almost  every  where  in  Germany  and  Scandinavia  <&:c. 

Id.  *Oath.'  This  bitter  commendation  has  reference  to  Helge's 
public  and  scandalons  breach  of  lus  Coronation  oath,  (w^ithout  speaking 
of  the  separate  compact  made  previous  to  his  embassy)  by  which  he  had 
X^romised  to  maintain  the  rites, of  religion,  the  public  peace,  and  the  pri- 
vate liberties. 

Page  194.  'Sure  the  victim's  fair.*  In  the  Original,  '^det  ar  dock 
skont,"  —  a  melancholy  half-ironic  self-raillery* 

Canto   XIII. 


Stoma  i,  'Midnighi's  Sun.'  It  is  well  known  that  the  Sun  never 
sets,  and  is  consequently  visible  all  night  long,  atTorne&when  the  nights 
are  at  ihe  longest.  This  is  also  the  case ,  under  the  same  degree ,  in  Nor- 
way, particularly  from  the  mountains.  Sogn,  however,  is  5  degrees  south, 
of  Torne&j  so  that  we  must  add  with  Strong,  p.  175.  "Here  we  must  crave 
on  behalf  of  our  author  a  few  degrees  oipoetie  latUude,  or  considerable  allow- 
ance for  refraction,  which  is  really  augmented  in  cold  climates,  through 
condensation  of  the  atmosphere." 

StamoM  9.  'Balder 's  Pyre,*  "This  expression  is  applied  here  in 
tliree  different  significations:  —  to  the  Mythick  pile  of  the  Deity;  to  the 
emblematic  fire  upon  the  hearth;  and  to  the  burning  Temple  and  grove, 
in  wliich  the  image  of  the  deity  was  consumed  as  on  a  funeral  pile."  * 

Stoma  3,  'Flint-knives.'  "In  ancient  times  flint  was  fashioned  into 
cutting  instruments,  and  it  is  conjectured  that  tlie  stone-knives  used  by 
tlie  Hebrews  were  of  this  mineral."  f 

Stoma  8.  "Not  as  King,  but  as  the  challenged,  Helge  was  entitled, 
agreeably  to  the  rule  of  Nortliern  cliivalry,  to  the  first  stroke.  So  on  the 
occasion  of  the  contest  between  Viking  andlrouskull,  related  in  the  third 
Canto,  the  latter  addressed  his  opponent:  —  "Strike  thou  first,  for  such 
is  the  law  of  duel"  —  Holmgaungm  Uff ,  — •  as  I  am  the  challenger;  and  in  the 
meantime  I  must  stand  quiet,  nor  can  I  apprehend  any  danger  from  so 
doing.  Then  Viking  drew  Angrvathil,  and  as  it  were  lightning  radiated 
from  it."  Saga  Thorst.  Vih.  Again,  in  the  SagaKetil's  Hseugs,  the  same  usage 
is  noticed:  —  "The  first  cut  is  the  right  of  him  who  is  called  out.**  ft 


■■  St, 


ong,  p.    177.  —  t  Jameson* t  Min.  I.  a37.    —   ff  Strong  ^  p.   177, 


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StatHM  16,  "The  degree  of  facility-  or  reluctance  with  wliich  die 
armlet  that  adorned  an  image  might  be  removed,  seems  to  hare  served  as 
a  criterion  of  the  disposition  of  the  deity  towards  tl>e  experimenter.  Ac- 
cordingly it  is  related  of  a  Norwegian  Connt,  Hacon,  that  finding  his 
efforts  repeatedly  fruitless,  he  continned  to  renew  his  devotions  until  the 
image  at  length  permitted  bim  to  abstract  the  ring  —  when  he  quitted  the 
temple  satisfied  that  the  deity  was  propitious.  —  Fsereyinga  Saga.  c.  23"* 
See  Index,  art.  armring. 

Slanmm  99,  This  noble  «Mii/«  —  of  the  Flammg  Bhme  tO  the  Fire-red  Coek 
—  is  the  more  admirable  here  as ,  to  use  the  words  of  Rev.  Mr.  Strong  — 
"the  final  conflagration  of  the  world ,  typified  in  .the  Mythns  by  Balder's 
funeral  pile ,  is  to  be  ushered  in  by  a  general  crow  of  the  gold-combed 
Cock  in  AsgRrd,  the  fire-red  upon  earth,  and  the  livid  in  the  shades 
below."  That  gentleman's  translation,  however,  "A  fire-red  watch-bird 
springs  ,**  which  gives  us  a  real  chanticleer  instead  of  a  metaphcrieai  one ,  i« 
a  lapiua  calami. 

Canto   XIV. 


Page  139,  *For  Balder's  —  Brother.'  "Such  repeated  acrimonious 
references  to  Helg^'s  pretensions  to  divine  origin  might  naturally  be  eli- 
cited through  his  allegation  of  this  plea  for  the  rejection  of  Frithiofs 
suit."  + 

Id,  *The  Oak.*  "Skaldick  phraseology  abounded,  as  might  be 
expected,  in  synonymes  for  weapons  and  gallies.  To  anEnglish  ear  wonted 
to  the  patriotic  vaunt,  "Heart  of  oak  are  your  ships,"  the  term  here  em- 
ployed will  sound  less  alien  than  even  the  more  ordinary  metaphor,  sea- 
dragon,   serpent,  or  worm  —  wm,*^  —  See  Index,   art.   dragon,    sea-horse. 

Page  141,  *That  trick  was  good.*  "This  stratagem,  of  which  Bjorn 
assumed  the  merit,  is  not  peculiar  to  our  Saga;  it  was  really  an  exx)edient 
which  the  paucity  of  craft  might  easily  suggest  to  a  fugitive.  To  the  same 
wile ,  Leifr  —  PiER.  S.  56 ,  c. ;  and  herraud  ,  Sag.  12 ,  13 ,  K.  —  had  re- 
course ;  and  this  latter  instance  is  related  in  a  narrative  combining  so 
characteristically  tlie  embellishment  of  the  Skald,  with  the  matter  of  fact  of 
an  eye-witness,  that  it  may  not  be  briefly  dismilsed.  This  Prince  of  East- 
Gaullaud  having  rescued  the  sister  of  Godmund,  King  of  Glsesvellr,  in 
Finland,  from  a  temple  of  Jomal,  where  she  had  been  immured,  was  rc- 


•  Do  p.  177.  —  •{-  Po  p. 


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warded  by  her  affeciioa ;  bnt  daring  his  absence  on  a  warlike  expedition, 
his  royal  sire,  to  whose  charge  the  betrothed  had  been  confided,  was 
OTcrpowered  by  a  finnish  army,  his  country  was  ravaged,  and  the  fair 
reclaimed.  The  enemy  being  too  powerful  to  be  openly  assailed,  Her- 
rand  and  his  foster-brother  Bosi,  accompanied  by  a  friendly  magician, 
named  Smith,  sailed  in  a  single  galley  to  attempt  the  recovery  of  Hleithr. 
They  reached  Glaesvcllr  on  the  eve  of  her  forced  nuptials  to  a  champion 
of  the  king,  Siggeir  and  wilh  the  promptitude  of  "Young  Lochinvar,"  it 
was  determined  to  "tread  a  measure"  with  the  bride.  Sigurd,  the  confi- 
dent and  Iiarper  of  tlie  monarch,  haying  been  waylaid  and  slain  with  his 
sole  attendant,  their  skins  were  conveyed  to  Smith,  who  prepared  from 
them  larvae  —  nmgrimvr  —  for  himself  and  Bosi;  and  thus  disguised  in  tlie 
tegument  and  dress  of  their  victims ,  these  representatives  proceeded  boldly 
to  the  castle ,  whilst  Herraud  undertook  the  arrangements  without.  Ap- 
prehending forcible  abduction,  Godmnnd  had  erected  an  enormous  Hall, 
in  which  the  nuptials  were  to  be  celebrated  amidst  numerous  guards; 
and  had  placed  at  each  of  the  hundred  doors  two  warders,  instructed 
to  repel  any  unknown  applicant  for  admission.  This  precaution  proved, 
of  course  no  obstacle  to  our  teeming  Sigurd ,  who  followed  by  Ids  man , 
entered  where  the  sovereign  himself  stood,  and  was  warmly  greet- 
ed. His  first  care  was  to  exhort  the  steward  and  butlers  to  ply  lh<§ 
guests  liberally  with  the  strongest  beverage,  as  doing  meet  honour  to 
the  entertainer.  The  nobles  and  bride ,  attended  by  her  maidens  of 
high  degree  ,  having  then  been  seated  with  due  ceremony,  the  feigned 
Sigurd,  gifted  with  the  harp,  and  more  than  the  skill  of  his  predecessor, 
struck  up  ;  winning  loud  applause  by  each  flourish  ,  which  announced  the 
formal  introduction  of  a  bumper.  At  first,  however,  his  pilch  w^as  low^ , 
so  that  the  King  stimulated  him  to  greater  exertion;  bnt  when  the  com- 
memoration-cup of  Thor  was  ushered  in,  Sigurd  changed  his  Key,  so  that 
knives ,  dishes ,  and  whatever  was  at  liberty,  began  to  be  in  commotion  ; 
many  of  the  guests ,  also ,  sprang  from  tlieir  seats ,  and  danced  upon  the 
pavement:  this  movement  continued  for  some  time.  Next  came  the  cup 
dedicated  to  all  the  .^sir,  and  again  the  harper  altered  his  tone,  striking 
with  such  energy,  that  echo  —  dvergmdU  —  responded  to  every  note  :  all 
present,  save  the  cliief,^the  bride  and  bridegroom,  now  stood  up,  and 
the  dance  was  general ;  this  strain  was  also  of  considerable  duration.  The 
King  then  inquired  whether  his  skill  was  exhausted;  but  the  reply  was, 
that  he  relaxed  merely  to  give  pause  for  rest  and  regale:  some  popular 
melodies  succeeded,  and  the  cup  of  Oden  then  arrived.  Now  Sigurd  opened 
his  harp,  which   was   so  large    that  a  person   might  stand   upright  within ,, 


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andslione  as  of  solid  ore.  He  took  up  a  wliite  embroidered  glove,  and  com- 
menced the  tune,  termed  "faldafeykir"  —  veil-dUperter :  —  tlien  leaped  the 
veils  from  the  females ,  and  sported  under  tlie  beam ;  men  and  -women 
joined  the  maze,  and  nothing  could  resist  the  excitement.  This  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Freya's  cup,  the  last  to  be  emptied:  and  now  Sigurd  prepar- 
ing the  King  for  a  more  potent  string,  struck  with  such  effect*  that  "the 
monarch,  loo,  was  fascinated;  he,  the  bride  and  bridegroom,  danced  a\ 
merrily  as  any  of  the  party,  and  the  hurly-burly  became  universal.  The 
nuptial  couch  stood  on  an  elevated  platform ,  and  thither  Smith ,  who  now 
took  the  hand  of  the  bride ,  contrived  to  cast  various  pieces  of  plate  from 
the  table  equipage;  and  night  being  far  advanced,  the  spoil  was  abstracted 
through  a  window  by  his  accomplices.  Herraud,  in  the  meantime,  had 
rendered  all  the  vet$eb  tahi'ck  lay  near  hit  own  unfit  for  tea.  The  mirth  was  at  its 
height,  when  a  tall  personable  man  entered  in^scarlet  Kirlle  and  silver 
girdle,  fringed  with  gold;  he  was  unarmed  and  dancing  gradually  to  the 
spot  where  Godmund  stood,  he  raised  his  fist,  and  inflicted  so  severe  a 
blow  upon  the  Chief,  that  blood  gushed  fortli,  several  teetli  dropped,  and 
a  swoon  ensued.  The  assailant  immediately  rushed  forth  closely  followed 
by  Sigurd,  who,  observing  the  action,  had  thrown  his  harp  upon  the  bed, 
and  the  bridegroom  drawing  his  sword,  with  many  of  the  guests,  pursued. 
"Whilst  the  residue  were  occupied  with  the  fallen  monarch.  Smith,  with 
the  bride ,  skipped  up  the  steps  to  the  platform  where  the  harp  lay,  and 
placing  her  in  the  instrument,  he  attached  it  to  a  cord  lowered  by  his 
confederates,  and  both  escaped  through  the  window.  They  reached  the 
boat  safely:  the  fugitive  having  made  a  circuit,  soon  arrived  also,  and  at 
his  heels  the  supposed  Sigurd  and  his  armed  foe.  All  sprang  on  board; 
but  the  harper  turning  upon  the  unfortunate  bridegroom,  hurled  him  into 
the  sea,  whence  he  was  rescued  with  difficulty  by  the  men  on  shore. 
His  brother  and  a  body  of  armed  men  instantly  put  off  in  a  galley  to 
pursue  the  abductors,  who  now  made  every  effort  by  oars  and  sail  to  ac- 
celerate their  flight;  scarcely  however  had  the  enemies  of  Herraud  launch-  " 
ed  forth  ,  ere  Aw  ttratagem  tueceeded,  and  Ae  vettel  filled,  TIlus  pursuit  became 
hopeless;  inebriety,  moreover,  added  to  the  embarrassment,  and  although 
Godmund  soon  recovered  his  recollection,  merriment  was  converted  into 
sighing  and  sorrow."  * 

Page  14»,  *Tiiat  scoundrel-framing.*  The  'niding-st^ng*  was  a  kind 
of  post  or  pillory,  on  which  the  names  of  those  were  inscribed  who  had 
flagranlly  disgraced  themselves  by  crimes  or  cowardice.  It  is  yet  sometimes 


♦  Strong't  Frithiof,  p,  190, 


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240 

nsed,  in  ihe  North.  SirMf  very  aptly  observes,  p.  192.  ''Fritkiof,  in  vrhose 
mind  the  idea  of  a  Banta-stone  must  be  as  intimately  associated  with  the 
hero  whose  fame  it  commemorated ,  as  the  Niding-stake  with  the  onteast 
whose  name  it  piUoried,  is  therefore,  in  perfect  U^m§,  when  he  tannt- 
ingly  assures  Helge  of  security,  from  the  respect  which  he  entertains  for 
the  consecrated  Rnne-mark,  which  his  spearhead  is  wofil  to  carve.  Helge 
had  formerly  threatened  Frithiof ,  that  if  he  did  not  recover  the  tribute 
from  Angantyr,  he  should  be  *^a  branded  coward"  —  Amv  mmu  nidutg  — 
and  the  insult  is  now  retorted  and  exaggerated." 

Page  144.  Stama  9.'  Ye  tablet-fountains  for  mighty  Thorl*  '^J  mno- 
hallar  for  valdig  Thor!"— Ye  stre telling  cliff-groups  on  whose  stony  page 
Thor,  the  Thunderer,  can  inscribe  his  runes  mysterious:  — a  most  magnifi- 
cent and  majestic  image !  —  There  is  seen  to  this  day  near  Hoby  in  Ble- 
king,  a  flat  rock  called  Rwumo,  on  which,  within  double  lines  that  may 
be  traced  for  24  yards  Harald  Hildetand's  Scald  —  XI  Centuries  ago !  — 
carved  Troll-runes  against  Sigurd  Ring.  *  Many  rune-inscriptions  on  rocks 
are  to  be  found  in  Sweden  and  Norway  f .  Job ,  also ,  speaks  of  ''words 
graven  in  the  rock  for  ever"  t+. 

Canto   XV. 


Sutmat  2—11,  ''Many  things  were  there  established  in  their  band, 
to  be  observed  in  champion-fashion.  Thus  among  the  rest,  was  it  — that 
no  man  should  bear  a  sword  more  than  one  ell  long;  so  near,  at  least, 
should  each  one  cloze  wilh  his  foe.  Then  got  they  claymours  (short  thick 
broad-swords)  made  for  ibem,  that  the  blows  might  tell  the  better.  None 
of  them  had  less  strength  singly,  than  XII  common  men  together.  Women 
and  children  took  they  never  prisoners.  Never  should  they  have  their 
wounds  bound  up,  till  that  48  hours  had  passed."  *  .  .  .  "That  custom  had 
they  also ,  that  they  never  tented  over  their  ship,  and  never  reeved  the 
sail  for  a  Tempest's  sake."  f+f 

Stama  6.   See  Index ,  art.  oden.  Byron  has  a  thought  somewhat  similar : 
"The  rising  morn  will  view  the  chiefs  embark; 
But  waves  are  somewhat  treacherous  in  the  dark: 


Wie»elgren*»  "Sferiges  Skona  Litteratnr "  II.  Sag.  —  +  Svea  tUket  B&fder,  af 
Geif'er,  1.  l53.  —  ft  XIX.  24.  —  +ff  Half'$  and  Balf*  Champions*  Saga,  ch.  10. 
See  also  the  7th  8th  and  9th  strophes  of  the  magoificent  i6th  ch.  in  the 
same  Saga. 


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And  Tevellers  maj  more  teGarely  sleep 
On  silken  couch  than  o*er  the  rugged  deep."  * 
SiaitM  9,  "This  professional  hostility  was  so  thoroughly  understood, 
that  when  Halfdan,  with  an  overpowering  superiority  of  force,  meets 
another  adventurer,  Niorfi,  he  immediately  addresses  him:  "I  must  give 
thee ,  as  usual ,  a  choice  ;'*  but.,  sinking  the  alternative ,  simply  proposes 
that  he  should  abandon  Ms  wealth,  ships,  and  arms,  on  condition  of  a 
free  dismissal.  The  brave  buccaneer,  though  acknowledging  the  hopeless- 
ness of  resistance,  determines  to  perish  with  his  vessels;  and  his  opponent, 
not  to  be  excelled  in  chivalry,  then  detaches  a  part  of  his  fleet,  and  com- 
mences an  engagement  with  equal  force.  After  tliree  days  of  hard  fighting, 
they  begin  to  enquire  what  was  to  be  gained  by  conquest:  and  asNiorfi's 
squadron  proves  to  be  Ughtfy  laden,  a  truce  is  proposed,  and  an  alliance 
concluded."    Strong,  p.  203.  + 

Stamui  14,  "Like  the  heroes  of  Homer,  those  of  ancient  Scandi- 
navia, in  the  excess  of  their  overboiling  courage,  dared  to  defy  the  gods 
themselves.  *  Where  is  he,*  exclaimed  a  champion,  *whom  they  call  Odin, 
that  warrior  so  completely  armed,  who  hath  but  one  eye  to  guide  him? 
Ah!  if  I  could  but  seeliim,  this  redoubted  spouse  ofFrigga,  in  vain  should 
he  be  covered  with  his  snow-white  buckler,  in  vain  mounted  upon  his 
lofty  steed,  he  should  not  leave  his  abode  of  Lelhra  wiihout  a  wound. 
It  is  lawful  to  encounter  a  warrior  god !"  ff 

Canto  XVI. 


Pag.  156,  *Ho8t-fight  on  ice/  Great  battles  were  sometimes  fought 
on  the  ice,  as  the  mountainous  regions  offered  few  plains  fitted  for  that 
purpose. 

Canto  XVH. 


SuuuM  10^12,  See  a  similar  transformation  beautifully  described 
in  Byron*s  Cor$air,  II.  4. 

Siamui  14,  Strong  observes,  p.  220.  "Holinshed  slates,  that  in  the 
year  UYO,  upon  the  day  of  the  young  Prince's  coronation,  king  Henry  the 
Second  "served  his   son   at  the  table  as  a  server,   bringing  up  tlie  Bore's 


♦  Corsair,   IT.   a.  —  f  The   extract   is   from  Thortten  Vikingsson's   Saga^    ch,    7. 

ft  North.  Ant.  I,  ai5. 

3 


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242 

head,  with  trumpeu  hefort  it,  accordiag  to  the  manner."    See   Index,  art*. 

FRBY'S  BOAR. 

Stoma  23,  *Hi8  sword  then  grasped/  "History  records  an  anecdote 
of  Erik  Eiegod  —  Ever-gocd  —  King  of  Denmark ,  which  thongh  savonring 
of  the  thrice-stricken  harp  of  the  Elle-maid,  and  plainly  to  be  receired 
with  some  grains  of  allowance ,  is  too  apposite  to  be  omitted  here.  This 
monarch  was  seated  at  the  festive  board,  when  a  mnsician  was  announ- 
ced who  professed  to  wield  at  pleasure  the  emotions  of  the  human  heart* 
He  was  summoned  into  the  royal  presence,  to  prove  his  dexterity;  but 
long  excused  himself,  alleging  that  the  mind  of  the  monarch  would  be 
disorded.  This  premonition  serving  merely  to  aggravate  curiosity,  he  'Vtas 
then  commanded  to  play,  with  a  menace  of  the  consequences  of  disobedi- 
ence. The  mnsician  now  finding  remonstrance  fruitless,  requested  the 
attendants  to  conceal,  first,  all  the  weapons  and  arms  in  the  saloon.  This 
injunction  having  been  executed,  and  the  door  locked,  he  commenced  his 
minstrelsy.  The  first  piece  which  he  played  had  the  effect  of  rendering 
the  whole  court  melancholy  and  depressed.  The  second  piece  excited 
them  all  to  merriment,  so  that  they  sprang  from  their  seats  and  danced: 
but  with  the  third  they  were  wrought  up-4o  frenzy.  In  tliis  fit  of  mad- 
ness,  the  king  forced  open  a  cabinet,  seized  a  sword,  and  slew  four  of 
his  ministers;  and  it  was  found  necessary  to  rush  upon  and  coerce  him 
until  the  paroxysm  subsided.  "Whether,"  adds  the  historian,  "the  harp 
of  the  musician  produced  such  an  effect  naturally,  or  the  prepossessed 
imagination  of  the  monarch  were  the  source  of  the  phenomenon,  I  will 
not  venture  to  pronounce.*'  The  pious  Erik  on  recovering  liis  self-posses- 
sion, deeply  afflicted  at  the  catastrophe,  not  contented  with  the  penance 
enjoined  by  Canute  the  Great,  vowed  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem, 
and  pray  for  the  souls  of  his  four  victims  at  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  From 
this  determination,  neither  tears  nor  prayers  could  divert  him,  and  he 
died  at  Cyprus,  1105,  on  his  way  thither.  —  bolberg's  Damn,  At>.  Hut**  • 

Canto  XVIII. 


Stamut  9,  The  skill  of  the  Scandinavian  Youth ,  in  performing 
evolutions  and  carving  figures  and  letters  while  in  rapid  motion  over  their 
*icy  plains',  is  amazing.  Often  have  we  gazed  at  their  exploits  with  won- 
der and  admiration. 


♦  Sfrong*9  FrUhiof,  p.  aa3. 


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Canto  XIX. 

SutfUM  9,  Hunting  and  Hawking  were  not  coufined  to  the  immense 
forests  of  the  North,  but  long  stood  their  ground  in  the  South  of  Europe 
also.  'V\'"alter,  Bishop  of  Rochester  in  the  13th  century,  made  it  his  sole 
employment,  even  when  upwards  of  eighty  years  old;  and  tlie  ladies,  both 
alone  and  attended  by  their  lords ,  winded  the  horn  and  roused  the  game 
with  remarkable  skill.  Queen  Elizabeth's  passion  for  the  Chase  is  well 
known.  —  "The  great  hunting  matches  were  the  means  of  preserving  a 
social  intercourse  between  remote  tribes,  and  of  bringing  together  the 
chiefs  and  principal  men  of  the  country,  for  the  adjustment  of  differences, 
arrangement  of  proceedings ,  &c.  Huntings  were  often  given  in  compli- 
ment to  the  visits  of  friends ,  and  the  vassals  were  summoned  in  suitable 
numbers."  * 

StamM  13,  14,  Gifted  Birds ,  or  rather  spirits  in  their  shape ,  are 
a  "divine  machinery"  frequently  introduced  in  the  Ballads  and  Sagas  of 
the  North.  This  is  one  out  of  a  thousand  resemblances  to  Asiatic  man- 
ners. "Many  also  in  the  North,  as  in  idolatrous  Israel,  asserted  that  they 
could  understand  the  cries  of  birds  —  so  that  they  became  a  language 
studied  with  great  zeal  both  by  kings  and  peasants."  f 

SiatiM  18,  See  a  somewhat  similar  instance  of  magnanimity,  in 
Tjftler*t  Hi$t,  of  Scotland,  II.  400. 

Stattaa  20,  *With  upborne  shield.'  According  to  the  old  Northern 
custom,  a  shield  was  carried  on  high  instead  of  colours,  and  *to  come 
with  the  Shield  of  "War*  {hartksldy  generally  perhaps,  red)  was  equiva- 
lent to  a  declaration  of  hostilities.  —  The  *upborne  shield'  therefore  , 
which  could  only  be  carried  between  sun-rise  and  sun-set,  was  a  sign  of 
open  and  honourable  warfare.    See  Index,  art.  shield. 

Canto  XX. 

Stomut  S,  *Fire*8  light-curl'd  daughters ,'  —  the  graceful  and  slimly- 
bending  unoke'wreatht ,  —  is  hazarded  in  the  spirit  of  the  Scaldic  phraseo- 
logy, though  neither  warranted  nor  forbidden  by  the  original's  ^Siigande  rskem,* 

Staima  11,    'Death-runes.'    See  Index,  art.  geirsodd. 

Stomut  14,  "It  is  plain  that  a  more  glorious  crown,  a  helmet  of 
salvation,  rose  before  the  imagination  of  the  poet,  as  he  penned  tliis  char- 


*  Logans  Gail,  II,  42.  ~  f  Valmt  JliW.  I.  188. 


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acteristic  passage.  Yet  the  seatimenit  imputed  to  this  Pagan  CMeftain  is 
not  at  all  overcharged:  the  h»pe  of  a  dying  Odenite,  though  not  vouched 
like  that  of  the  Christian,  -was  more  easily  exalted  into  joy;  since  it  was 
little  repressed  through  any  sense  of  responsibility,  and  inflated  by  igno- 
rant enthusiasm."  *  —  We  cannot  help  adding  a  single  Strophe  of  the 
celebrated  Deaik-Song  of  Regnar  Lodirok,  which  was  probably  in  Tegner's  re- 
collection when  he  composed  this  Canto:  — 

ST.   29. 
'Xease  my  strain!  I  hear  a  voice 
From  realms  where  martial  souls  rejoice. 
I  hear  the  Maids  of  slaughter  call, 
Who  bid  me  hence  to  Odin's  Hall. 
High-seated  in  their  blest  abodes , 
I  soon  shall  quaff  the  drink  of  gods. 
The  hours  of  life  have  glided  by ; 
I  fall,  but  smiling  shall  I  die."  f 

Canto  XXI. 


Siama  jf.  ^c.  See  Remarks  on  the  alliterative  Poetry  of  the  old  Eng- 
lish Bards ,  in  Warton»  Helnfuet  of  Ane,  Eng,  Poetry  II.  276—280.  For  a  valuable 
comparison  of  the  Icelandic  and  Anglo-Saxon  systems  of  verse,  we  refer 
to  Crotthoinu  Fom-Norditka  Minnen,  I.  ad  fLnem. 

Id,  *His  Courser.'  "If  the  Levantine  Achilles  consumed  upon  the 
pile  of  Patroclus  a  stud  of  proud-necked  coursers ,  the  Northern  Sigurd  was 
equally  careful  that  the  shade  of  Harald-Hildetand  should  be  provided 
with  a  pompous  saddle-horse,  on  which  he  might  ride  forth  amidst  the 
host  of  the  slain  to  Valhalla:  if  the  tomb  of  Hring  be  poetically  furnish- 
ed with  his  yet  surviving  charger,  his  lifeless  side  girt  with  its  faithful 
blade ,  that  of  Chilperic  I.  really  disclosed  remains  of  his  former  war- 
horse,  amongst  rusty  and  decayed  trappings,  arms,  and  accoutrements. 
The  Laplander  interring  a  flint  and  combustibles  to  light  the  departed 
along  the  dark  passages  of  his  cavernous  way,  or  the  Western  savage, 
in  addition  to  garments  and  grain ,  bestowing ,  as  in  mockery  of  the  pal- 
lid corpse  ,  ^'des  couleurs  pour  se  peindre ,"  betrayed  not  greater  blindness 


*  Strong,  p.  a57.  —  f  HerherCi   Mpedmem  of  Iceiandk  Poetry,    We  would  have  pre- 
ferred the  last  line  to  have  run  tims: 

I  fall,  but  laugh;  and  langhing  die! 


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than  ih^  philosopKic  Greek  inserting  liis  viaticum  between  the  rigid  teeth 
or  squandering  life  and  wealth  upon  the  pile.  The  range  of  man's  disco- 
veries is  cut  short  at  the  grave ,  and  beyond  this  point  even  Revelation 
seems  rather  meted  out  to  dispel  delusion  than  to  communicate  know- 
ledge.'"^ The  Scythians  had  the  same  burial- customs  as  the  Scandinavians. 

Stamut  3,  'Corn-ears.'  In  England,  so  late  as  in  the  reign  of  Henry 
Vin.    Brides,  we  are  informed,**  wore  a  garland  of  corn-ears. 

Statma  9,  The  synonymes  for  gold ,  in  the  old  Scaldic  Poetry,  are 
almost  numberless.  Many  of  them  are  founded  upon  legendary  fable, 
while  some  are  elegantly  expressive;  such***)  as  Agu-'s  (the  Ocean-god's) 
/Jref;  Frefat  (Venus')  Tear$i  the  flame  ef  the  wrist  (from  its  being  so  generally 
made  into  Bracelets  by  the  Northmen);  the  fire  of  the  ttream  (pointing,  says 
Geijer,  f f  to  the  gold-bearing  floods  of  the  Caucasus) ,  &:c.  It  is  called 
Dwarf 'day-ihine ,  for  tliat  the  Pigmies  who  peopled  the  hills  and  caverns  had 
no  iolar-dag-thme. 

Canto   XXII. 


Stanaa  5,     *A  Sun  in  blood.'  —  Painted  blood-red. 

Stama  10.  "So  when  Baldvfin,  Count  of  Flanders,  was  invested  — 
an.  1204  —  by  the  Crusaders  with  the  Eastern  purple,  "the  barons  and 
knights,  agreeably  to  Byzantine  custom,  elevated  the  Emperor  on  a  Buckler 
and  bore  him  into  the  church  of  St.  Sophia."  f-l-f  Both  the  Romans  aud 
the  Northmen  had  this  custom.  For  a  general  or  ruler  to  be  raised  on 
the  *Shield  of*  War'  was  an  evident  token  of  Superiority! 

StaiuM  90.    'Time's  sj^reading  Tree!'  See  Index,  art.  ygdrasil. 

Canto   XXm. 


Stama  19,  'An  air-born  Phantom.*  The  Translator  cannot  call  to 
mind  the  existence  of  any  national  popular  Synonyme  for  "Hagring ;"  Fata- 
Morgana  is  too  learned,   and  the  Mirage  is  the  lately  adopted  child  of  a  fo- 


*  Strong,  p.  a68.  —  **  Brand,  Pop,  Ant,  —  *** Pr,  Edda,  Skaldflkap.  ch.  Sa  and 
45.  --  f  "Now  when  the  Gods  had  sate  them  on  their  seats,  Agir  had  shin- 
ing gold  placed  npon  the  floor  of  the  Hall,  and  this  sparkled  and  lighted  up 
the  H«I1  like  nnto  fire,  —  just  as  in  Yalhall  swords  were  instead  of  fire." 
Do,  ch.  33.  —  if  Hdfder,  I.  365.  See  also  the  Pro»e  Edda,  Skaldskaparmal , 
5  32—46.   —  f++  Miil$*s  Cru$adet,  U.  144, 


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246 

reign  desert,  wliile  Sight  and  Vigion  &c.  are  all  too  indefLnite.  —  "When 
Nature  stretclies  lier  canvas  of  vapour,  and  widi  a  pencil  of  reflexible  and 
refrangible  light  draws  fanciful  images  of  objects  in  themselves  fanlaslic , 
a  less  susceptible  and  inexperienced  observer  than  Frilhiof  might  be  par- 
doned, should  he  give  to  the  picture  ideal  touches,  and  ascribe  the  vision, 
to  preternatural  Agency.  The  arcliitectural  skill  of  fancy  is  elegantly 
recognized  by  John  Lander  —  the  African  Traveller  —  in  his  poetic  and 
affecting  monody:  — 

**With  bounding  steps  I  gain'd  the  hill's  ascent 
To  muse  in  silence  on  tlie  firmament, 
Where  orient  clouds  that  met  my  raptured  sight 
Seemed  blissful  lakes  in  seas  of  silvery  light, 
Rocks,  mountains,  caverns,  precipices  bold, 
Refulgent  towers,  and  templet  built  with  gold: 
And  borne  aloft  on  fancy's  soaring  wings. 
Were  gorgeous  thrones  and  palaces  of  kings." 

ZM,  Ganette,  Jmn,  S.  * 
Sttttuut  i5»    *  Time's  pure  Spring.'    Mimer's  Well. 

Canto   XXIV. 


Siamut  5.  *The  Serpent  twisted.*  "It  should  be  observed  that  the 
knots  wont  to  be  engraven  on  Runick  monuments,  to  denote  an  indisso- 
luble bond  of  fidelity  and  affection,  were  commonly  anguiform;  that  genus 
of  serpents,  alone,  having  a  .propensity  ' to  convolve  into  knots  or  gyres. 
And  when  such  anguiform  knot  occurs ,  the  first  care  of  the  decypherer 
should  be  directed  to  the  discovery  of  the  head;  as  indicating  tlie  com- 
mencement of  the  scroll."  ** 

StanM  It.    *Belt.'    *  Gauntlets,  See  Index,  art.  thor. 
Stanaa  19,   'Oblivion's  Heron.'  "As  an  authority  for  tlds  expression, 
Bishop  Tegn^r  himself  refers  to  a  passage  in  the  Havamal:  — 
**  Ominnis  hegri  heitir  He ,  oblivion's  heron  highl 

Sa  er  yfir  auldrom  thrumir  O'er  the  toper  stays  his  flight, 

Han  slelr  gedi  guma."  Filching  reason ,  clouding  light."  *** 

Stama  14,  'The  Scale.*  "Our  poet  in  this  suspension  of  the  ba- 
lance,  might  plead  sublunary  in   addition  to   celestial  precedent,  as  the 


♦  Strong,  p.  292.  —  **  Do.  p.  So;,    quoted   from  Miches   Thes.    Gr,  IsU  —  **♦   Do. 
p.  3o8.  Havamal  str.  I4< 


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following  passage  will  leslify:  —  **Erat  Comid  bilanx  argentea  inanrata, 
binis  ponderibns ,  anreo  altero ,  altero  argenteo  adjectis,  in  utroquc  kumana 
tffigiet  cselata  erat;  talibns  enim  Teteres  nti  consuererant:  id  Luti,  sive 
sortes,   nomin&runt."  * 

Ih,  *Gold-comb*d  Gock'&c,  Snck  are  the  signs,  which  —  as  sings 
the  Prophetess  of  the  North  —  shall  usher  in  the  day  terrible  alike  to 
gods  and  men:  — 

"Gdl  nm  Asnm  Crow*d  his  -^sir-call 

Giillin-kambi  Cock  wilh  glistening  crest; 

Sa  rekiir  holda  He  in  O den's  hall 

At  Heria  fodnrs:  Wakes  the  Brare  from  rest: 

Enn  annar  gdl  Back  the  rust-red  bird 

Fyrir  jord  nedann  Flung  the  warning  sound; 

Sotraudur  hani  Hela's  Shadows  heard 

At  solum  Heliar."  'Neath the  deep  profound."** 

Sutma  9i.  *Grasp  ye  the  Sense,  or  no?'  —  ^^forttdn  I  dtmu  eUer  ejf** 
an  imitation  of  the  Vala's  repeate'S.  interrogation  —  "viloth  enn,  etha 
hvat"  ***  —  *Know  ye  yet,  or  how?' 

SteJiaa  93,  ♦  This  Stanza  is  copied  from  the  specimens  translated 
in  an  excellent  Notice  of  Tegner's  FrOhiof,  in  BlackwooiVt  Magamne,  No.  135, 
Feb.  1828. 

Stoma  26,  *♦  These  lines  are  also  copied  from  the  same  source. 
Ih.  'Proud  steeds.'  Horses  were  frequently  offered ,  in  the  old  North, 
among  other  animals.  They  were  especially  sacrificed  to  Oden,  as  the 
god  of  War;  and  to  Thor,  in  token  of  the  Horses  which  drew  the  chariot 
of  the  Sun.  Cyrus  the  Great  also  offered  Horses  to  that  Luminary.  At 
the  great  atonement-sacrifice  at  Lederun,  the  capital  of  Sseland,  99  hor- 
ses, and  the  same  number  of  men,  dogs,  cocks  and  hawks  were*  offered 
at  once.  •{• 

Stamut  98.  *Presag'd  its  trutlis.'  **With  a  similar  pregnant  inference, 
the  Swedish  historian  (Geijer)  takes  his  leave  of  the  resinking  Vala:  — 
"So  sounds  the  Toice  of  the  Northern  Sibyl!  faint,  but  half  intelligible, 
through  the  long  vault  of  ages.  It  speaks  of  other  times ,  other  men  and 
minds,  fettered  in  the  bonds  of  superstition,  yet  yearning,  even  they,  af- 
ter eternal  light;  and  expressing  that  craving,  although  in  faltering  phrase." 
I.  339.  +f 


*  Torf,  IT.  3i3,  qnoted  in  Strong,  p.  3ll,  —  **  Do.  same  page.—  *** Elder  Bdda, 
Voluspa  ,  passim.  —  f  Conf,  Daltm  1. 171  &  188.  —  f  f  Strong,  p.  3i5. 


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MYTHOLO  GICAL 

ANTIQUARIAN  and  EXPLANATORY 

INDEX. 


Alphbm  (tlie  Historical),  called  also  VAen,  was  situated,  says  the 
Hervara  Saga  i),  between  Romriver  (Glomen)  and  Gant-elfven. 

ALFHBM ,    (BLP-HOMB) ,   the  Palace  of  Frej,   and  chief  Castle  of  the 
district,    called  by  the  same  name,   inhabited  by  the  Light-Fairies.    The 
whole  region  lay  in  the  third  Hearen,  Vid-blain  (the  widely- blue),  which 
the  flames  of  Ragnarok  shall  not  reach,  a) 
"Alfhem  to  Frey  they  gave,  —  In  Time's  first  days,   —  As  tooth-gift." 3) 

ALL-FATHBR ,  (allfadbr)  ,  the  great  Spirit  4) ,  Him  who  liveth  through- 
out all  generations  5) ,  and  whom  we  dare  not  name  6) ,  the  Creator  of  the 
Sun 7),  andGoYernor  of  all  things 8),  the  Lofty  One,  the  Ancient,  tlie  Re- 
vealer  of  Mysteries,  the  Manifold  9),  &c.  —the  Great  Almighty  God  whom 
all  the  corruptions  of  barbarism  and  idolatry  coi\Ld  never  entirely  con- 
found either  with  the  heathen  *father  of  the  gods'  or  with  the  historical 
Oden.    See  odbn. 

ATVGAPJTYR  (arngrimsson),  "The  gigantic  son  of  a  Viking  and  island 
chief,  named  Amgrim;  and  one  of  twelve  .brethren  renowned  as  the  first 
Berserkir.  These  he  accompanied  to  Samsey,  whither  one  of  them,  Hior- 
vard,  had  challenged  Hialmar,  a  brave  Swedish  leader,  his  successful  ri- 
val, in  the  favour  of  Ingebiorg,  daughter  of  the  reigning  monarch  at  Up- 
sala.  The  hostile  parties  met  on  the  shore,  after  the  Berserkir,  in  a  fit 
of  martial  frenzy,  had  attacked  and  slain  the  attendants  of  Hialmar,  whilst 
their  chief,  with  his  foster-brother,  Oddr,  ascended  an  eminence  to  re- 
connoitre. Two  against  twelve  shewed  fearful  disproportion,  but  the 
former  were  in  full  vigour  the  latter  labouring  under  exliaustion,  conse- 
quent upon  the  preceding  paroxysm:  and  too  brave  to  fly,  the  gallant 
pair  resolved  to  hazard  the   encounter.    After  some  friendly  disputation. 


l)  Ch.  I.  So  also  YngUnga-Saga,  cli.  53.  —  a)  Proie-Edda,  GylfagiDDing,  17.  *— 
3)  On  cuttiag  his  first  tooth  —  PceHc  Edda  Grimoism^I,  str,  5.  —  4)  Proie- 
Edda,  Gylfagioning,  3.  —  5)  Do,  —  6)  Poeiie  Edda,  Hyndla's  Song,  4i.  — 
7)  LoHdndma,  p.  19.  Skalda,  p.  94,  —  8)  Baraid  the  fair-haifd's  Saga,  cb.  4.  — 
9)  Poetk  Edda,  Grimaismiil ,  47 — 5l.  Prote-Edda,  Gylfaginniog,  20. 


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t49 

it  nfras  agreed  that  Hialmar,  a»  the  mo»t  perilous  eiuprize ,  should  engage 
Attgaiitjr;  -whilst  Ms  confederate  brayed  the  eleven.  Accordingly,  after  a 
preliminary  condition  had  been  exacted  by  the  Berserk,  that  if  he  fell, 
his  sword  should  be  interred  with  its  owner  —  "ok  vil  ek  hafa  Tyrfing 
i  haug  metli  mer"  —  the  duel  commenced;  and  was  long  continued  with 
tremendous  fury  and  reciprocal  wounds:  the  reek  —  according  to  the 
Chronicler  —  ascending  from  the  nostrils  and  mouths  of  the  combatants, 
as  from  a  fiery  furnace.  After  standing  for  some  time  "spectator  of  the 
fight,"  Oddr  drew  off  his  opponents;  and  haying  appealed  to  their  cour- 
age as  champions,  and  not  slaves,  and  to  the  ancient  edict,  "man  to  man," 
was  first  confronted  by  Hioryard,  whom  he  quickly  despatched,  and  suc- 
cessively by  the  survivors ,  who  all  shared  the  same  fate :  Ids  wrought 
silver  tunic,  presented  to  him  by  a  fair  enchantress  — Alfodr  —  in  Ireland, 
defyiug  the  edge  of  steel.  Unscathed  he  returned  to  the  spot,  where  he 
had  left  his  friend,  waging  doubtful  conflict,  and  found  Angantyr  fallen, 
and  Hialmar  seated  upon  a  hillock,  pale  as  a  corpse.  In  rhythmic  reci- 
tative, Oddr  questioned  and  condoled  with  his  ghastly  comrade,  who 
taking,  up  the  strain,  replied:  — 

**Sar  hefi  ek  sextan  "Wounds  sixteen  I  rue 

slitna  brynju  Cleft  my  helm  and  head, 

svarl  el  mer  fyri  sjdnum,  darkness  clouds  my  view, 

s^kat  ek  ganga;  fails  my  feeble  tread; 

hneyt  mer  vilh  hjarta  Fierce  .Angantyr  play'd 

hjorr  Angantyrs  heart-deep  pangs  I  feel, 

hvass  blothrefill.  Dwarfs  two-edged  Ids  blade 

hertli  i  eitri,  poison  lemper'd  steel. 

"He  then  commenced  his  Swan-Song,  wldch  extends  through  six 
stanzas,  and  having  closed  il,  expired.  Oddr  then  deposited  the  Berserkir 
Willi  their  arms,  cumnladng  a  barrow  over  them;  and  having  completed 
this  laborious  task,  carried  tlie  body  of  Ms  friend  to  the  ship,  and  sailed 
for  Upsala.  The  Princess  betrothed  to  Hialmar,  overpowered  by  the  me- 
lancholy tidings  of  Ids  decease,  died  of  a  broken  heart,  and  was  buried 
in  the  same  tomb  with  her  lover."  i)    See  tirpii^g. 

ANGAT^TYR  (HBRMUffDSSON) ,  was  Jarl  of  the  Orkneys.  His  father  was 
Jarl  of  Gotland,  and  a  renowned  warrior  and  Sea-King.  On  Anganlyr's 
first  meeting  with  Thorsten  and  Bele,  they  came  to  pitched  combat,  and 
after  two  days  hard  fighting,   followed  by  a  severe    duel  (both  the  cham* 


X)  Strong  $  Frithiof,   p,  ftSg. 


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pions  standing  on  one  hide)  —  swore  foslcr-brothership  vrith.  each  other, 
and  were  inseparable  in  their  after-rovings.  After  the  concjnesl  of  the 
Orkneys  by  the  three  united  braves,  —  "Bele  offered  Thorsten  the  Islands » 
that  he  should  be  Jarl  thereof;  but  he  said ,  that  he  would  not  have  it 
80 :  —  *rather  will  I  be  a  Herse ,  and  so  not  separate  from  thee ,  than  be 
titled  Jarl  and  live  far  away  from  thy  side/  —  Then  offered  he  the  same 
unto  Anganlyr,  the  wliich  he  straightway  accepted,  becoming  Jarl  over 
the  Islands,  and  binding  himself  to  pay  tribute  every  year  therefor,"  i) 

A!VGURVADEL,  (or  ANGRVATHiLL)  THE  PORD  OP  SORROW,  a  name  per- 
haps given  from  the  blue  colour  and  transparency  of  the  steel.  See  swords. 

ARM-RiiVG,  (Bracelet,  Armclasp)  an  ornament,  usually  of  gold, 
constantly  and  extravagantly  worn  by  the  old  inliabitants  of  Scandinavia 
Xcc.  To  such  an  extent  was  this  practise  carried,  that  it  gave  a  separate 
appellation  to  the  precious  metals,  —  eldr  IUK»  or  hth  hrmndumfT)  —  the  fire 
of  the  wrist,  or  wrist-flame. —The  custom  perhaps  arose  from  the  conve- 
nient and  agreable  form  in  which  treasure  was  thus  secured  about  the 
person,  at  a  time  when  properly  was  extremely  insecure.  But  Arm-rings 
were  also  frequently  regarded  as  Amulets  and  talismans,  and  their  use 
undoubtedly  came  from  the  East,  where  we  find  them  retained  to  this  day. 

ARMS,  of  all  Kinds,  and  often  of  great  rarity  and  beauty,  were 
always  publicly  worn  by  tlie  Gothic  nations,  who  introduced  this  custom 
into  Southern  Europe.  But  especially  at  the  Ting,  Diet,  and  all  other 
folk-motes  the  free  Northman  presented  himself  "armed  up  to  the  teeth;" 
and,  in  proportion  as  he  laid  aside  his  wea/Miu,  his  Uberiies  were  gradually 
filched  from  him  by  nobles,  priests  and  tyrants. —  In  God's  good  time,  it 
is  to  be  hoped,  he  will  take  back  both  the  one  and  the  other  I 

ARNGRIM ,  father  of  angantyr  and  his  XI  Brothers. 

AS  or  ASS,  (Goth,  anz,  Etruscan  ais) ,  Chief  Pillar  or  Support, 
God,  Demi-God,  Hero.  Plural asar  or  iESiR,  the  divine  Race,  first  applied 
to  the  Asiatic  followers  of  Oden,  and  then  to  the  last  predominant  Scan- 
dinavian Deities  whose  names  they  had  assumed,  generally.  When  com* 
pounded,  it  becomes  ASA-;  as  asa-balder,  &c.  —  See  asgard. 

ASA-BALDER,  ASA-THOR ,   &C.      See    BALDER,   THOR.  <&C. 

asgXrd,  or  Qodheim,  is  the  celestial  abode  from  which  Oden  and 
his  Asar  descended  on  Earth  to  Manhem  or  Sweden  to  mix  with  the  child- 
ren of  men.  At  the  same  time ,  it  signifies  the  original  seat  of  Oden  the 
hero,  on  the  river  Tanais. 


l)   Thorsten   VihingstorCt  Saga,  cb.  a4.  —  a)  Sn.  Edda ,   Skaldslap.  4^* 


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ASRBR  (ASH).  "Then  said  Gangleri  (TA*  Wayfarer) :  *Miioh  methiuks 
-was  it  ivhicli  they  had  accomplished ,  when  the  heavens  and  the  earth 
were  made,  the  sun  and  the  heavenly  bodies  were  placed,  and  day  and 
night  had  been  ordered;  bat  whence  came  the  men  who  live  on  our 
globe?  — Har  {the  Lofiy  One)  replieth:  *As  the  Sons  of  Bor  (the  Gods  Oden,  Vile 
and  Ve)  walked  along  the  sea-shore,  found  they  two  trees,  and  taking 
them  up,  made  of  them  men.  The  first  gave  unto  them  spirit  and  life ,  the 
second  understanding  and  movement,  and  the  third  features  speech  hearing 
and  sight.  Garments  gave  they  to  them  also,  and  names;  tlie  man  was 
hight  A$ker,  and  the  woman fm^/a;  and  from  them  have  come  all  mankind, 
to  whom  it  was  given  to  build  in  Midg&rd."  i) — Listen  also  to  tlie  Valal 
"Till  Three  came  "Spirit  they  held  not , 

Yon  Troop  from  out ,  Thought  had  they  none  , 

ASAR  —  all  loving  Nor  blood  nor  voice 

And  strong  —  to  the  shore ;  Nor  beauteous  hue : 

On  the  land  they  found  Oden  gave  Spirit, 

Little  worth  And  Thought  gave  Haner, 

Aska  and  Embla  And  blood  gave  Loder 

Lying  all  lifeless:  —  And  beauteous  hue!"  2) 

"We  find  curious  resemblances  to  this  Mythus ,  among  the  Greeks 
who  affirmed  tlie  human  race  to  be  ihe  fruit  of  the  A»h,  flSAlCCQ  XCCQUOQ^  -*— 
the  Latins,  whose  Populue  means  Poplar,  —  and  the  Persians,  who  thought 
mankind  were  descended  from  a  tree, 
ASSIZE,  See  ting* 

ASTRILD,  Love,  the  Cupid  of  the  North.  —  From  the  Teutonic  root 
AST ,  Love ,  Desire ,  and  connected  w^ith  Eatter,  or  Aettar^  (German  Ottern) 
the  feast  of  Venus  among  the  Britons  and  Germans ,  and  astarte  ashtaroth  , 
&c.  the  Syrian  Venus. 


BALDER,   (THE  POTENT)  related  to  Bel,  Baal,  &C.     Lord,  a  title  of  the 

Sun.  Hence  Balder  is  the  Source  of  light  and  life,  the  delight  of  Gods  and 
men,  the  good,  —  **Oden*s  second  son  is  Balder;  ...  so  fair  is  he  in  feat- 
ure and  so  bright,  tliat  a  sliining  splendour  surroundetli  him  .  .  •  the 
wisest  of  the  Asar  is  he,  and  the  most  sweetly-speaking,  and  tliereto  most 
mild.  That  quality,  also ,  followeth  him ,  that  his  doomings  never  can 
be  changed.*'  3)     But  alas!   the  'Guardian  of  Valhall'  4)   is  threatened  by 


I)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.  9.  —  2)  Sem.   Edda,  Vibupa,,  1 7,  18.  —3)  Sn,Edda,  Gylfag. 
aa.  —  4)  vsluspa,  38. 


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252 

misfortnues  which  gain  him  the  melancholy  tillcs  *the  bloody  God*  t) 
and  *the-vreepingGod'a).  Oden  himself  visits  the  abode  ofHel3),  bnt  onlj 
to  gain  a  confirmation  of  Balder's  dreams.  Then  taketh  Frigga  oath  of 
all  existences ,  liTiug  and  lifeless ,  that  they  -vronld  not  harm  her  son ;  bnt 
the  tender  mistletoe  she  neglects,  and  this  becomes  his  bane.  As  the  Gods 
are  aiming  at  him  as  at  a  mark,  to  show  that  he  is  now  invulnerable,  the 
ever-evil  Loke  place ih  the  yonng  plant  in  the  hands  of  the  blind  Hoder 
{H0tr»d),  directs  his  aim,  and  —  Balder  falls!  —  *'and  this  is  the  greatest 
misfortune  which  lias  ever  befallen  Gods  and  Men!"  4)  So  soon  as  the 
Gods  had  somewhat  recovered  from  this  blow,  they  sent  Helmod  {the  He- 
roic) to  Hel,  commissioned  to  offer  ransom  for  her  prey;  this  she  granted, 
on  condition  that  every  thing,  living  and  dead,  lamented  the  deceased. — 
*^This  all  nature  did,  men  and  animals,  earth  and  stones  and  trees  and 
every  ore ;  for  thou  hast  surely  seen  how  these  things  weep,  when  they 
come  from  the  cold  into  the  heat.  Now  as  the  messengers  are  journeying 
home  •  •  •  •  they  find  a  giantess  called  Thock,  who  answerelh  thus: 
"Thock  will  weep ,  but  Nor  of  dead  nor  of  living 

"With  dry  tears.  Force  1  the  son;  -^ 

For  Balder's  death-pile:  Let  Hel  hold  fast  what  she  hath!" 5) 

This  was  attributed  to  Loke ,  and  terribly  was  it  revenged.  But 
Balder  shall  return ,  with  that  New  Earth  of  which  the  Vala  sings.  6)  — 
*'This  beautiful  Mythos  is  undoubtedly  an  image  jof  the  leaf  of  the  seasons 
(the  life  of  tJie  year?)  destroyed  by  Winter,  and  of  the  subsequent  re-awa*- 
kening  of  Nature  by  the  Spring.  But  at  the  same  time  it  carries  with  it 
another,  and  more  remote  signification  —  being  a  symbol  of  all  time ,  and 
of  the  changes  of  the  great  year  of  the  world,  and  in  this  sense  it  implies 
a  higher  meaning ,  as  it  represents  the  general  dissolution  as  a  consequence 
of  the  first  death  of  the  God  (Gudadod)  —  the  death  of  Goodness  and  Jus- 
tice in  the  world.  Balder  returns,  followed  by  reward  and  punishment, 
by  a  new  heaven  and  a  new  earlli.  Through  this,  and  at  the  same  time 
the  inviolable  sanctity  which  the  Northern  Mythology  attaches  to  an  oath, 
it  rises  above  Nature ,   and  acquires  a  moral  value  for  mankind.'*  7)     See 

BREIDABLICR,  HODER,  LORE,  NANNA ,  VALE,  WHITE  GOD. 

balder's  hagb,  —  "at  Sogn,  in  Norway,  a  Sanctuary  consecrated 
to  Balder,  was  surrounded  by  an  extensive  enclosure  ,  and  consisted  of 
buildings  constructed  with  great  cost.  There  was  one  temple  for  the  Gods, 


1)  Vdluspa^  36.  —  a)  Sn,  Edda,  Skaldskap.  5.  —  3)  Vegtamaqtida.  —  4)  Sn,  Edda, 
Gylfag.  49.  —  5)  Do.  Do,  —  6)  Vdltnpa,  str.  6a.  —  7)  GefferM  Svoa  Rike$  Bifder, 
I.  354;  trans,  in  the  Foreign,  Rev,  Ap.  1828,  p.  54i. 


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and  anodier  for  llie  Goddesses  of  Valliall,  —  the  latter,  especially,  ex- 
tremely liigh."  i) 

BALDiR's  PYRB,  is  properly  the  burning  of  his  corpse,  together  with 
that  ofNanna,  on  his  ship  Ringhorne  which  had  been  pushed  from  shore 
by  the  Witch-giantess  Hyrrocken  (/Irtf-TTAirficmrf).  Thor  consecrated  the  blaz- 
ing Pile  with  his  Hammer,  and  Gods ,  Men ,  and  GUmis  assembled  to  express 
their  sorrow  at  his  fate  !  2)  —  In  another  sense ,  however,  it  is  synonymous 
with  his  festival,  Bel-tan,  the  solar  fire,  usually  kindled  (commonly  with 
fresh-obtained  flame)  on  the  1st  of  May.  '^It  was  also  not  unfreqneutly 
kept  on  MidsummeT'dag,  from  a  not  unnatural  idea,  tliat  of  all  the  days  in 
the  year  that  in  particular  should  be  selected  in  which  the  sun  was  the 
longest  predominant;  and  it  was  observed  by  fires  from  a  notion  no  less 
natural,  that  there  was  a  peculiar  fitness  in  making  offerings  to  the  great 
god  of  day  from  his  own  element."  3) 

BARROW,  (perhaps  derived  from  berg,  hill)  Grave-mound,  sepul- 
chral heap,  was  a  vast  mass  of  earth  and  stones  raised  over  the  remains  of 
a  chief  or  warrior  of  renown.  Commonly  one  or  more  timbered  or  walled 
chambers,  protected  the  corpse  from  contact  with  the  soil  itself.  Such 
Barrows  or  Cairns  are  found  in  Scandinavia  and  in  the  British  Isles,  Po- 
land and  Russia,  especially  in  the  steppes  ofTartary.  "The  borderers  upon 
these  deserts  (near  Tromsky)  have  for  many  years  continued  to  dig  for  trea- 
sure deposited  in  these  .tumuli :  and  the  Russian  court  being  informed  of 
these  depredations,  dispatched  an  officer  to  open  such  of  the  tumuli  as 
were  too  large  for  the  marauding  parties  to  undertake.  He  selected  the 
barrow  of  largest  dimensions,  and  a  deep  covering  of  earth  and  stones 
having  been  removed,  the  workmen  came  to  three  vaults.  The  centre 
and  largest ,  containing  the  bones  of  the  chief,  was  easily  distinguished  by  the 
sword ,  spear,  bow,  quiver,  and  arrow ,  which  lay  beside  him.  In  the  vault 
beyond  him ,  toward  which  his  feet  lay,  were  his  horse  and  bridle  and 
stirrups.  The  body  of  the  prince  lay  in  a  reclining  posture  upon  a  sheet 
of  pure  gold,  extending  from  head  to  foot;  and  another  sheet  of  gold,  of 
the  like  dimensions,  was  spread  over  him.  He  was  wrapt  in  a  rich  mantle, 
bordered  with  gold,  and  studded  with  rubies  and  emeralds.  His  head, 
neck,  breast,  and  arms  naked,  and  ivithout  any  ornament.  In  the  lesser 
vault  lay  the  princess,  distinguished  by  her  female  ornaments.  She  was 
placed  reclining  against  the  wall,  with  a  gold  chain  of  many  links,  set 
with  rubies,   round  her  neck,   and  gold  bracelets  round   her  arms.    The 


I)  FiHH  Maynu$eny  Nordisk  Arcbaiologi.  —  2)  Sn,  Bdda,  Gylfag.  49.  —  3)  Boucher** 
Glossary, 


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head,  breast,  and  arms,  "were  naked.  The  l>odj  was  covered  with  a  rich 
robe ,  but  without  any  border  of  gold  or  jewels ;  and  was  laid  on  a  sheet 
of  ilne  gold,  and  covered  over  with  anoilier.  The  four  sheets  of  gold 
weighed  40  lbs.  The  robes  of  both  looked  fair  and  complete ;  but ,  upon, 
touching,  crumbled  into  dust."  i) 

BADTA-STONB ,   (MARR*ST0If  B  ,  Or  STOIf  B  OP  THB  FALLBN)   WaS  a  narrOW 

and  lofiy  block  set  up  to  the  remembrance  of  a  distinguished  Chief.  The 
custom  of  erecting  such  monuments  was  as  old  as  Oden  himself.  '^Over 
all  those  men  who  any  manly  exploit  had  performed,  should  Bauut-Stone* 
be  raised."  a)  Sometimes  they  stood  on  a  Cairn ,  but  more  commonly  by  a 
path-way  —  "Siste ,  Viator !"  —  "But ,  when  we  consider  the  continual 
warfare  of  our  forefathers,  and  the  respect  paid  by  heatlienism  to  the  last 
duties  to  the  deceased,  —  they  were  probably  also  raised  over  men  w^ho 
had  fallen  far  away,  no  friend  or  Kinsman  near  them,  as  the  only  tribute 
that  could  be  given  them  by  the  home- abiding  and  the  still- surviving, 
and  as  a  compensation  for  those  funeral  offices  which  it  was  impossible 
for  tlie  relatives  to  fulfil." 3)  ~  Bauta-stones,  owing  to  their  exposed  form, 
are  now  rare  even  in  the  North;  The  oldest  whose  date  is  positively  cer- 
tain ascend  to  tlie  Xth  Century ;  the  most  recent  come  down  to  the  XUIth. 
Frithiofs  Bauta-Stone  ,  represented  in  the  Frontispiece ,  is  a  remarkably 
fine  specimen  of  this  antique  Scandinavian  Remembrance-Stone ,  and  must 
boast  an  age  of  more  than  1000  years!  —  Sublime,  indeed,  is  the  maxim 
of  tlie  Ancient  Oden:  — 

Sour  er  betri, 
|>6tt  s^  si|>  of-alinn 
eptir  genginn  guma: 
sialdan  bautasteinar 
standa  brauto  neer, 
nema  reisi  ni|>r  at  ni)>.  4) 
Tis  good  to  boast  a  Son,  e*en  tliough 
But  late  the  tender  plant  should  grow. 
Nay !  though  the  Sire  himself  hath  died.  — 
Ah!  seldom  Bauta-S tones  arise, 
Just  where  the  broad  path  pleasant  lies, 
If  not  by  Son  to  Father  sanctified! 
BXAR.    {Canto  II).    "Popular  tradition   gives   the  Bear  the  strength 
of  XJI  men,  and  the  Lap    and  Fin  regard  him  to  this  day  as  some  thing 


I)  Beiri  Journeif  from  Peteraburgh  to  Pekin,  1.  aog.  —  a)  Yngh'nga.^9€i ,  cb.  VIII.  — 
3)  Geijer,  Svea  Wkei  U&fder,  I.  iS;.  —  4)  ««"    J^rfrfa,  Uafamal,  St.  73. 


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supernatural."!)  {Canto  X),  "So,  when  the  8i)on8e  of  Hogni  related  her 
ominons  dream ,  that  "a  bear  entering ,  tore  np  the  high  seat  of  the  King , 
and  having  brandished  his  paws,  to  the  terror  of  them  all,  at  length  seized 
them  powerless  in  his  jaws,  thus  creating  indescribable  consternation;** 
he  eyaded  her  conclusion ,  replying ,  that  it  foreboded  "tempest ;  since  the 
object  imagined  was  a  white-hear,*'  In  truth,  it  seems  not  improbable  that 
our  poet  had  in  view  this  very  passage  of  the  Volsunga  Saga,  for  Kost- 
bera  immediately  proceeds  to  narrate  a  second  dream,  in  which  an  eagle 
was  tlie  actor,  and  which  she  alleges  must  forebode  ill,  since  the  bird  ap- 
peared to  be  the  disguised  form  (Aamr)  of  King  Atli ,  whose  treachery  she 
foresaw.*'  a) 

BELB,  was  the  son  of  Skate,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  the  King- 
dom of  Sogn.  —  "Widely  was  Bele  renowned  in  every  land."  3) 

BBRSERR,  (BARE  SERK ,  Bare  shirt ,  unmailed  warrior).  The  Berserks 
were  a  class  of  combatants  in  whom  military  enthusiasm  often  developed 
itself  either  as  assumed  frenzy  or  real  madness.  Even  chains  could  scarce- 
ly restrain  them  4) ;  indeed  they  were  the  natural  cxcrescence-growtli  of 
a  period  when  force  and  fight,  hlood  and  brutality  were  the  melancholy  reverse 
of  the  medal  of  pirate  plnnderings.  Friend  or  foe ,  breast  or  buckler^ 
slick  or  stone,  dead  or  living  was  the  same  to  an  excited  Berserk:  ungo- 
vernable in  his  fury,  he  would  wildly  wander 

"Running  an  Indian  Muck  at  all  he  met.** 

"Subsequently  the  denomination  seems  to  have  been  applied  to 
ferocious  champions,  sometims  retained  in  pay  as  a  body-guard  to  the 
sovereign  •  •  .  In  process  of  civilization,  the  word,  once  a  title  of  honour, 
became,  as  it  is  employed  by  Frithiof,  a  term  of  reproach.**  5) 

BERSERR*s-couRSE  (Bcrserksg^g)  the  fit  of  fury  which  seized  tlie 
Berserk  when  dangerously  excited  by  his  martial  frenzy.  "When  under 
the  influence  of  this  paroxysm ,  he  was  a  raging  wolf  to  his  friends ,  and 
an  armed  maniac  to  his  enemies,  and  only  force  or  the  battle-field  could 
subdue  or  exhaust  Ms  fury.  One  method  which  his  companions  took  in 
such  cases  was,  to  form  an  impenetrable  wall  of  shields  about  him,  keep- 
ing him  there  like  a  wild  bull  in  a  net  till  his  savage  force  was  spent. 
—  "But  his  (Oden's)  men  rushed  forward  without  mail,  and  were  mad  as 
dogs  or  wolves,  and  bit  upon  their  shields,  and  were  as  strong  as  bears 
or  bulls.    Men  slew  they,   and  neither  fire  nor  iron  laid  hold  upon  them. 


1)  Atame  afUng,  Not  8  till  XVI  sSngeD,  —  *)  Strong**  Frithiof,  p.  i37.  — 
3)  ThoTiten  Vikiug$$on*i  Saga,  cli.  17.  --  4)  Saxo  Gram,  Lib,  VII.  —  5)  Strong, 
p.  1 53. 


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This  is  called  the  Berserk* s-eourte.*'  i)  "Their  custom  was  it,  whea  they 
were  with  their  men  aloue  ,  and  found  the  £»*««} A VcoMr««  coming  upon  them., 
that  they  went  up  on  the  land  and  fought  with  great  stones  or  trees.  For 
the  misfortune  had  hefallen  them,  that  they  had  killed  tlieir  own  men 
and  had  spoiled  their  ships."  a)  — .  yVe  cannot  help  adding  the  description 
of  a  Master,  who  writes  with  all  the  correctness  of  an  Autiuqarian  and 
all  the  feeling  of  a  poet:  — 

"Profane  not,  youth  —  it  is  not  tliine 

To  judge  the  spirit  of  our  line  — 

The  bold  Berserkar's  rage  divine, 

Through  whose  inspiring,  deeds  are  wrought, 

Past  human  strength  and  human  thought. 

"When  full  upon  his  gloomy  soul 

The  champion  feels  the  influence  roll. 

He  swims  the  lake ,  he  leaps  the  wall  — 

Heeds  not  the  depth,  nor  plumbs  the  fall  — 

Unshielded,  mailless  on  he  goes 

Singly  against  a  host  of  foes; 

Their  spears  he  holds  like  wilher'd  reeds, 

Their  mail  like  maiden's  silken  weeds ; 

One  'gainst  a  hundred  will  he  strive , 

Take  countless  wounds,  and  yet  survive. 

Then  rush  the  eagles  to  liis  cry 

Of  slaughter  and  of  victory,  — 

And  blood  he  quaffs  like  Odin's  bowl , 

Deep  drinks  his  sword,  —  deep  drinks  his  soul; 

And  all  that  meet  him  in  his  ire 

He  gives  to  ruin ,  rout ,  and  fire , 

Then,  like  gorged  lion,  seeks  some  den, 

And  couches  till  he's  man  agen.  — 

Thou  knowst  the  signs  of  look  and  limb , 

"When  'gins  that  rage  to  overbrim  — 

Thou  know'st  when  I  am  moved,  and  whyj 

And  w^Iien  thou  seest  me  roll  mine  eye , 

Set  my  teeth  thus,  and  stamp  my  foot, 

Regard  thy  safety,  and  be  mute." 

Walter  Seott,  Harald  the  Dauntless .  IH ,  st.  8. 


I)    Ynglingtt  Saga,  ch.  VI.  —  2)  Hervara  Saga,  cli.  III. 


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BIP-ROST    or    BAP-ROST     (lllC     TREMBLING     BRIDGE).     —     "TllCll    asked 

Gangleri  C^he  Wayfarery,  *which  18  the  palh  to  Heaven  from  the  Earth?'  — . 
Then  answexeth  Har  CThe  Lofty  One)  with  a  smile ,  *]Voi  wisely  hast  thou 
now  questioned;  is  it  not  said  that  the  Gods  made  a  Bridge  from  Earth 
to  Heaven,  and  that  it  hight  is  Bifroatf  This  must  thou  sure  have  seen, — 
perhaps  thou  callestit/A*  Bainhote,  Three  colours  hath  it,  and  is  exceeding 
strong,  and  is  huilt  with  more  strength  and  cunning  than  other  works. 
But  however  strong  it  is,  it  shall  break,  when  Muspel's  Sons  advance  to 
ride  thereover,  swimming  their  horses  over  mighty  floods  and  so  advan- 
cing. •  •  •  Bifrost  is  doubtless  a  bridge  right  excellent,  but  nought  in  all 
the  world  can  stand,  when  Muspel's  Sons  come  forth  to  battle'."  1)  — 
"Then  demanded  Gangleri,  *Brennelh  fire  over  Bifrost?'  Har  re  pile  ih; 
*That  which  thou  seest  red  in  the  Bow,  is  burning  fire.  Frost-trolls  and 
Mountain-Giants  would  go  up  to  Heaven,  if  all  could  journey  over  Bifrost ' 
that  might  choose."  2)  —  Geijer  observes  3) ;  **In  the  Persian  Mythology 
also»  we  find  a  Divine  Bridge,  tchiivavad,  resembling  the  baprost  of  the 
North.  Gsrres,  I,  257.  II.  584,  The  Classic  Myth  calls  this  heavenly  bridge 
the  Milky  Way, 

Est  via  sublimis,  coelo  manifesta  sereno 
Lactea  nomen  habet;  candore  notabilis  ipso. 
Hac  iter  est  Superis  ad  magni  Tecta  Tonantis. 

See   GJALLAR-HORN ,  UEIMDALL.  —  Ovid,   Met.  I,   168—170." 

bj'orw  blAtand,  (bear  blue-tooth).  —  "Their"  (Kol's  and  Trona's) 
"eldest  child  was  Bjorn  Bldtand.  His  teeth  were  blue  of  colour,  and  an 
ell  and  a  half  stood  they  from  out  his  mouth:  therewith  slew  he  people 
in  battle ,  or  when  that  he  was  enraged."  4> 

BLOOD-EAGLE ,  SO  Called  from  a  distant  resemblance  of  the  mangled 
body  to  a  spread  Eagle.  —  To  carve  the  Blood-Eagle  is  a  common  ex- 
pression in  the  Sagas ,  and  was  a  cruel  punishment  worthy  of  an  age  in 
wliich  children  were  tossed  on  spears!  It  consisted  in  cutting  the  figure 
of  an  eagle  on  the  back  of  the  sufferer,  separating  the  ribs  from  the  back- 
bone ,  and  drawing  the  lungs  from  out  the  opening.  This  terrible  ven- 
geance ,  however,  which  was  also  called  the  Blood-Owl,  was  only  taken  on 
detested  enemies  or  the  most  wretched  villains.  5) 

BRACELET,   See   ARMRING. 

BRAGE  (tlie  SONOROUS) ,  the  Bardic  God ,  and  fourth  son  of  Oden 
and  of  Frigga.    "Distinguished  for  wisdom  is  he ,  right  eloquent  and  rich 


I)  Sn.   Edda,  Gylfag.  l3.  —  2)  Do.  l5.  —  3)  Svea  Bikes  Ha/der,  I,   3/j/|.  —  4)  Thor- 
sten   Vikinys$oits  Saga,  cli.  III.  —  5)  See  Bagnar  Lodbrok's  Saga. 


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in  words ,  and  the  Master  of  Song."  1)  He  was  represented  bj  the  figure 
of  an  old  man,  with  a  snow-white  beard'  reaching  down  to  his  girdle; 
bnt  the  tones  of  his  golden  harp ,  ajiid  the  sweet  mnsic  of  his  voice  channt- 
ing  the  exploits  of  Gods  and  of  Heroes,  proved  that  his  genius  like  his 
immortality  (for  he  partook  in  common  with  the  other  Gods  of  the  appleft 
guarded  by  his  Spouse)  was  always  young.  Mimer's  fountain,  open  only 
to  him  and  Oden,  ib  the  well  whence  flows  his  flood  of  poesy;  and  mys- 
terious runes  engraven  upon  his  tongue,  impart  irresistible  fascination  to 
every  effusion. 

"The  Ash ,  Ygdrasil,  Best  is  Bifrost  of  bridge*. 

Is  best  among  trees ;  Brage  of  Scalds, 

Skidbladnir  'mong  ships ;  Habrok  of  hawks 

Oden  'mong  the*  Asar;  And  Garmer  'mong  hounds.**  2) 

*Mong  horses  Sleipnir;  See  iduna. 

BRAN,  the  favorite  dog  of  Frithiof.  His  name  seems  to  have  beeii 
suggested  by  a  passage  in  Ostian  3):  —  ""While-breasted  Bran  came  bound- 
ing with  joy  to  the  known  path  of  Fingal.  He  came  and  looked  towards 
the  cave  where  the  blue-eyed  hunter  lay,  for  he  was  wont  to  stride, 
with  morning,  to  the  dewy  bed  of  the  roe.  It  was  then  the  tears  of  the 
king  came  down,  and  all  his  soul  was  dark." 

BREiDABLiCR,  (THE  BROAD-SHINING),  The  Castlc  and  District  of  Bal- 
der.   "There  is,   also,   a  place   Breidablick  hight,    than  the   which  no 
spot  is   more   fair."  4)  .  .  .  .   **]Vo thing  impure   may  enter  therein,  as  is 
here  said: 
Breidablick  hight  is  In  that  land  where  know  I 

There  where  Balder  halh  Rune- staves  are  fewest 

Built  him  a  Hall ,  Dead  men  that  wake !"  5) 

BRETLAND,  {BrettemoM  Land,  the  LAND  of  the  BRITONS),  the  name  given 
by  the  old  Scandinavians  to  the  coast  and  provinces  of  Wah$,  Occasion- 
ally it  was  extended  to  England  in  general. 

BURIAL-FEAST,   See    GRAVE-ALE. 


CAIRN,   See   BARROW. 

CHESS-PLtYiNG  has  been  known  in  llie  Norlh  from  the  earliest 
times,  and  was  doubtless  introduced  by  its  Eastern  colonists.  The  boards 
were  often  highly  valuable ,   and  were  reckoned  worthy  of  adorning  the 


l)  Sn,  Edda,  Gylfag.  eh.  26.  —  a)  S«m.  Edda^  Grimner's  Song,  str.  45.  —  3) 
Temora,  VIII.  —  4)  Sn,  Rdda ,  Gylfag.  ch.  1 7.  —  5)  Do.  cb.  H2,  ~  S««.  Kdda , 
Grimner's  SoDg,  str.  12. 


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temples  of  the  Gods.  1)  Specimens  have  been  found  in  the  Cairns  of 
North-Eastern  Russia.  2)  In  Eiffits  Saga  yve  even  find  some  kind  of  Playing 
Automaton  mentioned.  3)  The  Icelanders  are  to  this  day  distinguished  Chess-* 
players,  and  our  games  in  general,  holh  willi  and  without  dice,  are  con- 
stantly occurring  in  the  Sagas. 

CHIMNIES  were  not  used  by  the  old  Scandinavians. 

CORSLET-HATER,  (brynjo-batare)  is  an  expressive  Scaldic  epithet 
for  War-Sword,  4) 

DAY.  —  "Norvi  or  Narfi  was  liight  a  Jotun  [evil  Giant],  who 
dwelled  in  Jotun-home.  A  daughter  had  he,  called  Night  (Nott).  She  was 
dark  and  gloomy  like  her  race ,  and  was  given  in  marriage  to  the  man 
hight  Naglfari,  and  their  son  was  called  Authr  (or  Udr),  —  Next  took 
she  him,  who  was  Annarr  hight;  their  daughter  was  named  the  Earth  (Jorth). 
—  Last  of  all  had  she  Dellmg,  He  was  of  the  Asar-race ,  and  their  son 
was  Drnf  (Dagr),  who  was  light  and  fair  like  as  his  fathers.  Then  took 
Allfather  Night,  together  with  Day  her  son,  gave  them  two  horses  and 
two  cars,  and  set  them  up  in  tlie  heaven,  that  tliey  should  each  journey 
round  the  Earth,  every  twice  XII  hours.  Night  rides  before,  on  that 
horse  called  Hrimfaxi,  which  every  Morning  bedews  the  Earth  with  the 
foam  that  drops  from  his  bit.  That  horse  which  Day  halli  is  hight  Skin- 
faxi,"  —  (*'or  also  Cffed"  5),  —  "and  filleth  both  air  and  Earth  with  the 
shining  of  his  mane."  6) 

"Fortli  his  Steed  drove  The  streaming  mane  far 

Delling's  Son  [Day]  Manhem  lighted. 

With  stones  so  precious  Drew  Dvalin's  sport  [the  Sun] 

lUch  surrounded:  Car-drawing  horse."  7) 

DELLING'S  SON  ,  See   DAY. 

DiAR,  A  title  originally  applied  to  Oden  and  his  Cliiefs.  "There 
[in  Asg&rd]  was  it  the  custom ,  that  the  XII  Pontiff-Guardians  of  his 
[Oden's]  Court  were  the  highest.  They  should  superintend  the  Sacri- 
fices, and  judge  between  man  and  man.  oiar  were  they  called,  or  Droti* 
nor,*'  8)  This  priestly  appellation  was  claimed  by  all  the  presumed  descend- 
ants of  the  Dwme  races ;   but   in  proportion  as  the   spiritual  gave  way  to. 


l)  EigiTs  and  Asmtaufi  Saga,  ch.  8,  9.  —  StwlSg  St,  Saga,  cb.  1 7.  —  a)  Strahlen- 
herg,  Nordostl.  Eur.  uad  Asian,  p.  356.  ^-  3)  "Tafl  that,  sem  sj^Ift  leki  ser, 
tbegar  nokkur  leki  annars  vegar.*'  —  4)  Hervara  Saga,  cb.  VII,  str.  i8.  — 
5)  8n,  Edda,  Skaldskaparmal,  cb.  58.  —  6)  Do,  Gylfag.  10.  —  7)  Sittn,  Edda , 
Odeo's  Raven-chauDt,  str.  24.  —   8)   Ynglinga  Saga  ch.  11. 


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260 

llie  temporal  power,  the  flainiuical  DroU  was  merged  in  the  battle-leading 
J!r«.sf.  1) 

DIET,  Wittcnagemot ,  Folkmote ,  Public  Meeting  of  the  armed 
freemen  of  a  District,  is  synonymous  (in  the  more  extended  meaning  of 
the  latter)  with  ting,  which  see, 

DIRGE,  See  DRAPA. 

DiSAR,  (pi.  of  Dis,  Deity,  Goddess)  is  an  appellation  appropriated 
to  the  Ooddesses  collec timely.  The  great  annual  Upsala  sacrifice  was 
called  DUar-hlot, 

DiSAR-DALE,  Panthe ou- Valley ,  an  appellative  from  some  Disar- 
Temple  in  the  neighbourhood.  It  was  in  a  similar  Di»ar-dale  that  Queen 
Helga  committed  suicide.  2) 

DiSAR-SACRiFiCB,  {Dumr-ofret,  Vaar-hht).  The  great  mid- winter  oJTer- 
ing  to  the  Gods  and  Goddesses ,  in  Sweden  and  Norway. 

DISAR- SAL ,  (The  HALL ,  Temple  ,  of  the  disar)  ,  Pantheon. 

DRAGON ,  (DRAKE)  was  a  common  name  for  the  old  ScandinaTian 
War-ships,  and  extremely  well  answered  to  their  general  form  and  appear- 
ance. Such  gallies  were  also  called  serpents  snakes  and  worms,  &c, 
and  the  smaller  sort  snails  and  shells.  —  "Yet  the  ancient  poets  by  no 
means  limited  their  range  into  the  animal  world  to  the  reptile  race :  we 
find  ships  designated  the  sea-king's  horse ,  reindeer,  bear,  hart,  elk,  otter, 
w^olf,  ox,  elm-jade,  &c.  and  in  the  Krdkumdl  the  ignoble  ass  itself  supplies 
an  appellation  for  the  laden  vessel:  — 

"Rodinn  var  ^gis  asni  There  whilst  braying  weapons  strow'd, 

ofarr  i  dyn  geira."  -^gir's  asses  lost  their  load."  3) 

The  Scandinavian  *Dragon'  had  often  silkeo  or  curiously  wrought 
sails,  of  various  or  striped  colours,  and  was  some  limes  gorgeously  adorn*^ 
ed  with  gilding  and  painting,  —  while  the  richly-embellished  War- 
Shields  ran ,  shining ,  along  the  bulwarks.  We  translate  ime  description 
out  of  many  occurring  in  the  Sagas :  —  "Great  pains  took  King  Rolf  to 
lay  up  well  his  Dragon  GrhHan-naut ,  and  all  over  from  the  water's  edge 
had  he  the  same  full -painted  with  divers  colours,  both  yellow,  red,  green, 
blue ,  black ,  and  di£Perent  shades  of  gold.  The  Dragon-Head  [the  figure- 
head of  the  vessel]  had  he  adorned  with  corslets,  and  chain- work  went 
also  across  the  neck.  On  the  ship's-bord,  wherever  he  thought  it  might 
be  suitable ,  caused  he  gilding  to  be  added.  Much  more  magnificent  was 
this  ship  than  any  other,  and  seemed  to  surpass  all  other  vessels  as  King 


l)  Conf.   Geijers  Sven  Bikes  Wdfder,  I.  4c)4. —  5t)  Hervara  Saga,  cb.  XI, —  3)  Shottff, 


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Rolf  surpassed   all   oilier   Kings   here    in  (he  Northland."  1)     See  Note  to 
*OalL'  Canto  XJV,  and  art.  sba-horse. 

DUAPA,  (HARP-SUNG  DIRGE,  frOHi  drepa  to  Strike)  the  Death-Song,  So- 
lemn Chauut  or  rhythmic  Panegyric  harped  by  the  assembled  Bards  at 
the  funeral  Banquet  of  a  distinguished  Prince  or  Hero.  Many  such  Songs 
of  praise,  of  great  antiquity  and  extraordinary  and  sublime  beauty,  are 
still  extant  in  the  Icelandic  Literature.  —  "The  public  orator  of  the 
Northman  was  his  Skald,  metre  his  conventional  language;  and  where 
popular  opinion  regarded  death  as  a  triumph,  and  futurity  as  a  scene  of 
festivities,  elegy  had  been  revolting ;  laudatory  and  gratulating  strains 
ivould  be  alone  appropriate ,  the  shout  of  exulting  enthusiasm  must  cheer 
the  apotheosis  of  its  hero."  2) 

DRiNRiNG-HORNS  wcrc  nsually  of  polished  ox-  or  urus-horn,  some* 
times  of  wood  or  ivory.  Commonly  they  were  provided  with  feet  (of 
silver  &c.) ,  and  need  not  therefore  be  emptied  at  once.  Another  sort 
w^as  without  any  support,  and  was  necessarily  drained  at  once.  Some 
Drinking-horns  were  of  an  enormous  size ,  and  very  finely  wrought  with 
ornaments  and  runes;  others  again  were  small  and  simple. 

DWARF,  (DVARC).  —  "The  Cyclopcs  in  miniature;  the  miners  of 
the  North,  apparently  identified  with  the  aboriginal  Finns.  These  pig- 
mies, though  hideous  in  form  and  malevolent  in  disposition,  are  admitted 
to  have  excelled  the  very  jEsir  in  mechanical  skill  and  metallurgy.  A 
superiority  scarcely  to  be  disputed,  since  we  find  them  not  merely  for- 
ging hair  of  gold  to  replace  the  locks  which  mischievous  Lok^  had  cut 
from  the  bright- ringleted  wife  of  Thor;  but  fabricating  a  golden-bristled 
boar  from  a  skin  committed  to  the  forge:  a  ring  {Draupna)  from  which 
others  periodically  distilled;  and  a  ship  —  SkidbUtdnir^  the  gliding  laminee, 
—  which  supplied  its  own  breezes,  and  was  so  conveniently  elastic,  that 
although  capable  of  containing  all  the  ^sir  with  their  arms,  it  might  be 
folded  together  and  put  into  the  pocket.  The  Dwarfs,  mythologically 
regarded,  betray  their  descent  from  thn  mysteries  of  the  Cabiri ,  the  fa- 
bricators of  the  ark.  "The  natives  of  Iceland  still  term  Dvergatmidi  any 
workmanship  w^hich  they  wish  to  describe  as  particularly  artificial,"  — 
Henderson t  Iceland,  192."  3)  The  Dwarfs  dwelt  in  rocks  and  caverns,  and 
had  quickened  from  the  body  of  the  slaughtered  Ymer. 


1)  Gothrik  and  Roir*  Saga,  cb.  26.  —  2)  Strong,  p.  263.  —  3)  Do.  p.  48. 


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262 

BARTfi,  DaogUter  of  NlgUt,  Bride  o£  Oden  ,  Mother  oC  Tlior,  Sis- 
ter of  Day,  Floor  of  Heaven  ;  1)  &c. 

^'Saj  tliou  llieu,  good  All- wise  Earth  'Us  hight  'mong  men, 

(For  all  Man's  beginnings  But  'mong  the'  Asar  land, 

Sure  thou,  Dwarf,    dost  know;)  Way  the  Vanir  call  it; 

How  that  Earth  is  hight ,  Green-deck*  d  Jdtuar  (Giants)  say, 

Here  for  mortals  lying  Growing  the'  Elf-race  name  it 

In  each  sep'rate  world?  —  Gra9«/ Heav'n's  Powers  cry!"  2) 

EA8T-SBA,  {6stersjan)  the  Baltic. 

EFJE-suND,  *'al  the  Orkneys,"  subjoins  Bishop  Tegn^r.  —  Egluey, 
Bvie  on  Mainland,  and  Papa-sironMag ,  have  each  been  proposed  as  the  mo- 
dern sites. 

EiiVHBRiAR,  (Single  combatants).  —  ''Oden  is  hight  Allfather,  for 
that  he  is  the  Father  of  all  the  Gods.  He  is  also  called  Valfaiher  [Father 
of  all  the  Ghosen^Slain] ,  for  that  his  chosen  sons  are  all  they  who  fall 
in  battle.  These  receiveth  he  inVallkall  and  Yingolf ,  and  tkere  are  they 
hight  Emkermr."  3)  —  "Then  asked  Gingleri  the  [Wayfarer],  'What  have 
the  Einheriar  to  drink,  which  can  supply  them  together  with  their  meat 
[the  flesh  of  tlie  ever-renewed  boar  Saehrimner],  or  is  water  their  drink 
there?*  —•  Then  answereih  Har  [the  Lofiy  One,]  *  Wonderfully  spierest 
thou  now ,  that  Allfalher  should  bid  to  him  Kings  or  Jarls  or  other  Chief 
men,  and  should  give  them  water  to  drink!  And,  indeed,  many  men  I 
trow  come  up  toYaUiall  who,  we  should  think,  had  dearly  bought  their 
water-drinking,  if  no  better  cheer  could  be  expected  there,  —  even  such 
as  have  suffered  wounds  and  pains  unto  the  death.  Nay!  sometliing  very 
different  have  I  to  tell  thee  thereabout.  A  goat  there  is,  hight  Hejdnm, 
[thus  resembling  tlie  Amaithea  of  the  ancients]  which  standeth  up  in  Val- 
hall  and  biteth  leaves  from  the  branches  of  that  right  famous  tree  called 
Leratlir.  Now  from  out  her  teats  there  runneth  so  much  mead,  that  she 
fiUelh  therewith  each  day  a  driuking-vessel  (tub)  so  huge  that  all  the 
Einheriar  are  made  drunken  thereby.'  Then  quod  Gangleri ,  'Most  curious 
surely  is  that  Goat,  and  right  excellent  must  be  the  tree  whose  leaves 
she  croppeth."  4)  —  '^But  what  are  the  pastimes  of  the  Einheriar,  while  tliey 
are  not  drinking?'  Har  replieth;  'Every  day  when  they  have  taken  their 
garments  upon  them  they  array  themselves  for  battle ,  march  out  to  the 
great  Court- Yard  of  Valliall,  and  so  fight  manfully,  felling  each  other 
to  the    earth.    Such  is    their   sport.     But  when  it   draweth   towards   the 


I)  Sn,  Edda,    Skaldskapariual ,   eh.  a4.  —   a)  Sam.  Edda,    SoDg  of  All-Wise,  str. 
10,  H.  —  3)  Sn,  Edda,  Gylfag. ,  cb.  20.  —  4)  Do,  ch.  Sq. 


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263 

iime  ihat  they  shall  break   tlieir  fast,    then  ride   they  home  to  Yalhall, 
and  sit  down  to  drink.    As  it  is  here  said: 

"All  the  Einheriar  Death-champions  choose  they, 

InOden's  Town  From  the  Contest  then  ride 

Hard  battle  every  day :  And  rcconcil'd  sit  at  the  board."  1) 

ELRS  —  were  formerly  abundant  in  the  Scandinavian  woods.  As 
these  gradually  became  thinner,  they  abandoned  them,  to  seek  out  the 
wild  forests  farther  north  and  are  now  almost  unknown  in  the  southern 
districts  of  the  Peninsula. 

ELLIDAJ  (THB  8URP-<3UTTER).  TThc  engraving  of  this,  Frilhiofs 
favourite  Dragon-ship ,  is  taken  from  the  descriptions  in  the  Sagas ,  as 
compared  with  facsimile  drawings  of  tlie  celebrated  Bayeux-Tapestry. 
Many  of  the  old  Scandinavian  war-ships  must  have  been  exceedingly  strik- 
ing, and  their  general  appearance  probably  very  much  resembled  the 
Roman  and  Grecian  gallies. 


FAPNBR,  {Fe-Ofnir,  the  WEALTH-SPINNER)  the  famous  Dragou  who  sat 
brooding  over  the  enormous  wealth  procured  for  the  death  of  Otter.  — 
"The  beautiful  allegory  of  the  dragon  who  conceals  the  treasure ,  and 
transmitting  it  from  hand  to  hand,  makes  it  the  continual  stimulus  of 
new  crimes,  of  constantly  increasing  atrocity,  and  iUust rates  the  dreadful 
power  of  the  auri  taera  fmnet  over  the  heart  of  man,  is  the  same  in  the 
Teutonic  as  in  the  Skandinavlan  Romances."  2) 

FAIRIES,  iAlfitr,  Elves)  were  descended  from  Alfur,  a  son  of  Oden. 
They  were  river-genii  (from  Elf,  stream)  and  are  the  source  of  Oberon  and 
his  merry  tribe,  —  Elf,  Alf,  Alp,  becoming  Aube,  Auberon  (in  french). 
The  Scandinavian  peasant,  in  many  districts,  still  devoutly  believes  in 
the  £lf-race  and  their  pranks. 

FENRis ,  (from  Fenri,  abyss) ,  •—  one  of  the  three  monster-offspring 
of  Loke,  —  "a  giant  wolf,  which  —  as  the  Edda  relates  —  was  kept  al- 
most from  birth  amongst  the  -<Esir,  until  alarmed  by  its  monstrous  growth, 
and  certain  ominous  prophecies  of  its  future  destructiveness,  they  re- 
solved to  secure  it  by  a  chain.  Secure  in.  conscious  might,  it  permitted 
tliem  to  try  successively  various  fetters ,  which  it  broke  with  ease ;  but 
at  length  ingenious  Dwarfs  fabricated  a  cord  of  six  materials ,  which  thus 
became  rarities  or  non-entities:  the  sound  of  a  cat's  tread,  the  beard  of 
a  female,  the  roots  of  a  mountain,  the  nerves  of  a  bear,   the  saliva  of  a 


I)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.  ch.  4i.  —  i)   Wheatons  Hiat,  of  the  Northmen,  p.  8a. 


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264 

bird,  and  llie  breath  of  a  fish.  Tliis  ligature  appeared  so  slight,  that  the 
creature  suspected  artifice ;  and  -would  not  suffer  it  to  be  wound  around 
its  limbs,  before  its  keeper,  Tyr,  had  placed  his  baud  in  its  mouth,  as 
a  guaranty  that  no  treachery  was  designed.  Their  enemy  was  thus  en- 
chained ,  but  Tyr*s  arm  paid  the  forfeit ,  and  at  the  appointed  day  of  the 
mundane  catastrophe,  Fenris  shall  burst  its  fetters,  and  devour  Oden.  — 
This  wolf,  according  to  Mallet,  is  a  symbol  of  Time."  i) 

FIRE-CROSS.  {Bud-kafU,  Bid-Staff) ,  was  a  short  staff,  one  end  of 
which  was  burned  with  fire ,  while  the  other  was  perforated  with  a  cord. 
This,  on  any  pressing  emergency,  was  transferred  from  district  to  district 
with  incredible  rapidity,  and  the  addition  of  a  few  runes  or  marks  would 
still  more  clearly  explain  the  verbal  message.  The  simplicity  of  this  ex- 
pedient was  admirable ,  in  times  when  civilization  and  its  accompanying 
arts  had  made  such  little  progress.  Sir  WalUr  Seott  remarks  2) :  *'At  sight 
of  the  Fiery  Ctau,  every  man,  from  sixteen  years  old  to  sixty,  capable  of 
bearing  arms,  was  obliged  instantly  to  repair,  in  Ms  best  arms  and  ac- 
coutrements, to  the  place  of  rendezvous.  He  who  failed  to  appear  suffered 
the  extremities  of  fire  aud  sword,  which  were  emblematically  denounced 
to  the  disobedient  by  the  bloody  and  burnt  marks  upon  this  warlike  sig- 
nal. During  the  civil  war  of  1745 — 6,  the  fiery  Gross  often  made  its  cir- 
cuit; and  upon  one  occasion  it  passed  through  the  whole  district  ofBread- 
albane,  a  tract  of  thirty-two  miles,  in  three  hours."  Traces  of  tin's  custom 
are  still  found  in  the  North  of  Scotland  and  Sweden,  but  only  in  the 
Song  of  the  Bard  shall  we  again  start  at 

"the  Cross  of  fire 
Which  glanced  like  lightening  up  Strath-Ire!" 

Bjorn  Baldmrten  thus  sums  Up ,  iu  his  Icelandic  Lexicon ,  the  varie- 
ties of  the  Bid-staff:  —  **SJgnum,  quo  convocari  contribules  solent,  est 
lignum,  nonnumqnam  ferratum,  forma  tecuriB  quando  negotia  regia  expe- 
dienda  suut ;  teli,  quando  inopina  necessitas,  ut  csedes  patrata  ant  invasio 
hostis  cogit  conventum;  et  emdM  quando  necessitates  oeconomicae  et  pia 
corpora  sunt  objectum  consultationis." 

POLKVANG,  (the  RECEPTACLE  of  the  PEOPLES),  perhaps  from  the  mul- 
titudes who  thronged  its  halls.  —  "Freja  is  the  most  illustrious  of  the 
Asynjor  [Asa- Goddesses] ;  she  hath  that  dwelling  in  heaven,  which  is 
hight  Folkvang,  Whenever  she  rideth  to  battle ,  she  takelh  the  one  half 
of  the  fallen  and  Oden  the  other,  as  is  here  said:— 


l)  Strong  $  FrUhiof,   p.  3l2,  —  a)  Note  F  to  the  Ladg  of  the  Lake, 


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"Folkvang  'lis  hight,  Of  heroes  who  fall,  she 

Where  Freja  doth  rule  Half  takes  each  day, 

O'er  seats  in  the  Hall :  And  one  half  Oden  hath."  1) 

The  Goddess  of  Love  was  thus,  tike  the  Venus  of  so  many  other 
nations,  also  the  Goddess  of  Death*  2)    See  freja. 

^'forsbtb  hight  is,  the  son  of  Balder  and  of  Nanna,  the  Daughter 
of  Nep.  He  hath  that  Hall  in  Hearen  which  is  called  Glitner,  and  all 
who  draw  unto  him  with  questions  of  dispute,  set  out  again  on  their 
road  full  reconciled.  Thus  is  his  Judgement-Court  the  best  known  to 
either  Gods  or  Men.    As  is  here  said:  •— 

"Glitner's  hight  that  Hall,  which    There  Forsete  dwelleth 
High  gold-pillars  bear.  Almost  every  day  — 

"While  silver  roofs  it  over:  Disputes  arranging  friendly."  3) 

Forsete  was  worshiped  in  the  island  of  Heligolaod,  in  times  an- 
terior to  the  written  Eddas  4). 

FOSTERAGE  was  common  in  the  North ,  and  was  a  mark  of  mutual 
confidence  and  respect.  It  was  also  the  substitute  of  the  period  for 
schools  5)  &c. 

FOSTER-BROTHERS  Were  educated  together,  and  when  fast  friends 
formed  alliances  which  were  held  sacred  ,  comprehended  severe  duties', 
and  were  not  seldom  strengthened  by  mystical  ceremonies.  But  not  only 
members  of  the  same  household,  stranger-champions  also  who  had  tried 
and  proved  each  other's  courage  and  accomplishments,  entered  into  this 
the  mo$t  Bacred  band  known  to  the  Northmen ,  6)  and  which  was  founded  on 
community  of  goods.  7)  —  Sometimes  the  form  was  accompanied  with  offer- 
ing their  blood  to  the  tutelar  Gods  of  their  alliance ,  but  generally  it  was 
as  follows:  *^The  hand-muscle  cut  they  so  that  it  bled,  and  went  out  and 
stood  under  a  long-cut  slip  of  grass-turf,  swearing  there  the  oath  —  to 
revenge  the  one  the  other,  should  either  of  them  fall  by  violence."  8) 
"The  Highlanders  say,  that  affectionate  to  a  man  is  a  friend,  but  a  foster- 
brother  is  as  the  life-blood  of  his  heart."  9) 

FEAMNAS,  (headland),  a  Promoutory  on  Sogne-frith,  Bergen's  Stift, 
Norway,  on  which  FrithioPs  Estate  lay.  10) 


I)  Sn.  Bdda,  Gylfag.  24.  —  a)  conf.  Geijers  Svea  A.  Hdfd.  I,  36l.  —  3)  S».  Edda, 
ch.  32.  —  4)  Iq  the  VIII  cent.  See  Geifer,  ibid.  pag.  29a,  —  5)  See  the  long 
and  valaable  note  of  JAljtgren,  Orvar  Odd's  Saga,  p.  a36.  — •  6)  Thorgrim 
Prude*s  Saga  &c.  quoted  by  IdlfegreH,  in  his  Translation  of  Oivar  Odd't  Saga, 
p.  243.  —  7)  EigiC$  and  AsmundU  Saga,  ch.  2,  4.  —  8)  Thortlen  Vikinguons  Saga, 
ch.  21.  —  9)  Logan's   Gaifl,  I,  174.  —    10)    All  the   Land$capg-view»  of  Framnas 

6 


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FEBJA,  the  Vennt  of  the  North,  was  the  Daughter  of  Niord  and 
Shade.  "Freja  is  tiie  most  distingiushed  of  the  Asynjor  ["next  to  Frig- 
ga."  1)]  .  .  .  .  Her  Hall  is  Sesrymner,  and  large  and  fair  it  is.  When 
she  fareth  abroad,  she  rideth  behind  two  cats  harnessed  to  her  car.  She 
doth  favour  such  as  call  upon  her,  and  from  her  naine  is  that  name  of 
honour,  that  dames  of  high  rank  are  bight  Frejor  [Fruar,  Frauenj.  Well 
liketh  she  Songs  of  Love ,  and  good  is  it  to  invoke  her  in  our  wooings."  2) 
"She  look  in  marriage  the  man  hight  Oder  (Odr)  j  their  daughter  is  called 
Hnoss,  who  is  so  fair  that  every  thing  beautiful  and  precious  is  named 
Hnois  after  her.  Oder  journied  far,  far,  away;  Freja  weepeth  after  him,  and 
her  tears  are  the  red  gold.  Many  names  hath  Freja;  the  cause  thereof  is, 
that  she  changed  her  name  often,  when  that  she  wandered  among  un- 
known peoples  to  search  after  Oder.  3)  Freja  and  her  brother  Frey 
are  often  confounded,  a  thing  not  to  be  wondered  at  when  we  remember 
the  Deut  Vema  and  the  God  ^A^fQoSiTog  of  the  ancients.  4)  This  Goddess 
was  worshiped  from  an  early  period  by  the  Lombards,  Yandals,  Angli,  &c. 
—  and  was  invoked  by  the  Anglo-Saxons  to  preside  over  the  day  thence 
and  still  called  Fri-dajf  {Frega-tUgg),     See  FOLRVANG  ,  VANADIS. 

FREY  was  worshiped  at  Upsala,  together  with  Oden  and  Thor. 
"Niiird,  of  Noatun,  got  after  that  two  children.  The  son  was  hight 
Frey,  the  Daughter  Freja;  fair  in  feature  were  they,  and  right  mighty. 
Frey  is  the  chlefest  among  the  Asar;  he  ruleth  over  rain  and  sunshine 
and  the  produce  of  the  Earth,  and  on  him  it  is  good  to  call  for  harvests 
and  for  peace.  Over  the  goods  of  men  ruleth  he  also."  5)  Frey,  "the 
wise  one"  6)  was,  however,  propitiated  wilh  human  blood.  7) 

frey's  boar  was  called  Gullinbursti ,  (^«  gold-hruiled)  and  it  was 
perhaps  from  this  circumstance  that  this  ravager  of  the  fields  was  conse- 
crated and  sacriiiced  to  the  God  of  fertility.  The  same  animal  was  also 
consecrated  to  the  Indian  Vi$hnu,  and  the  Egyptian  Sun-God  was  called 
Pre  or  Frey}  and  lo  the  Sun 'and  Moon  they,  like  the  Scandinavians,  devoted 
the  swine.  8)    The  old  English  custom  of  the  'Boar's  Head  at  Christmas* 


and  its  Deighbourhood  vblch  occnr  in  this  work  (opposite  the  engraved 
Title,  and  prefixed  to  Cantos  I,  IV,  VII  and  XVI)  are  extremely  faithful. 
They  are  engraved  from  5  large  paintings  (from  drawings  taken  by  himself 
on  the  spot)  by  Herr  Calmeier,  a  distingnished  Norwegian  artist  born  in  the 
District  (Bergen)  illustrated  by  his  pencil.  —  i)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.  ch.  35. 
--  2)  Do.  ch.  24.  —  3)  Do.  ch.  35.  —  4)  Maerohiut,  Saiyrnal.  III.  8.  —  5)  Sm. 
Edda,  Gylfag.  24.  —  6)  S«m,  Edda,  Skirnisfor,  str.  I,  2.  —  7)  Saxo  Gram, 
B.  III.  —  YngUnga  Saga,  ch.  18.  —  8)  Finn  Magmuem  Nord.  Arch. 


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•^as  doubtless  from  the  same  sonrce.    The  same  words  will  apply  to  the 
'Britoa  hold'  and  to  the  hero  of  the  Norlli : 

''And  he  drinketh  of  Ms  bugle  borne  the  wine , 
Before  him  standeth  the  btawne  of  the  tasked  swine."  1) 
*^It  was  the  custom  of  these  feasts  to  bring  in  the  boar's  head  in 
great  state;  sometimes  the  whole  boar  himself,  stuffed,  and  standing  on 
his  legs  •  •  •  .  carried  by  the  Master  of  the  feasts  and  the  servants,  with 
the  trumpets  sounding  before  him."  2)  In  like  manner  "two  swans  orna- 
mented with  golden  net-work  having  been  brought  in,  upon  their  being 
placed  on  the  table ,  the  king  [Edward]  rose ,  and  made  a  solemn  vow  to 
God  and  to  the  Swans,  that  he  would  set  out  for  Scotland"  &c.  3).  One 
more  extract  will  suffice  on  this  ceremony  of  vowing,  derived  by  tlie  French 
from  the  Northman  province  of  Normandy.  —  "Followed  by  a  train  of 
females )  and  accompanied  by  a  band  of  music,  this  queen  of  the  feast 
pompously  entered  the  hall,  bearing  the  bird  [the  Peacock]  on  a  dish  of 
gold  or  silver,  and  placed  it  before  the  master  of  the  mansion,   or  before 

some  guest  most  renowned  for  courtesy  and  valour This  glorious 

destruction  [the  Carving]  awakened  such  enthusiasm  in  the  knightly 
carver,  that  it  was  usual  for  him  to  rise  from  his  seat,  and,  with  his 
hand  extended  over  the  bird  ,  vow  to  undertake  some  daring  enterprize  of 
love  or  valour.  Tlie  form  of  the  oath  on  this  occasion  was,  —  *I  vow  to 
God,  to  the  blessed  Virgin ,  and  to  the  peacock,  to  &c.*  When  he  ceased, 
the  dish  was  presented  to  the  other  guests  in  succession;  and  they  vied 
with  each  otiier  in  the  rashness  and  extravagance  of  tlieir  promises.  This 
ceremony  was  called,  the  *Vow  of  the  Peacock*  (Vieu  du  Paon)."  4) 

fret's  sword,  "which  was  so  good  a  falchion  tiiat  it  fought  of 
itself",  5)  was  given  by  him  to  Skirner,  as  reward  for  his  embassy  to 
Gerda.  This  whole  Legend  is  delightful,  but  an  abridgement  would  spoil 
its  beauty.  It  is  found  .at  large  in  the  Eddas.  6)  For  its  ouiUne,  see 
GEROA. 

FRI6GA,  **Fj6rgyn's  daughter,  Oden's  Spouse,  Balder's  Mother, 
Queen  of  the  Asar  and  Asynjor"  7)  &c.  — "She  hath  that  dwelling  Fensal 
hight,  which  is  very  fair."  8)  —  "All  the  fates  of  mei^  knoweth  she, 
though  she  spaes   thereof  unto  no  one."  9)    Sharing  the  throne  of  Oden , 


I)  Chaucer,  The  Franklein's  Tale.  -«  a)  Tytlert  Hat,  of  Scotland,  II.  409.  —  3)  Do, 
I,  a86.  —  4)  Vahhaux,  of  ike  Xll  and  XIII  Cent,  selec.  by  Le  Grand,  trans,  by 
Way,  notes  by  Ellis,  III.  l3o.  —  5)  Sn.  Bdda,  Gylfag.  3;.  —  6)  Do.  —  Srnm. 
Bdda,  Skirnisfor.  —  7)  Sn,  Bdda,  Skaldskap.  ch.  19.  —  &)  Do.  Gylfag.  35.  -« 
g)  Do.  ch.  20. 


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and  at  the  same  time  often  Gonfoanded  -vfitli  the  Weather-God  Frey,  1) 
she  vras  at  once  the  Juno  and  the  Cyhele  or  Geres  of  the  Scandinavian 
Mythology.  Frigga  -was  magnificent  and  majestic ,  and  had  three  Virgin, 
attendants,  among  whom  FuOii  (Perfection)  was  the  chief.  2) 

FRiTHioF  means  tlie  thief  or  spoiler  of  peace.  This  Hero ,  the 
son  of  Thorsten ,  is  celebrated  in  the  Literature  of  the  North. 

FUNERAL-ALE  ,  See  GRAVE-ALE. 

FYLRE  originally  meant  any  district  capable  of  supporting  an  armed 
force  of  50  Warriors,  3)  and  which  had  its  own  independent  Chief,  — . 
thence  called  Fylke-King. 


GANDViR,  (SERPENT-BAY,  SO  caUed  from  its  tortuosity),  the  Who* 
Sea.    This  name  is  now  obsolete. 

GEFiON,  a  Goddess  personifying  Virgin  Purity.  "The  fourth  [A- 
synja ,  Asa-Goddess]  is  Gefion ;  she  is  a  Virgin ,  and  they  who  who  die 
maids  belong  unto  her."  4) 

"All  life's  long  destinies 
Like  me  myself  [Oden] 
Sheiknowelh  well  enough,"  5) 

The  giant-spouse,  who  ploughed  Seeland  from  the  Scandinavian 
Mainland,  and  whose  furrow  was  —  ike  Sound!  —  must  have  been  a  differ- 
ent personage.    Her  story  is  not  without  a  barbarous  romance.  6). 

GBIRSODD ,  (SPEAR-POINT).  Marka  $ik  Geh-eoddi^  tO  mark  OUe'sself  with 
tlie  spear-point,  was  to  carve  one'sself  to  Oden,  7)  making  9  rune-marks 
["perhaps  the  rune  Tyr  (i^,  T) ,  it  bearing  at  once  the  appellation  of  a 
god  of  war,  and  the  nearest  resemblance  to  the  head  of  a  dart  or  spear"  8] 
on  the  breast  and  arms.  This  substitute  for  a  bat  tie -death  was  commenced 
by  Oden,  9)  and  was  resorted  to  by  the  Chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  North 
that  an  appearance,  at  least,  of  honourable  wounds  might  save  them  from 
the  disgrace  of  a  straw-death  (str&-d6d ,  death  in  one's  bed  or  of  old  age 
&c,)  Previous  to  this  glorious  exit,  they  clotlied  themselves  in  their 
richest  armour,  and  prepared  to  meet  their  enemy.  The  Scandinavian 
imagined  that  the  straw-dead  went  down  to  Hela  and  to  forge tf nine ss, 
while  the  bleeding  champion  hastened,  as  he  died,  to  join  the  combats 
of  the  Einheriar  in  Valhall.    That  this  was  a  political  institution,   creat- 


l)  Hervara  Saga,  cli.  14.  —  a)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.  35.  —  3)  Do»  Skaldskap.  66,— 
4)  Do.  Gylfag.  35.  —  5)  S«m.  Edda,  Lok^'s  Abase,  str.  21.  —  6)  Sn,  Edda, 
Gylfag.  ch.  I.  —  Ynglinga  Saga,  ch,  5,  —  7)  Do,  ch.  II.  —  8)  Strong ,  p»  257. 
—  9)  Ynglinga  Saga,  lO, 


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269 

ing  and  preserving  a  martial   spirit   among  tlie  people,    like  jHohammed's 
Paradise,  is  more  than  probable.  1) 

GRHDA,  (THE  GUARDED),  ''tlie  fairest  of  all  -women"  2)  ~  ^'personi- 
ficalion  of  modesty;  daughter  of  the  giant  Gymir,  "Warder,-  and  sponse 
of  Frey.  This  deity  having  presumed  on  one  occasion  to  ascend  the 
throne  of  All-Father ,  perceived  towards  the  North  a  magnificent  palace , 
whence  issued  a  female  form,  whose  glistening  hair  [?  hands]  gave  lustre 
to  the  air  and  water.  After  duly  recording  his  pangs  arising  from  despair 
of  obtaining  this  mortal  beauty,  his  loss  of  speech  and  appetite,  the  my- 
thus  proceeds  to  state  that  through  the  ministry  of  his  confidant  Sktmer, 
the  Shiner,  whom  he  had  bribed  by  a  present  of  his  sword,  the  damsel, 
after  incredible  obstacles  had  been  surmounted,  was  obtained  for  him  in 
marriage.  Her  residence ,  like  the  bower  of  Brynhilda ,  — 
'^O !  strange  is  the  bower  where  Brynhilda  reclines 
Around  it  the  watch-fire  high  bickering  shines,"  Aon.  W,  Herbert, 
was  encircled  by  a  magic  flame ,  and  when  this  had  been  safely  pene- 
trated, deaf  alike  to  his  entreaties  and  threats,  and  proof  against  his 
costly  gifts ,  long  did  the  virgin  still  defy  the  utmost  efforts  of  the  impor- 
tunate emissary.  But  a  resort  to  witchery  still  remained,  and  with  this 
its  irresistible  armour  love  ultimately  triumphed,"  3)  Gerda  is  said  to 
have  symbolized  the  Aurora  Borealis.  Secondary  phenomena  were  usu- 
ally attributed  to  the  giant- race. 

GiMLE  ,  (PURE  FIRE).  ^'To  the  Southward  at  the  end  of  the  world, 
is  a  Hall,  of  all  the  fairest,  and  brighter  than  the  Sun.  Gimle  is  it  higlit. 
It  shall  stand  there  when  both  Heaven  and  Earth  are  no  more.  In  that 
City  shall  dwell  good  men  and  righteous ,  from  generation  even  to  gener- 
ation." 4)     "Best  is  it  to  be  in  Gimle ,  in  Heaven."  5) 

GJALLAR-HORN ,  (the  SOUNDING-TRUMPET),  wiU  be  blowu  by  Heimdall 
to  summon  the  Gods  and  Einheriar  to  battle  at  Ragnarok.  6)  But  it  is 
also  with  this  Horn  that  Mimer  drinks  out  of  his  well  of  "Wisdom.  7 )  See 

HEIMDALL, 

GLITNER,  See   FORSBTE. 

GRAVE-ALB  or  GRAVE-FEAST;  —  "The  custom  was  it  in  those  times, 
that  when  the  Arval  [funeral  banquet]  should  be  made  after  Kings  or 
Jarls,  —  he  who  should  give  the  Grave-ale  and  take  the  Inheritance  was 
to  sit  on  the  foot-stool  before  the  High-Seat,   even  until  that  Goblet  was 


1)  Conf.  Dalint  Svea  Riket  Hi$l,,  I,  n5.  —  2)  Sn.  Edda^  Gylfag.  37.  —  3)  Slrotiff, 
p.  i4.  —  4)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.  1 7.  —  5)  Do.  52.  —  6)  Stem,  Edda,  VSluspa , 
»tr.  47    —  7)  Sn.  Edda,  Gylfag.,  ch.  1 5. 


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brought  in  which  was  called  the  Brage-goblet  [ah  being  accompanied 
with  some  speech  or  minstrelsy,  Brage,  in  honour  of  the  deceaised.]  Thus 
should  he  stand  opposite  the  Brage-goblet,  first  make  a  vow,  and  then 
drink  out  the  Bumper.  —  Thereafter  should  he  be  led  up  to  the  High- 
Seat,  the  which  his  Father  had  owned:  So,  thereupon,  had  he  succeeded 
to  the  inheritance  after  him."  1)  Till  this  Feast,  which  was  often  very 
magnificent  and  was  given  in  the  Family-ltall ,  had  been  accomplished,  no 
one  could  succeed  to  his  Ancestral  rights;  but  it  could  not  be  held  at  all, 
if  the  Chief  had  been  privily  slain ,  unless  the  revenge  of  blood  (blood- 
were)  had  been  exacted  by  the  heir.  2) 

GRAVE -mou5D ,  See  barrow. 

GiTDBRAND ,  a  fertile  vale  in  the  district  of  Aggerhuns,  near  Sogn, 
in  Norway.  It  obtained  its  name  from  Brand,  the  son  of  Raum,  who 
was  broiight  up  to  the  service  of  the  Gods ,  and  was  therefore  called 
Gttd'brand,  which  name  he  afterwards  transferred  to  the  district  under 
him.  3) 

GRSNmGASui<rD ,  (GREBNSOUND) ,  between  Zealand ,  Moen  and  Falster. 


HAGBART.  —  "The  tragic  fate  of  this  hero  is  connected  with  a 
story  of  faithful  love  ,  variously  embellished,  but  substaiilially  embodied 
in  the  version  subjoined.  Hagbart,  son  of  a  king  of  Trondheim,  cruising 
with  others  of  his  family,  met  two  sons  of  the  monarch  of  Zealand  em- 
ployed in  similar  adventure :  a  conflict  of  course  ensued ,  -which  termina- 
ted after  a  hard  struggle  in  a  consolidation  of  the  hostile  forces.  Hagbart 
proceeded  with  his  new  confederates  to  the  court  of  Sigar,  their  father, 
wliere  a  mutual  attachment  was  formed  between  the  Danish  Princess  and 
the  Norwegian  Viking.  Her  brothers  however,  rejected  the  proposed 
alliance,  and  fell  victims  to  the  indignation  of  her  lover ,  who  conse- 
quently was  necessitated  to  fly.  Affection,  nevertheless,  soon  recalled 
him  in  disguise ,  and  being  betrayed  by  a  female  attendant  of  his  Signe , 
he  was  made  prisoner.  A  Diet  was  then  summoned,  where  difference  of 
opinion  prevailed;  one  party  deeming  it  advisable,  that,  as  the  Princes 
were  no  more,  he  should  be  permitted  to  marry  the  Monarch's  daughter, 
and  become  protector  of  the  realm ;  whilst  their  opponents  maintained , 
that  his  violation   of  the  rights    of  hospitality  could  only  be  expiated  by 


l)   Ynglinga  Saga,  cb.  4o.    —    a)   Gei^t  Svea    Hikes  Hist,  1,   3oi.  —  3)  Sitfverstolpes 
FdrhdtL  emeUan  Sverige  och  Notrige ,  1 ,  48. 


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271 

death.  The  latter  counsel  prevailed ,  and  preparations  were  made  for  his 
execution.  Sign4  haying  learned  the  decision,  preceded  him,  as  had  been 
covenanted,  by  voluntary  decease,  first  setting  fire  to  the  apartment  in 
which  she  committed  the  act.  Thus  died  a  fond  pair  to  be  embalmed  by 
the  Skald ;  or  rather  to  survive  in  the  annals  of  romantic  history  long 
as  a  gentle  eye  shall  exist  to  weep  over  sorrow,  —  a  heart  to  sympathize 
with  despair."  1)  —  Many  districts  in  the  three  Scandinavian  kingdoms 
lay  claim  to  having  been  the  scene  of  the  lover's  fate.  Most  probably  it 
occurred  at  Hagbarholm,  in  Nordlands  Amt,  in  Norway.  The  Swedish 
Ballad  called  Habor  and  Signild  2) ,  which  sings  this  legend  and  which 
itself  goes  up  to  the  Xlllth  Cent,  is  far  more  beautiful  in  its  incidents 
than  the  above  outline.  Indeed  Haghart  and  Sisne  in  the  North,  answer  to 
Romeo  and  Jtdiet  or  Abelard  and  Heloise  in  the  South  and  "West. 

HAGE,  Sanctuary,  Sacred  Grove. 

HALFDAN ,  (which  mcaus  the  strong  thane) ,  is  a  name  common  in  the 
old  Sagas.    He  was  the  son  of  Bele. 

HAM  means  form,  shape,  figure,  disguise,  avatar  (incarnation) 
&c.  Thence  hamast,  kamatkiptatt,  kamthypa  &c,  to  change  one's  shape.  The 
Witches,  Trolls,  Jotnar  Sec.  of  old  Scandinavia  had  such  tremendous 
powers  in  this  way ,  that  the  word  Ham  is  an  extremely  proper  appel- 
lative for  the  Magician-Eagle.  "We  find  many  instances  of  exactly  the  same 
superstition  in  the  'Arabian  Nights'  and  other  Asiatic  Saga-books. 
Gods  of  weather  and  Storm-Enchanters  are  as  old  as  j^olus  ,  and  were 
familiar  to.  the  North.  Ogdten  had  a  bag,  called  Vedurbalg;  when  he  shook 
this,  such  cold  and  tempest  went  thereout  that  within  3  days  lakes  and 
fiiths  were  covered  with  enormously-strong  ice,  and  no  human  being 
could  bear  the  piercing  blast.  3)  —  By  changing  forms  with  her,  a  sorceress 
occupied  for  three  days  the  place  of  Signy,  wife  of  Siggeir,  king  of 
Gothland.  4)  —  '*Such  interchange  of  person  occurs,  indeed,  as  an  ordi- 
nary expedient  in  Mythick  history ,  and  probably  to  the  faculty  of  jump- 
ing into  and  out  of  '*a  skin"  at  pleasure ,  thus  attributed  to  the  Northern 
Protei  and  Proteee,  we  may  trace  the  origin  of  a  couplet  still  preserved 
amongst  our  plebeian  facetise."  5). 

HaVAMaL ,  (HBAYE-SONG ,  sublimc  Discourse) ,  a  Book  of  Proverbs 
forming  the  second  Chapter  of  Ssemund's  or  the  Ancient  Edda.  Of  this 
M.  Mallet  writes.   "The  Sublime  Discourse  is  attributed  to  Oden  himself, 


I)  Strong,  p.  an.  ■—  a)  Geijers  och  AfmelU  Svenska  Folkvuor,  I,  l37.  —  3)  Thorsten 
Vikingiton't  Saga,  ch.  II,  35.  conf.  Gdnge  Rolfs  Saga,  37,  46,  and  Ortww  Odd's 
Saga,  cb.  la.  —  4)  Volsunga  Saga,  —  5)  Strong,  p.  i36. 


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vrho  is  said  to  have  given  these  precepts  of  "vrisdom  to  mankind.  This 
piece  is  the  only  one  of  the  kind  now  in  the  world.  We  have  directly 
from  the  ancient  Scythians  themselves  no  other  monument  on  the  suhject 
of  morality.  Thus  this  moral  system  may,  in  some  measure,  supply  the 
loss  of  the  maxims  which  Zamolxis,  Dicenceus  and  Anacharsis,  gave  to 
their  countrymen.'*  1)  The  whole  deserves  immortality  in  every  language 
on  God's  Earth;  want  of  room,  however,  prevents  us  from  extracting  more 
than  those  strophes  wliich  have  been  more  immediately  employed  by 
Tegn^r  in  his  charming  II  Canto :  — 


St.  16.    (Xni,XIV.)     "Silent  and 
thoughtful 
Should  the  Ruler's  child  be, 
And  brave  in  battle: 
Giftful  and  glad 
Each  mortal  should  live , 
And  calmly  wait  —  Death. 

35.  (XIX.)  "Devious  winds  the  way 
Wended  to  false  friend. 
Tenanting  thy  track: 
Short's  the  pleasing  path 
Plodded  to  firm  friend, 
Tho*  his  threshold's  far.  2) 

51.  (XV.)  "Fast  fades  the  tree  that 
Stands  by  thy  cot 

All  bar'd  of  green  branches  and  bark : 
So  'tis  with  the  the  man  no 
Mortal  be-friends  , 
Why  should  he  long  live  on? 

63.     (XX.)    "Speir  and  speak. 
Who  sage  may  be 
And  wise  is  call'd: 
With  one  commune , 
Not  with  a  second;  • 
All  jtli*  world  knows  what  three  hear. 

76.    (XVin).    "Little   enough  he 
knows 
Who  nothing  knoweth; 


One  the'  other  infatuates. 

Rich  one  man  is, 

And  poor  anotlier; 

Who  wise  is ,  shows  it  not. 

77,  78.    (XXIX.)    "Riches  perish, 
Kinsmen  perish, 
Thy  own  life  soon  is  done ; 
But  Fame  shall  ne'er 
Die  out,  when  e'er 
A  good  one  thou  hast  won. 

"Riches  perish. 
Kinsmen  perish. 
Thou  must  perish  too; 
This,  I  wot, 
Shall  perish  not: 
Doom  to  mortals  due."  2) 

79.  (XXVI.)  "Wide  well-fill'd 
barns  I  saw 

For  Wealth's  proud  sons ; 

Now  bear  they  hope's  [the  beggar's] 
low  staff. 

So  wealth's  away 

Like  wink  of  eye , 

Most  changeful  friend  he  is. 

82,     (XXVIL)    "In  the'  ev'ning  — 
praise  the  day, 
The  wife    too   praise  —  when  dead 
(burn'd) ; 


i)  North.  Anti^.  Percjf ,  3o5,  —  2)  This  Stanza  is  copied  from  Strong,  p.  32,  33). 


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Praise  sword  —  which  stood  ihe  Fray,        85,  ^'Maidens'  words , 
And  maid  —  who  has  heen  wed ;         Shall  no  one  trust 
When  cross'd  —  then  praise  the  ice,     Nor  what  by  woman's  said ; 
And  ale  —  when  drunk  it  is.  For  on  whirling  wheel 

87.  (XXVIII.)    <'Ice  of  one  night,    Wrought  was  their  heart, 
Snake  laid  in  ring,  ^^^^^  P^*<^'^  ^»s  *»  ^^^^^  breast." 

HEAVEN.  —  Hear  the  Dwarf! 
^^Heav*n  'lis  hight  'mong  men,  Bat  Jotnar  the'  Upper  World; 

High  shade  'mong  the  Gods ,  Fairies  Fair-cliff  say , 

Wind-high  Vaner  call  it  And  Dwarfs   the  Draping  Hall,"  1) 

HEJD,  the  name  of  the  Witch-bear  witli  Tegner,  is  a  name  fre- 
quently applied  to  "cunning  women"  and  enchantresses.  2). 

"heimdall,   one  God  is  hight;   he  is  called  the  White  As;   great 

ifi  he    and  holy,   and  was   horn  of  maidens    nine,    all  sisters He 

dwellelh  at  the  place  called  Heaven-mount,  near  Bifrost.  The  Warder 
of  the  Gods  is  he ,  and  silteth  there  by  the  end  of  Heaven  to  guard  the 
Bridge  from  the  Hill-Giants:  Less  sleep  needelh  he  than  a  bird;  equally 
sees  he  night  and  day,  a  hundred  miles  from  him;  the  grass  also  heareth 
he  growing  on  the  earth,  and  wool  on  the  sheiep  and  all  that  soundeth 
louder.  That  trumpet  hath  he  called  Giallarhorn ,  whose  blast  is  heard 
afar  through  every  world."  3) 

heimskringla ,  (the  home-circle),  the  globe,  the  earth. 

hel  ,  or  HELA,  answers  to  the  Proserpine  of  the  Latins.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  Loke  ,  by  Aiigurboda,  a  giantess.  By  birth  and  educa- 
tion she  was  hateful  to  the  Gods,  and  "He  [Oden]  cast  her  into  Niffel- 
hem,  giving  her  rule  over  9  worlds,  that  she  should  ordain  abodes  for 
all  who  were  sent  to  her,  namely  such  as  die  of  sickness  or  of  old  age. 
Mighty  buildings  hath  she  there,  and  a  rampart  and  grated  portals.  Mise- 
ry, is  her  Hall,  Hunger  her  Dish,  Famine  her  Knife,  Go-late  her  Thrall, 
&  Go-lazy  her  Woman-slave :  Treacherous  Deceit  is  the  Threshold  over 
wliich  one  goes.  Pining  Sickness  is  her  Bed,  and  pale-making  Grief  her 
Curtains.  She  is  blue  to  llie  one  half,  the  other  part  is  of  human  colour. 
So  well  known  is  her  shape,  — terrible  and  gloomy  is  her  look."  4)  From 
the  name  of  this  Goddess ,  we  have  derived  our  Hell, 

HEL6E ,  (one  of  the  sons  of  Bele) ,  means  Holy. 


l)  Stem,  Edda,  SoDg  of  All-Wise,  str.  l3.  —  2)  Do,  Voluspa,  25.  —  Landnam.  B, 
s.  186.  —  Valntd,  Saga,  c.  10.  —  3)  Sn,  Edda,  Gylfag.  27,  —  /,)  Do,,  34. 

7 


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nEMS,   (from  B«r,  War),  Capuin-genef al ;  the  dignity  was  heredi- 
tary ,  bnt  inferior  to  that  of  a  Jarl.  1). 

HIGH-CHAIK,  or  HI0H-8EAT,  (Hog-bSnk,  the  Icelandic  Ha»«eH  or 
UndpifOy  A  throne-like  Seat  in  the  centre  of  the  Southern  Wall.  Gonunonly 
there  was  another  similar  High-Chair  opposite  this,  on  the  North  wall; 
the  latter  was  next  in  dignity  to  the  former.  The  High-Seat  was  not  re- 
moved to  the  Dais,  at  the  npper  end  of  the  Hall,  till  the  time  of  the 
Norwegian  King  Olof  2)  at  tlie  close  of  the  11th  Centnry,  The  OndvegA 
mbar,  SettieUUnr,  (High-Seat  Pillars)  were  commonly  carved  with  the  Image 
of  some  God;  it  was  these  Idol-pillars  that  Harold,  the  first  emigrant  to 
Iceland,  threw  into  the  sea,  that  they  might  guide  him  to  the  place  where 
he  should  fix  his  settlement.  3) 

HILDING,  (the  WARRIOR),  the  Fosterer  and  Educator  of  Frithiof  and 
Ingeborg. 

hildur's  sport  ,  a  common  Scandinavian  synonyme  for  war ,  and 
8u£S.ciently  expressive  of  the  popular  feeling.  —  "A  king  named  Haugni 
had  a  daughter  hight  Hildur.  A  king  named  Hedin ,  the  son  of  Hjar- 
randa,  took  her  as  war-spoil.  KingHaugne  was  absent  on  a  king's-mote, 
and  when  he  speired  that  his  kingdom  had  been  ravaged  and  that  his 
daughter  had  been  carried  away,  he  hasted  with  his  forces  to  seek  after 
Hedin ,  it  being  told  Mm  that  be  had  sailed  northward  along  the  coast. 
But  so  soon  as  King  Haugni  came  into  Norway ,  he  heard  that  Hedin  had 
sailed  westward  over  the  sea.  Then  saileth  Haugni  after  him  as  far  as  to 
the  Orkneys,  and  when  he  was  come  thither  hight  High-hU,  Hedin  was 
there  before  him  with  his  troops.  Then  wended  Hildur  unto  her  father, 
bidding  him  a  neclclace  from  Hedin  in  reconciliation,  *but  at  the  same 
time',  she  added,  4s  Hedin  ready  to  give  battle,  nor  has  Haugni  any 
mercy  to  expect  from  him/  Haugni  answereth  his  daughter  harshly;  and 
when  she  found  Hedin,  told  she  him  that  Haugni  would  have  no  accom- 
modation, and  that  he  should  prepare  for  war.  This  do  they  both,  going 
up  on  to  the  island  and  marshalling  their  men  in  battle  array.  Then 
calleth  Hedin  to  Haugni  Ms  father-in-law,  and  offereth  Mm  friendship, 
together  with  much  gold  as  a  fine  therefor.  Then  answereth  Haugni , 
*Too  late  biddest  thou  tliis,  if  thou  wilt  be  reconciled,  for  now  have  I 
drawn  DaintUify  which  Dwarfs  have  made ,  which  must  alway  be  some 
man's  bane  whenever  it  be  bared,  which  never  fails  in  the  blow,  and 
which  giveth  no  wound  that  ever  can  be  healed.'    Hedin  replieth,  *The 


l)  Finn  Magnusem  Nord,  Arch,  •— >  2)  Otof  ShVe't  Saga,    ch.  2.  —    Geijer$  Svea  Rike$ 
HaftUr,  I,   193. 


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Sword  llion  praisest  well,  but  not  the  'victory;  that  blade  call  I  good, 
which  never  betrays  its  master.'  Then  began  they  that  contest  called  the 
Hjadiug-fight ,  and  the  whole  day  were  battling.  But  when  evening  came 
on,  the  kings  returned  on  board  their  vessels.  Hildur  went  by  night 
to  tlie  field  of  war,  and  waked  up  by  her  enchantments  all  who  were 
dead,  and  the  next  day  the  kings  went  back  to  tlie  battle-place  and  fought, 
and  with  them  all  who  had  fallen  tlie  day  before.  So  the  contest  conti- 
nued therefore,  the  one  day  after  the  other;  all  who  had  fallen,  together 
with  the  arms  wliich  lay  on  the  field,  being  turned  to  stone.  But  so  soon 
as  it  dawned,  all  the  dead  stood  up  and  fought,  and  all  their  weapons 
were  new  again.  So  is  it  said  in  old  chaunts,  that  the  Hjading-men  shall 
bide  thus  until  Aagnarok."  1) 

''bodeh,  is  one  of  the  Asar  liight;  he  is  blind,  but  exceeding 
strong,  and  the  Gods  would  willingly  wish  they  never  need  name  him, 
for  his  hands*  work  shall  long  enough  remain  in  the  memory  both  of 
Gods  and  Men."  2)    Many  autliors  regard  him  as  a  symbol  of  the  night. 

See   BALDER. 

IDA-VALE,  the  residence  of  AUfather  and  his  XII  Diar  in  the  Morn-^ 
ing  of  lime.  The  Home  of  Gladness  (Gladshem)  was  their  Palace  there , 
and  ''both  within  and  without  was  all  like  gold."  3)  —  ''Then  quod 
Gangleri  [the  Wayfarer],  'Live  there  still  then  any  Gods,  or  is  there  yet 
any  heaven  or  earth?'  Har  [tli^e  Lofty  One]  answered ;  'Then  an  Earth 
shooteth  up  from  out  the  sea,  and  green  and  fair  it  is,  and  unsown  crops 
grow  thereupon.  Yidar  and  Yale  live,  so  that  neither  the  waters  nor  Sur- 
tur's  flames  have  injured  them ,  and  on  Ida-Yale  tliey  dwell ,  where  As- 
g&rd  was  before.  Then  come  the  sons  of  Thor,  Modi  and  Magni,  and 
have  MjoUner  once  more.  Them  follow  Balder  and  Hoder  from  Hel: 
down  sit  they  then  all  together  and  commune  with  each  other,  remem- 
bering their  runes  [former  arts  and  destinies] ,  and  counselling  of  tidings 
far  back  before ,  and  of  Midg&rd's-Serpent  and  the  Fenris-YN^olf.  Then 
fijid  they  in  the  grass  tablets  of  gold,  even  those  which  tlie  Asar  had  pos- 
sessed  

"A  Daughter  bright  Ride  shall  she  tlien. 

Bears  Elf-splendour  [the  Sun]  YVhen  the  Fow'rs  [Gods]  die, 

Before  she's  gorg'd  by  Fenris:  Maid,  on  her  Mother's  path  I 

"And  now ,  if  thou  dost  ask  yet  further,  know  I  not  from  whence 
it  can  come.  For  no  man  have  I  heard  speak  further  of  the  world's  fates; 


J)  Sn,  Kdda,  Skaldskap.,  cli.  5o.  —  »)  J?«.  Gylfag.  28.  —  3)  Do,  ch.  14^ 


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be  content  now,  tKereTore,  witliwliat  tUonliast  learned."  1)  —  ''The  cen* 
trical  fortress ,  -which  the  Gods  constructed  from  the  eyebrows  of  Ymer , 
and  which  towered  from  tlie  midst  of  the  earth  equally  distant  on  all 
sides  from  the  sea,  is  certainly  the  Mem  of  the  Hindoos  and  Indo-Scythe, 
which  is  described  in  a  manner  precisely  similar^  Accordingly,  as  the 
Gotlis  termed  the  flat  summit  of  this  holy  abode  rA«  pkm  of  Ida,  so  the 
Hindoo  mythologists  denominate  it  Ida-VraUa,  or  the  circle  of  Ida."  2), 

*'iouNoriDUNA,  [the  sedulous],  is  his  [Brage's]  Spouse;  sheguard- 
eth  in  a  basket  the  apples  of  which  the  Gods  must  eat  when  they  grow 
old ,  and  which  make  them  all  young  again  \  and  so  must  it  be  till  Rag- 
narok".  3) 

INGEBORG,  (Daughter  of  King  Bele)  means,  Citadel  of  Youth. 

IRON-HEAD  (JERNHOS).— '^Their  [Kol's  and  Trona's]  third  child  was 
hight  Harek;  when  he  was  seven  years  old,  he  was  bald  oyer  all  his 
head.  His  skull  was  as  hard  as  steel,  and  he  was  therefore  called  Jen- 
ho$  [Iron-head]  or  Jempanna  [Ironbrow]  .  •  •  •  Now  it  happened  one  day, 
that  a  man,  if  he  could  so  be  called)  went  down  over  tlie  mountains: 
never  had  his  like  been  seen  for  size  and  ugliness,  and  he  resembled 
a  giant  rather  than  a  man.  A  two-pronged  spear  had  he  in  liis  hand. 
Now  it  was  so,  that  the  king  sate  at  table  during  this  time;  and  when 
this  terrible  man  drew  near  to  the  door  of  llie  Hall,  and  asked  permis- 
sion to  go  in  thereat,  the  doorkeepers  refused  him  the  same.  Thereupon 
stuck  he  at  them  with  his  spear,  and  each  of  the  prongs  hit  one  man's 
breast,  and  went  out  through  his  back.  Hereupon  lifted  he  them  up  over 
his  head ,  and  cast  them  dead  a  long  way  from  him  on  the  ground.  Next 
went  he  in,  and  stood  before  the  High-Seat  of  the  king,  saying:  'Seeing 
now,  king  King,  that  I  have  esteemed  thee  so  far  as  to  visit  thee  here, 
—  it  seemeth  to  me  only  thy  duty  not  to  refuse  my  errand!*  —  The  king 
enquired,  what  it  might  be,  and  what  he  was  called.  He  anwered: 
'Harek  Jernhos  am  I  hight ,  and  am  a  son  of  [Kol]  Kroppenbag ,  of  India- 
land;  but  my  business  here  is  tliis,  —  that  ye  shall  abandon  to  me  your 
Daughter,  Land,  and  Men.  And  most  folk  will  doubtless  say,  that  thy 
kingdom  will  be  in  much  better  hands,  if  governed  by  me,  tlian  if  thou 
hast  it  who  art  so  weakly  and  so  old."  4)    See  viking  vifellsson. 

ISLE-DUEL  or  isle-fight,  (Holm-giug ,  Isle-trip).  —  Challenges  to 
single  combat  on  some  island  or  rock  on  the  coast  (that  there  might  nei- 
ther be  deceit,  assistance,  nor  escape)  were  the  common  amende  of  offend- 


O  Sn.  Edda,    Gylfag.,   cb.   53.  —  2)  Faher't    Orig.    Pag.    Idol.   I.  220.  —    3)  Sn, 
Edda,    Gylfag.  26.  —   4)   Thorsten  Vtkingssona  Saga,    cli.  3,  2. 


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ed  Scandinavian  honour.  The  >%'hole  system  o£  the  old  Northern  stales 
rested  upon  Individualism  carried  to  an  enormous  excess.  Its  necessary 
consequence  'might  is  right*,  club-law,  followed;  and  as  superstition  and 
intrigue  gradually  made  the  high-born  and  at  last  the  monarch  the  strongest,  tlie 
liberties  of  the  people  fell. 


JADAR,  tlie  present  Jaderen,  in  Slavauger's  Amt. 

JARL  (Earl,  Thane)  was  originally  the  title  of  an  independent 
Chief  in  the  Norlh.  Next  it  was  borne  by  Norwegian  Princes  1) ;  then  by 
tributary  governors^  and  at  last  by  any  Viceroy,  Major  Domiu,  Mayor  du 
Palais  &c.  It  expired  in  the  14t}i  Century.  The  Scotch  synonyme,  Thane, 
died  out  in  1476.  2) 

JOTUNHBIM,  the  Home  of  the  Jotnar.  ''The  deeds  of  Asa-Thor  are 
narrated  in  the  Eddas.  He  was  continually  engaged  in  conflict  with  the 
Giants,  Trolds,  and  all  the  enemies  of  the  gods;  and  in  this  combat  used 
the  arms  of  the  elder  [Thunder-God,  Aukar (chariot),]  Thor;  the  thunder- 
bolt and  its  symbol,  the  all-crushing  hammer.  Nowhere  were  they  secure 
from  his  attack;  since  every  morning  he  undertook  some  new  expedition, 
and,  like  the  Hercules  of  Grecian  fable ,  was  nnweariedly  occupied  in 
assailing. and  endeavouring  to  extirpate  the  foes  of  the  gods.  As  the  elder 
Thor,  however,  waged  war  against  the  aborigines  of  the  land,  so  it  ap- 
pears that  the  younger  directed  his  hostility  against  the  votaries  of  the 
ancient  gods  especially,  who  would  not  concur  in  the  Odinite  reform- 
ation. Accordingly,  the  old  Icelandick  poem,  Thortdrapa,  expressly  testi- 
fies that  he  expelled  all  the  Jotnar  deities ,  and  overthrew  their  altars. 
The  adherents  of  the  ancient  faith  deserted  therefore ,  in  a  great  measnre, 
Skandinavia,  and  fled  with  their  gods ,  first,  to  Fin'nland,  and  snbse- 
cfuently  further  toward  the  shore  of  the  'Wliite  Sea,  where  Jotunheim 
and  Utg^rd ,  tlieir  dwellings  and  the  seat  of  their  religion ,  were." 

JUMALA,  (thb  supreme),  from  time  immemorial  the  Finnish  term 
for  the  Great  God.  The  Legend  4)  of  his  splendid  Temple  is  historically 
untrue.  "To  him  no  tokens  were  attributed ,  and  no  distinguishing  qua- 
lities. He  wafi,-  the  only,  the  highest,  he  who  himself  invisible  governed  all. 
In  Biarmaland  was  set  up  his  Image ,  by  itself;  the  lower  deities  had 
nothing  such."  —  "Northward  on  a  cape  by  Vin-&,  (The  river  Dvina) 
stood  this  Jumala-Idol,  within  a  spot  consecrated  thereto,  and  surrounded 
by  a  lofty  paling."  5)    Rich   and  sacred  it  was ,  and  became  a  kind  of 


1)  Ju$.  Norr.  AuUc.  —  a)  Hiddel,  Arcb.  IX.  33o.  —  3)  MUnter,  I.  86,  quoted  by 
Strong,  ]).  3o8.  —  4)  quoted  by  Dalm,  I,  184 »  from  Herraud's  and  Botat  Saga, 
—  5)  ArufidssonM  Larobok  i  Fiulandt  Hiatoria  och  Geografi,  p.  9.  8. 


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national  sauclaary  for  tlie  Finnisii  Tribes.  --  **Il  may  be  wortliy  remark, 
that  tlie  name  Jwmiel  occurs  in  the  list  of  angelic  princes ,  given  in  (he 
apocryphal  book  ascribed  to  Enoch.**  1) 


LIGHTBNER,   a  title   of  THOH, 

LIGHT-FAIRY,  a  good  Elf  or  genie.  The  Light-fairies  inhabited 
the  third  Heaven,  the  Ether.  ^*firighter  are  they  than  the  Sun  to  look 
upon.**  2)    See  alfhem. 

LOFX,  (the  BETHOTHBR,  from  fo/a  to  promise),  "the  eighth  [Asynja] 
is  so  mild  and  good  when  one  iuvoketh  her,  that  she  is  permitted  by 
AUfather  or  Frigga  to  join  men  and  women  together,  notwithstanding  all 
hindrances  and  difficulties.  Therefore  from  her  name  is  Lof  come ,  and 
hftu  (praised)  when  one  praises  any  thing  much."  3)  Lofn  was  thus  the 
Goddess  presiding  over  Wedlock. 

LORE ,  '^falsehood ,  or  Logi,  flame) ,  Personation  of  Malice  and 
Subtlety  combined.  The  Eddaic  biography  of  Loke  presents  several  strik- 
ing coincidences  with  the  history  of  an  earlier  Deceiver.  For  a  time ,  he 
is  held  in  high  estimation  by  the  j^sir;  nay,  is  the  foster-brother  of  O- 
den  himself,  but  undergoes  a  complete  change  of  disposition,  becoming 
the  enemy  af  all  goodness ,  and  the  destroyer  of  its  representative ,  Bal- 
der. It  is  he  who  beguiles  Idnna,  the  possessor  of  the~ilpples  of  immor- 
tality, out  of  Atgdrd  —  Paradise.  He  is  the  parent  of  the  great  serpent, 
personifying  the  Deluge.  He  is  likewise  the  parent  of  Hela  —  Death.  And 
he  is  bound  in  chains,  until  the  last  day,  when  he  shall  hreak  loose 
from  his  imprisonment ,  and  with  his  evil  confederates  fight  against  the 
gods.  The  Eddaic  Mythology  abounds  with  stories  of  his  shrewd  or  tor- 
menting exploits ,  and  it  is  worthy  remark ,  that  his  exterior  is  represen- 
ted to  be  elegant  and  attractive ;  Satan  as  an  angel  of  light.  The  fable 
of  his  punishment,  horrible  as  it  is,  deserves  to  be  introduced,  as  supply- 
ing a  curious  proof  how  many  centuries  the  Scottish  bard  had  been  anti- 
cipated in  the  favourable  testimony:  — 

"But  when  affliction  rends  the  brow, 
A  ministering  angel,  thou." 

"Secured  upon  a  rock  which  sustains  him  on  three  acute  apices, 
by  ligaments  composed  of  the  entrails  of  his  own  offspring ,  he  would  be 
exposed  to  a  perpetual  gnttulous  descent  of  burning  venom  from  a  poison- 
ous serpent  suspended  over  his  face ,  did  not  IU$  wife  Sigmta,  notwithstanding 
his  former  infidelity,  remain  coiuiaHibf  seated  by  his  side,  holding  a  vessel  with 
wliich  she  intercepts  the  falling  drops.  It  is  only  during  the  interval  whilst 


I)  Strong,    p.  3l5.  —   a)  ««.  Edda,  Gylfag,  l-.  —  3)  Do.  ch.  35. 


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ftlie  empties  the  overflowing  vase,  Uial  his  flcsli  receives  the  caustic ,  which 
inflicts  pain  so  tremendons  that  he  howls  with  horror,  and  writhing  his 
agonized  frame  occasions  earth^akes.**  1) 

LONG-DRAGON,  War-Galley.    See  dragon* 


MARR,  Pound-weight. 

MEGINGJARD.     See  THOR. 
MEAD-HORN.      ScC   DRINRING-RORN. 

midgXrd,  (the  central  region ,  and  ahode  of  man),  hetween  AsgSrd,  the 
Asar  region,  and  Utg&rd,  the  Giant-land. 

midgArds-sbrpent  ,  (Jormnngandr) ,  a  Monster,  the  sonof  Lokeand 
Angerhoda ,  the  giant-hag.  By  command  of  AUfather  it  was  cast  into  the 
depths  of  the  sea,  "and  grew  so,  that  he  lieth  in  the  midst  of  the  ocean, 
about  all  lands,  and  hiteth  in  his  tail."  2)  He  shall  break  loose,  and 
madly  contend  against  the  Gods  on  ike  great  day  of  Ragnarok.  Thor  gives 
him  tlie  death-blow,  but  himself  falls,  poisoned  by  his  pestiferous  breath. 
This  fiend-snake  was  doubtless  the  old  physical  deity  of  the  Deluge- 
Ocean ;  but  the  idea,  like  so  many  others  in  the  Northern  Mythology,  is 
of  Asiatic  origin,  and  a  trace  of  it  is  preserved  in  the  old  Testament:  — 
"In  that  day  the  Lord,  with  his  sore  and  great  and  strong  sword,  shall 
punish  Leviathan  the  piercing  Serpent,  even  Leviathan  that  crooked  Ser- 
pent, and  he  shall  slay  the  Dragon  that  is  in  the  sea."  3)  "Perhaps  belief 
in  its  power  might  be  strengthened,  through  the  occasional  appearance  of 
giant  snakes,  lifting  up  their  heads  from  the  abysses  of  the  Northern 
Ocean.'*  4) 

MIMER,  (MEMORY),  E  Sage  of  the  Northern  Myth,  who  is  accounted 
Possessor  of  the  fount  of  Wisdom.  "Of  this  well,  according  to  theEdda, 
Oden  himself  was  nnable  to  obtain  a  draught  until  he  had  consented  to 
leave  in  pledge  for  it  one  of  his  eyes ,  still  visible  in  the  flood.  The  mon- 
oculous Oden  may  probably  be  traced  to  the  ancient  significant  hiero- 
glyph, which  emblematized  the  omniscience  of  the  Supreme  Being, —  an 
ege.  Yet  is  there  much  verisimilitude  in  the  interpretation  adopted  by 
Geijer,  s.  347,  which  identifies  the  lost  orb  of  light,  vnth  the  nocturnal 
sun  that  immersed  in  the  ocean,  performs  its  course  around  the  region 
of  shadows.  Or,  again,  for  there  is  no  exclnsiveness  in  such  types,  it 
may  figure  the  reflection  of  the  solar  disk  on  the  surface  of  the  watery 
mirror.    Mimer  was  slain  by  the  Vanes    (Sclavonians) ,  who ,  mythologi- 


1)  Strong,  p.  167.  —  a)  Sn.  EdJa,  Gylfag.  34 3)  /wia*,  XXVII,  /.  —  4)  MUn- 

ter,  I.  32. 


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cally  considered,  are  a  dark  and  niysterions  race.    In  the  Vohapa,  or  alli- 
terative channt  of  the  prophetess,  they  are  thns  inlrodnced:— <  ^^BroltinTar 
borgreggr,  &c." 
"Batter d  were  the  hurg- walls,  Forth  flew  Oden  fiercely, 

Bnilded  by  the  j^sir;  Fale-wing'd  darts  fast  hurling; 

Victors  o'er  the  valley  First  then  folk  wide-wasting 

Val'rous  Vanes  advanced  ,  War  deform'd  the  world." 

^'One  resnlt  of  the  conflict  was  the  delivery  of  Mimer  as  a  hostage 
into  tlie  power  of  the  Vanes,  aerials  who  decapitating  their  sage  security, 
sent  his  head  to  Oden.  This  head,  embalmed  with  certain  mystic  lierbs 
and  runic  incantations,  became  oracular,  and  the  privy-counsellor  of  the 
ruler  of  Asg&rd.  Mr.  Faber,  a  name  destined  haply  to  survive  until  "know- 
ledge shall  fail  and  prophecy  shall  cease ,"  refers  to  an  idolatrous  custom 
in  Egypt,  this  singular  superstition  attributing  fatidical  qnalities  to  ahead 
"ingeniously  prepared.'*  A  mimic  head  of  Osiris ,  placed  in  "a  dish,  re- 
sembling the  lunar  crescent,"  was  annually  set  afloat  on  the  Nile,  typi- 
fying, according  to  this  interpreter,  the  great  father,  Noah,  immured  in 
his  floating  cofiin.  From  whatever  source  it  took  its  rise ,  the  notion  that 
such  oracles  might  really  be  constructed,  was  very  widely  diffased,  and 
it  is  not,  therefore,  surprising  that  Oden  should  have  had  many  imitators 
or  rivals  in  the  curious  art.  Amongst  the  most  successful  may  be  num- 
bered the  "thrice-great  Hermes"  and  our  own  scientific  Roger  Bacon, 
until  some  future  "Willis  or  Savart  shall  construct  an  automaton,  posses- 
sing a  power  of  prediction  as  well  as  of  articulation."  1) 

MOON,  Brother  of  the  Sun,  Light  of  Night,  "Year-teller,  Dim- 
shiner,  Hastener,  Crooked,  the  Scarred"  2)  &c.  —  "A  man  is  named 
Mundilfori,  ["Measurer  of  the  Route"  3],  w^ho  had  two  children:  they 
w^ere  so  fair  and  beautiful,  that  he  called  the  one  Moon;  and  the  other,  a 
daughter,  Sun,  giving  her  in  marriage  to  that  man  liight  Glenr.  But  the 
Gods  were  wrath  at  this  pride ,  took  them  botii ,  and  set  them  up  in  hea- 
ven. Stin  let  they  drive  those  horses  wliich  drew  the  chariot  of  the  Sun, 
wliichthe  Gods  had  created  to  give  light  unto  the  world  ,  from  those  sparks 
which  flew  from  Muspellieim.  These  horses  are  hight  Arvakr  [Early- 
waken]  and  Alsvitlir  [All-burning],  and  under  their  haunches  placed  the 
Gods  two  wind-bellows  for  to  cool  them,  and  which  in  some  songs  are 
called  Isarncol.  Moon  steereth  tlie  course  of  the  Moon-Body,  and  ruleth 
for  the  waxing  and  the  waning  thereof.    He  took  from  the  Earth  two 


I)  SfroHgy  p.  46.  —  3)  Sn,  Edda,  Skaldskap.  56.  *-  3)  Grmdtvigi  Nord,  Myth, 


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281 

children,  higlit  Bil  and  Hinki,  "wlio  were  going  from  the  Well  called 
Bjrgir,  and  who  carried  on  their  shoulders  the  bucket  named  Seegr,  and 
the  cowl-slaff  (carrying-slick)  Simnl.  Vithfinnr  is  the  name  of  their  father, 
and  these  children  alway  follow  Moon,  as  we  from  the  Earlh  can  see/'l) 
—  Moon  will  at  last  be  devoured  by  a  Wolf-monster  who  is  constantly 
pursuing  him«  2)  —  In  all  the  Golho-Teutonic  languages,  Moon  is  ma$culine 
and  Sun  /emujine.  —  For  the  rest,  listen  to  Night's  Regent's  names  *4n  every 
world."  — 

''itftfon  he's  hight  'mongMen,         Quick  he's  call'd  'mong  Giants, 
GMe  among  the  Gods,  Sheen  the  Dwarfs  exclaim, 

In  Hel's  world  Hasimg  Wheel:  Year-teller  Elves  him  name."  3) 

MORVEN,  the  north  of  Scotland,  "Shalt  thou  then  remain,  thou 
aged  hard!  when  the  mighty  have  failed?  But  my  fame  shall  remain, 
and  grow  like  the  oak  of  Morven ;  which  lifts  its  broad  head  to  the  storm , 
and  rejoices  in  the  course  of  the  wind!"  4) 

MUSPELHEiM ,  (the  HOME  (WORLD)  of  MUSPEL) ,  soutliward  in  creation. 
"Light  it  is  and  hot,  and  so  full  of  flames  and  burning,  that  none  can 
dwell  there  who  are  strangers  and  have  no  citizenship  (free  land).  Surtur 
is  he  named  who  liveth  there  at  the  end  of  that  region,  and  defends  the 
same  ;  a  flaming  sword  hath  he,  and  at  the  end  of  the  world  will  he  go 
forth,   overcome  all  the  Gods,   and  bren  up  all  the  "Worlds  with  fire."  5) 

muspel's  sons,  the  Flame-Chiefs,  inhabitants  of  Muspelheim. 


NAN?fA,  (MAIDEN),  daughter  of  Nep,  and  Spouse  of  Balder.  "So 
inconsolable  was  her  afiliction  when  this  light  of  her  life  was  extinguished, 
that  at  the  sight  of  his  body  extended  upon  the  pile ,  she  sank  heart-broken 
into  the  arms  of  death,  and  was  committed  to  the  same  flame  with  the 
object  of  her  faithful  attachment.  A  beautiful  personification  of  youthful 
innocence  and  conjugal  aifection."  6) 

NASTRAND  ,  (corpse-strand).  "On  Corpsc-straud  is  a  Hall  enormous 
and  disgusting,  whose  doors  are  toward  the  North.  Plaited  it  is,  like 
unto  a  dryinghouse,  and  of  nought  but  serpents'-backs.  All  the  serpents'- 
heads  are  turned  inside  the  building,  and  vomit  etter,  so  that  poison- 
streams  flow  along  through  the  hall.  Therein  wade  oath-robbers  Hp^HU- 
rers)  and  murder-wolves  (assassins) ,  as  is  here  said :"  —  7) 


i)  Gylfag.  XX.  —  a)  Volospa,   str.  3a.  —   3)  Sem.  Edda,   Song  of  All-Wise,  «l. 

|5.  —  4)  OtiiaH,  BerrathoD,  ud  finem,  —  5)  Gylfag.  cb,  4.  —  6)  Strong,  p.  i5. 

—  7)  Gylfag.  5a. 

8 


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^'Strange  liall  saw  she  stand',  Dripping  yenom  drops. 

Sun  ne'er  reacli'd  ihal  shore,  Dew'd  the  window'd  wall, 

Nastrand  gave  it  name  Shaped  of  serpent  spines. 

Northward  look'd  the  door:  Stood  that  tortuous  hall,"  1) 

The  horrible  majesty,  the  sublime  simplicity,  of  tliis  conception, 
have  never  been  surpassed  in  any  mythology  or  by  any  Poet! 

ifiDHOGG,  (scouNDRBL-GNAWEH) ,  a  Dragon-mouster ,  Symbol  of  En- 
vious Destruction.  —  "The  term  palpably  designates  the  "old  serpent"; 
as  the  ash  —  Ygdraul  —  which  he  gnaws,  corresponds  with  the  "tree  of 
life."  Agreeably  to  this  assumed  identity,  we  find  him  actively  engaged 
in  the  place  of  future  torments:  so  the  Yolnspa,  stanza  45:  — 

"Wliere  the  turbid  flood  Such  whose  gulling  tongues 

Roll*d  its  poison-wave,  "Wooed  the  wedded  ear. 

FerjuT*d,  bloodstain'd  stood  Corses  piled  beneath 

"Wretches  doom'd  to  lave.  Gorging  Nidhogg  lay. 

Wading  deep  in  throngs  There  the  wolf  of  death 

Loathsome  forms  appear,  Rent  his  pallid  prey."  2) 

NIFFELHEM,  —  "The  NEBULOUS  Homc ;  the  lowest  sub-terraneal 
region,  governed  by  Hela,  and  inhabited  by  the  dead.  In  the  Eddaic 
cosmogony,  it  is  a  figure  of  the  Northern  cold  regions  of  the  earth,  whilst 
in  a  state  of  chaos;  the  treasure-house  of  ice  and  frost,  whence  issued 
the  elements,  which  coming  into  collision  with  the  fiery  emanations  from 
Muspelsheim,  deposited  the  matter  of  the  world  —  the  body  of  the  giant, 
Ymer."  3) 

NIGHT ;  —  "Night  'mong  men  she's  call'd,    Un-lighi  Jotnar  name  her , 
The  Mild  One  with  the  Gods,  Slumher-gladmeit  Elves  say, 

DiiguUe  'mong  th'  Holy  Pow'rs ;       By  Dwarfs  Dream-mother  hight."  4) 
"I  suspect  tliat  the  Mother  Night  of  the  ancient  Goths  was  the  very 
tame  as  the  umvenal  mother  Night  of  the  Orphic  theology,  and  the  all-productive 
Night  or  darkness  of  the  Phoenician  or  Egyptian  systems."  5)     See  day. 

WORNA,  pi.  NORNOR  or  Nornir) ,  the  Fates,  Destinies,  Parcee,  *three 
fatal  Sisters'  of  the  North.  All  mythologies  agree  in  representing  the 
Goddesses  of  Fate  —  (in  other  words  the  Resolutions  and  Laws  of  the 
Almighty)  as  controlling  both  Gods  and  Men,  that  is,  all  Inferior  orders 
and  Powers  in  creation.  —  The  doom  of  the  wise  and  blooming  virgins 
of  Valhall  was   so  irrevocable,   that  even  words   escaping  unadvisedly 


I)  Volaspa,  str.  44,  translated  by  Strong,  p.  245.  —  a)  Strong,  p.  288,  —  3) 
Do.  p.  ^J^6.  —  4)  Seem.  Edda^  SoDg  of  AU-Wisc,  llr.  3l.  —  5)  Faher's  Orig. 
Pag.  Idol.  I.  a3l. 


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mnsl  be  accomplished.    "They  are  ihus  characterized  by  ihc  prophetess, 
Vala:  - 

"Thence  come  maideus  ,  Urda  hight  one  , 

Much  discerning,  One  Yerdandi  , 

Three ,  forth  that  hall  —  staves  they  rune-scribe  — 

Wliich  stands  tree-crown'd:  yon  lliird  Sknlda."  1) 

"Many  right  fair  places  are  there  in  Heaven,  and  a  divine  pro- 
tection is  there  ronnd  about  them  all.  There  |standelh  a  Hall  so  beauteous 
under  the  Ash-tree  [Ygdrasil]  by  the  Well  [of  Urda]  ,-and  from  this  Hall 
those  three  Maidens  come  hight  Urda,  [hath  been,  The  Past]  Verdande , 
[being.  The  Preieni}  and  Skulda  [should  or  shall  be,  The  Ftiiure],  These 
Maids  ordain  the  ages  of  mankind ,  and  -we  call  them  Nommr,  —  But  yet 
other  Nornor  are  there,  who  come  to  every  one  tliat  is  born,  and  deter- 
mine his  length  of  life ;  these  are  of  the  race  of  Gods.  Others  agaitu  are 
of  £lf-origin ,  and  tlie  third  sort  are  of  Dwarf-descent.  As  is  here  said:  -- 
"Far  difTrent  birth,  ^believe  I,  Some  are  Asa-offspring, 
Boast  the  Nornor  maids ,  Some  are  Fairy-children , 

Nor  have  they  race  alike :  Some  are  Dvalin's  [the  Dwarf-chiefs] 

daughters. 
"Then  quod  Gangleri  [the  Wayfarer]:  —  *If  the  Nornor  counsel 
for  the  destinies  of  men,  sure  ordain  they  very  unevenly;  for  some  have 
riches  and  pleasant  life ,  while  others  have  but  little  fortune  or  renown ; 
some  have  a  long  life ,  and  others  but  a  short  one.'  Har  [the  Lofty  One] 
made  answer:  'Good  and  well-sprung  Nornor  give  good  fortunes  also; 
and  when  men  fall  into  troubles,  it  is  bad  Nornor  who  are  the  cause 
thereof.'"  2)  —  This  the  old  Northman  firmly  believed.  The  most  clear 
and  determined  faialitm  ran  through  the  whole  circle  of  his  ideas,  impart- 
ing a  com  tempt  of  danger  and  defiance  of  death  never  surpassed  among 
the  votaries  of  Muhammed.  In  all  kinds  of  misfortune  and  difficulty,  the 
same  persuasion  gave  the  most  efficient  consolation.  So  Angantyr  Hei- 
dreksson ,  who  has  slain  his  brother  in  battle ,  concludes  by  exclaiming 
**nbtr  er  domur  Noma,'*  3),  *Evil  doom  the  Nornor  give !' —  Hilding's  "Impeach 
the  Nornor"  p.  124,  and  Frithiofs  accusation  against  "the  cruel  Gods" 
are  both  highly  Northern. 

It  may  be  added ,  that  the  name  Nornor  was  sometimes  applied 
to  Fplgier,  guardian-splrits ,  •— and  sometimes  to  Vahor,  Volor^  Vahr,  Divining- 
■women ,  Fortune-tellers  or  Witches  &c. 


1)  Strong,   p.  256,  from  Voluspa,   str,  20.  —   a)  Gylfag.,  ch.  l5.  —    3)  ilcrvaia 
Saga,  ch«  19  ad  fiaetUt 


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S84 

NORRANIG ,  Norse ,  thtt  common  aucient  lauguagt  of  tlie  three  Scan* 
dinavian  kingdoms  Ike,  (before  tliey  had  contracted  dialectic  differen« 
ces)  and  the  Imgm  franco  of  Northern  Europe  in  general. 


ocean's  maids,  the  Billows,  Waves. 

ODEN,  (Dr  Murray  says  Oden,  Wodan  &C.  tllC  mOVed  Or  excited;  Geijer 
says  Oden,  Guodan  &€.  —  the  Good) ,  the  Jupiter  of  the  North,  who  hears 
the  same  relation  to  Allfather ,  in  the  Scandinavian  Mythology ,  as  Braluna 
to  Brahm  in  that  of  India.  —  "He  is  the  ruler  of  the  Scandinavian  Olym- 
pus, yet,  like  his  classic  congener,  subject  to  a  paramount  fate,  and  to  a 
dark  and  terrible  destiny.  He  is  the  Val-fader,  or  batlle-god  yet  inferior 
to  Thor  in  prowess,  and  living  perpetually  exposed  to  outrage  and  defeat 
from  giants  and  giantesses.  He  is  tlie  parent  of  the  gods,  yet  first  progen- 
itor of  the  Royal  dynasties  of  the  North.  In  sum;  he  is  supreme  and 
inferior,  derived  and  underived,  mortal  and  divine.  Some  clue  to  this 
labyrinth  is  furnished  by  the  consideration,  that  a  vague  conception  of 
One  Supreme  Being,  and  a  hope  of  immortality,  mingle  in  the  religions 
system  of  even  the  rudest  tribes;  and  that  the  voice  of  tradition  describ- 
ing the  origin  of  this  globe  and  the  early  fate  of  man,  and  perpetuating 
prophetic  announcements  of  his  and  its  ultimate  destiny,  has  never  wholly 
died  away  in  tlie  distance.  These  truths  combining  with  the  creations 
of  fancy,  which  gave  to  physical  agents  and  results,  to  the  active  and 
passive  powers  of  nature ,  "a  local  habitation  and  a  name ,"  elevating  the 
creature  to  an  equality  with  the  Creator,  formed  necessarily  a  complicated 
and  heterogeneous  system;  in  which  truth  and  error,  ideal  and  actual, 
were  blended  in  almost  inexplicable  confusion.  The  mythology  of  the 
North  seems  to  have  been  further  perplexed  by  a  symbolical  incorporation 
of  the  history  of  religious  contests  and  vicissitudes;  and  to  have  been  ren- 
dered still  more  incongruous  by  the  substitution  of  a  second  inimigrant 
Oden  for  the  ancient  deity.  No  wonder  then  that  an  image  formed  by 
the  collision  of  rays  thus  differing  in  hue  and  direction,  should  be  indis- 
tinct and  fanstastical :  at  once  exhibiting  traits  of  a  universal  and  of  a  na- 
tional deity;  of  a  god  of  war  and  of  a  priest;  of  an  oracle  and  of  a  con- 
suiter  of  oracles;   of  a  wizard  and   of  a  hero."  1)    See   allfatheh,  geirs- 

ODD. 

0DEN*s  BIRDS.  "Ravens  two  seat  them  on  his  [Oden'sJ  shoulders , 
and  say  in  his  ear  all  those  tidings  the  which  they  see  or  hear.    They  are 


J)  Strong,  p.  x5. 


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thushigUt,  Hugmn  [ileaaoii ,  Tlionghtj  andMi/nmn,  [Will,  Memory].    These 
•endelli  he  at  day-break  to  fly  round  every  laud,  and  back  again  come 
tliey  at  ihe   first  meal  of  day.    Thereof  becometh  he  wise  from  tidiugs 
manifold,  and  from  this  men  call  him  the  Raven-God.    As  is  here  said: 
^'Hnginn  and  Muuinn  For  Huginn  I  fear, 

Fly  each  day  out  Lest  he  should  not  return  — 

This  round  globe  over;  But  still  more  I  look  after  Muninn."!) 

oden's  drink.  ^'Then  said  Gangleri,  'Doth  Oden  keep  the  same 
table  as  ihe  Einheriar?'  Har  rcplielh :  *That  food  -which  standeth  on  Ms 
board,  giveth  he  two  wolves  that  he  hath,  and  which  are  hight  Geri 
and  Freki.  And,  indeed,  no  provisions  needeth  he;  wiis'B  is  both  meat 
and  drink  unto  him."  2) 

ODEPf'S  HALL,  the  firmament. 

ORKNEYS,  belonged  for  a  very  long  time  to  Scandinavia.  "The 
Orkney  Islands  were  a  favourite  resort  with  Sea-Rovers ,  who  found  there 
a  secure  rendezvous  duiing  the  innavigable  season,  and  importing  with 
them  spoils  of  various  descriptions,  converted  those  deserts  into  treasures 
of  wealth  and  costly  merchandize.  The  precious  metals,  however,  were 
sufilciently  abundant  in  the  North,  and  luxuries  found  their  way,  though 
less  profusely,  to  the  coasts  of  Skandinavia."  3)  The  name  is  explained 
by  some  ,  Deseri-nhi  (from  tlie  Danish  oerken  and  o«) ,  and  by  others  StaUUht, 
from  the  Icelandic  orhn. 


PROGRESS,  Eriktgata,  se-riks-gata ,  aU-realm»-circuitj  the  regular  Progress 
of  the  newly-elected  Sovereign  to  receive  homage  and  confirmation  from 
the  several  Tings  of  his  different  Provinces.  The  coronation  followed  the 
Progress.  Of  course  the  word  is  sometimes  used  for  any  royal  tour  in 
general* 

PUNNING  was  a  favourite  practise  of  the  Northmen.  "Possibly  this 
paronomastic  exercise  was  a  relic  of  Eastern  manners,  since  there  a  pun 
was  not  accounted  beneath  the  dignity  of  even  prophetic  diction.  So  Mi- 
cah  exclaims  with  noble  fervour,  (I.  10). 

"In  Gath"  —  W1J[>  knowledge  —  "make  it  not  known,**  — 

"In  Acco"  —  weeping  —  "»ee/>  ye  nOl," 

"In  Beth-Leaphra"  —  ihe  home  of  dust  —  "roll  thyself  in  the  dwi,** 
Rel,    Pair  4) 


I)  Gy^aj.  ch.  38.  —  2)  !>•.  —  3)  Strong,   x53.  —  4)  Do.  p.  220. 


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RAG!CAK0R,  Uic  general  conflagration,  the  last  day,  (according  to 
one  interpretation,  tke  nth  or  firt  of  the  Detmonui  according  to  another  M# 
TwUifki  of  tko  Ood$,  ae  the  same  catastrophe  is  named  in  the  Hindu  Mytho- 
logy)* —  "Now  flits  the  glance  of  Vala  to  tliat  twilight  of  ages,  when  the 
gods  shall  be  hurled  from  their  seats;  the  universe  destroyed:  and  would 
that  space  permitted  to  adduce  entire  the  magnificent  Eddaic  description 
of  this  event  \  Hear  the  prophetess ! 

'^Str.  40.   Fate's  dark  volume  reads  the  wise ; 
Sees  with  gifted  eye  afar, 
Twilight  of  the  gods  arise , 
And  the  tug  of  giant  war. 
'^Fimbulvetr  antecedes ,    the  mighty  winter  threefold  iu  duration, 
unbroken  by  intervening  summer:   fit  sequence  to  a  triple  period  of  uni- 
versal war  and  bloodshed ;   when   the  parent   shall   not   spare  his  child , 
nor  brother,  brother. 
*'Str.  46.  Age  of  battle-ax,  of  brand:     Age  of  storms,  of  murderous  hand: 
Age  of  beasts  that  ravening  prey:      Ere  the  world  shall  pass  away. 

"The  fiery  Cock  of  the  Trolds,  the  gold-bright  of  the  Msir , 
the  rust-red  in  the  subterraneous  halls  of  Hela,  crow  in  ominous  concert. 
The  fettered  "Wolf  howls,  every  chain  is  broken,  the  Giants  gambol, 
Lok^  is  free.  Earth  quakes,  the  Dwarfs  sigh  at  the  doors  of  iheir  rocky 
caverns,  Ygdrasil  groans  and  trembles.  The  sea  boils  over  its  bounds, 
for  the  serpent  of  MidgRrd  advances  in  gigantic  frenzy,  and  heaves  him- 
self on  shore.  Then  Heimdal  standing  forth,  blows  a  blast  upon  the 
Giallar-horn ,  which  resounds  through  all  worlds,  and  summons  the  dei- 
ties to  war.  Oden  in  vain  communes  with  tlie  head  of  Mimer.  The  eagle 
screams,  and  rends  the  frequent  corpse;  tlie  billows  roar;  and  Na^elfan  — • 
the  ship  fabricated  from  nails  of  dead  men  —  is  launched,  and  rides  on, 
steered  by  the  giant  Hrymer.  But  Heaven  is  rent,  and  Muspel's  sons 
move  in  squadron  through  the  gulf,  headed  by  the  sable  Surtnr,  the  All- 
kindling,  himself  mailed  in  flame,  and  brandishing  a  sword  that  outsliines 
the  solar  beam.  Beneath  their  tread,  Bifrost  the  tremulous  bridge,  is 
crushed.  Loke  repairs  with  the  sons  of  Hela,  Hrymer  with  tlie  giant 
race ,  to  mingle  in  tlie  general  affray.  All  the  Emkeriar  —  Yalliall's  heroes 
—  march  in  mighty  train.  Oden  leads  them  on,  the  sire  of  gods  and  men , 
and  on  Vigrid's  boundless  plain  commences  the  final  conflict.  The  Wolf 
engorges  Oden,  but  Yidar,  the  silent  and  strong,  avenges  his  parent. 
Heimdal  and  Loke  sink  in  mutual  death.  Frey  falls  before  Surtnr.  The 
Midg&rd- serpent  is  slain  by  Thor,  but  the  poisoned  victor  scarcely  sur- 
vives his  foe.    Suriur  at  length  triumphs,  hurls  flames  over  the  universe:  — 


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''Blackness  slironds  ihe'orb  of  Jay ;  Up  ihe  Worldlree'sl)  mystic  height , 

Earth  is  gnlphed  in  boiling  waves;  Fast  the  reeking  raponr  fiies; 

Not  a  lode-fttar*8  lingering  ray,  Rival  clonds  of  lurid  light, 

Natures  last  convulsion  braves*  Sport  with  heaven  and  fire  the  skies*'2) 


RAN  or  RANA,  (the  spoiler),  spouse  of  AGiR,  personified  tlie  tempes- 
tuous wicked  deceitful  deep.  Hence  tlie  Sea  is  termed  Ron'*  landy  pahice 
&c.,  and  a  ship  Ran*i  horte,  ''Then  saw  the  Asar  that  ran  had  a  net,  with 
which  she  caught  up  all  those  that  perish  on  the  sea."  3) 

RiNGARiRE  or  HrtngarAi^  the  realm  of  King,  on  the  western  border 
of  Chris tiania-fjord ,  comprehended  the  present  Ringerike  ,  Modun  and 
Nnmmedal* 

ROTA,  (FAIR  LOCKS),  an  Equestrian  Amazou ,  one  of  the  Yalkyrior.  4) 

RUiSB,  letter,  mark,  secret,  spell,  hieroglyphic  &c.  The  Rune- 
alphabet  consisted  of  16  letters ,  resembling  to  a  great  extent  the  Etrus- 
can, old  Greek,  Phoenician  &c.  —  Originally  the  property  of  the  Pagan 
priestly  and  royal  caste,  they  afterward  became  generally  known,  and 
were  used  both  in  witchcraft  and  composition.  Several  MSS.  in  rune- 
characters  are  still  in  existence,  and  runes  themselves  are  even  now  un- 
derstood in  some  districts  in  t]ie  North.  For  various  information  on  Uiis 
subject  we  refer  to  Geijer  5)  and  Strinnholm.  6) 

RUNE-STAFF,  Calcudar-stave ,  carved  with  Runic  signs  &c. ,  and 
which  may  be  used  instead  of  a  common  Almanac.  Such  Rune-staves 
were  formerly  universal  in  the  North,  and  answered  their  purpose  admir- 
ably well.    See  description  op  ingeborg's  arm-ring. 

RUNE-STONB,  Gravc-sione ,  carved  with  runes,  erected  to  the  re- 
membrance of  the  deceased.  About  1600  Rune-stones  are  found  in  the  3 
Skandinavian  kingdoms ,  of  which  1100  belong  to  Svea-rike ,  and  not  less 
than  800  of  these  to  Upland ,  the  seat  of  the  Oden-dynasly.  Many  of  the 
rune-stones  are  undoubtedly  heathen.  7) 


SAGA ,   (STORY,  RELATION) ,  the  CHo  of  the   Norlh.    She  sits  by  So- 
quaback,  relating  to  Odeu  tlie  fortunes  of  mankind. 


I)  The  Asb  Ygdrasil.  —  a^  Gdjtrs  Svea  B.  Bafd.  I,  334,  trans,  by  Strong,  p. 
3i3.  »  3)  Skaldskap.  cb.  33,  ~  4)  Gylfag.  cb.  36.  —  5)  Svea  Raes  mfd,  I. 
135—174.  —    6)  Svemka  FolktU   Bit*,  11.  439—471.  —    7)  Strinkkohm,   U.  440.  — 


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SBA.    **S*a  'tl«  call'd  'mong  Men ,        Xet-itorM  Jotnar  cry , 
PlmH'wrfact  'mong  the  Gods,         Watw-huUrett  Elves  say, 
The  Vanir  name  il  Wme;  Dwarfs  call  it  Wmfry  Deep:'  1) 

SEA*HORSB.  **To  the  trident  of  Neptune,  in  classic  fiction,  is  at- 
tribnted  the  origin  of  the  horse,  and  assnredly  to  the  ocean,  though  not 
to  its  fabled  ruler,  has  many  a  region  been  indebted  for  the  introduction 
of  that  transmarine  animal.  An  intimate  and  indissoluble  association  would 
thus  be  established  between  the  land  and  sea  rangers;  and,  possessing 
as  they  do  many  points  of  poetic  resemblance,  it  is  singular,  perhaps, 
that  the  metaphor  should  not  continually  occur.  Few  comparisons  can 
appear  more  obvious  than  the  Homeric  simile :  — 


'Av^d( 


ccTi  yiyvovTcLi* 


''which  are  to  man 
His  steeds,  which  bear  him  o'er  the  seas  remote.** 
•  -  -  -  A  Northman  would  be  especially  disposed  to  ascribe  the  subjuga- 
tion of  the  steed,  and  the  control  of  the  pennoned  courser  ~  Bymn  to  Nepi, 
to  one  and  the  same  power."  2)    See  dragon. 

SEA-KING,  a  Chief,  generally  of  royal  birth,  who  had  no  kingdom 
to  inherit  at  home,  and  therefore  sought  one  on  the  waters.  Higher  in 
title  than  the  VHungt,  they  were  also  commonly  at  the  head  of  much  more 
powerful  fleets.  Every  Sea-King  was  a  Yiking,  but  the  reverse  was  only 
occasionally  the  case. 

SEA-MAIDS  ,  Billows  ,  Xgir's  Daughters. 

8BMIN6,  (the  PACIFICATOR).  "Thereafter  jouruied  he  [Oden]  north- 
ward, until  he  reached  that  sea  which,  as  is  thought,  lieth  about  all 
lands.  There  set  he  his  son  as  king ,  in  the  realm  now  hight  Norway. 
Seming  was  he  Called,  and  to  him  reckon  Norway's  kings  ;their  ancestry, 
together  with  its  Jarls  and  other  chief  men,  as  is  related  in  Haleygjatal.**  3) 

SHIELD  ,  a  universal  arm  among  the  Northmen.  They  were  gener- 
ally defended  with  steel  rims  and  bosses  &c.  and  were  often  orna- 
mented with  plates  of  gold,  silver  devices,  and  rich  paintings  or  carv- 
ings* —  **The  Skandinavians  generally  had  shields  of  a  long  oval  form, 
just  the  height  of  the  bearer,  in  order  to  protect  him  from  arrows,  darts, 
and  stones,  They,  besides,  made  use  of  them  to  carry  the  dead  to  the 
grave ;  to  terrify  the  enemy  by  clashing  their  arms  against  them ;   to  form 


l)  Sem,  Kdda,   SoDg  of  AU-Wise»   str.  a5.  —  2)  Strnng,   p.  a55.  —    3)  Sn.  Kdda, 
Prefaee,  sec,  II. 


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upon  occasion  a  kind  of  shelter  or  tent  -wlien  tliej  were  obliged  to  encamp 
in  tlie  open  field,  or  when  the  weather  was  bad.  Nor  was  the  shield  less 
useful  in  naval  encounters;  for  if  tlie  fear  of  falling  into  their  enemies' 
hands  obliged  one  of  their  warriors  to  cast  himself  into  the  sea,  he  conld 
easily  escape  by  swimming  npon  his  buckler  of  wood  or  leather."  1) 

SHIELD-MAID,  a  title  applied  to  the  Nornor  and  to  the  Valkyrior. 
It  was  also  often  used  of  the  Amazonian  adventurers  of  the  North,  such 
as  Hervara,  Alfhild  and  Thorberg. 

SHIELD  UP  PEACE,  a  White  Shield,  held  up  as  token  of  a  truce*  2) 

SHIELD  OF  WAR,  a  Red  Shield,  defying  to  battle, 

siGNE,  daughter  of  Sigar,  king  of  Zealand.    See  hagbaAt. 

SIGURD,  ("Warder  of  Victory),  Fafner's  bane,  the  slayer  of  Fafner. 
«*0f  the  worthies  of  the  North,  no  one  has  left  behind  him  a  fame  so 
widely  diffused,  as  he  the  illustrious  spouse  or  victor  of  Brynhilda,  and 
parent  of  Aslauga,  preserved  in  the  golden  harp  —with  which  her  foster- 
father,  Heimer,  lulled  her  cries  —  to  be  the  favourite  and  queen  of  the 
celebrated  Regnar  Lodbrok."  3) 

siRELO,  Sicily,  was  as  well  as  its  wines  well  known  to  the  North- 
men. They  conquered  it  in  the  11th  century,  and  Roger  united  it  to 
Naples  by  tlie  name  of  the  two  Sicilies. 

srinpaxe,  Sheen-fax,  Shining-Mane.    See  day. 

SRULDA,  one  of  the  Destinies.    See  norna. 

SLEiPNER,  (the  SLIPPER  or  SLIDER),  the  fiend-Steed  descended  from 
lioke  and  Svadelfore,  and  belonging  to  Oden  himself.  Sleipner*s  swift- 
ness was  immense;  "grey  was  he,  8  were  his  feet,  and  the  best  horse  Jie 
is  for  Gods  and  men."  4)  Crentzer  imagines  he  was  a  figure  of  the  8-monlh8' 
winter  of  the  North. 

SNAIL ,  Merchant-ship. 

soLUNDAR,  See  solundeA. 

SOKNE-SOUND,  between  the  islands  of  Sokken  and  Broe,  to  the 
south  of  Rukken's-firth ,  in  Stavanger  Amt. 

SOTE,  —  "A  celebrated  freebooter,  who,  it  seems,  bequeathed 
his  name  to  some  rocks  on  the  coast  of  Sweden ,  where  he  was  accustom' 
ed  to  rendezvous,  and  where,  at  length,  he  lost  his  life,  according  to 
one  account,  in  a  battle  against  St.  Olaf.  Some  other  codices,  however, 
assert,   that  the  pirates  escaped  by  flight,  —  Torf.  Bist,  III.  23.  -  -  -  -    Our 


I^  Mallet,  I.  240.  quoted  by  Strong,  p.  20I.  —  2)  See  UljegrerCt  Notes  to  his 
Swedisli  traos.  of  Ort>ar  Odd's  Saga,  p.  3o3.  —  3)  Strong,  p.  I18.  ~  4)  Gglfag. 
cli.  42. 


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fioet  has  borrowed  the  incident  from  a  saga,  ascribed  by  Miiller  to  the 
tenth  centnry:  who  thus  relates  it  in  his  Say,  BibU.  —  ''At  a  ynle-feast  in 
Gothland,  the  EarVs  son,  Hroar,  made  a  tow  to  rifle  the  tomb  of  the 
Yiking  Sot^,  and  the  foster-brethren,  Hordr  and  Geir,  engaged  to  assist 
him.  They  travelled,  twelre  in  number,  through  dense  woods  to  the 
mound,  and  commenced  the  work  of  excavation.  Toward  evening,  they 
liad  reached  the  frame  within,  but  on  the  following  morning  tlie  sides 
of  the  breach  had  united.  This  was  repeated  on  the  two  following  days, 
until  at  length  it  occurred  to  them  to  insert  a  sword  in  the  interstice.  By 
this  expedient,  they  succeeded  on  the  fourth  morning  in  penetrating  the 
limber-work,  and  discovered  the  door  of  the  chamber.  As  they  were  on. 
the  point  of  opening  it,  Hordr  bade  the  assistants  be  on  their  guard.  He 
himself  withdrew  behind  the  door,  but  two  of  the  people,  less  cautious, 
\vere  struck  dead  by  the  stream  of  mephitic  air.  As  no  one  was  willing 
to  descend,  Hordr  volunteered,  on  condition  that  he  should  be  permitted 
to  select  three  articles  from  the  precious  spoil.  He  was  then  lowered , 
but  could  descry  nothing  until  Geir  descended  with  fire  and  tapers.  They 
now  perceived  an  inner-door,  and  when  this  had  been  broken  open,  saw 
ft  sliip  richly  laden,  and  Sole  seated  upon  the  poop.  At  the  same  time, 
however,  such  a  volume  of  damp  issued,  with  an  explosion  from  the 
orifice  ,  that  the  lights  were  extinguislied.  Hordr  next  attempted  to  take 
possession  of  the  booty,  but  tlie  dead  warrior  chaunted  a  stanza,  forbid> 
ding  the  bttelhpt.  Hordr  responded  also  in  metre;  whereupon  the  spectre 
attacked  him,  and  was  gaining  the  mastery,  when  Geir  rekindled  the 
tapers.  Suddenly  the  spectre  fell  to  the  ground;  first,  nevertheless,  pro- 
phesying that  the  gold-ring,  the  last  treasure  seized  by  Hiirdr,  should 
prove  the  bane  of  its  possessor  until  it  came  into  the  hands  of  a  female. 
The  trinket,  accordingly,  proved  fatal  to  him,  since  he  was  betrayed  and 
stabbed  in  the  back  for  that  promulgated  reward,"  1) 

8TREITALAND,  the  residence  of  King  Ring,  perhaps  the  present 
farm  of  Helge-land  in  the  parish  of  Hole ,  where  there  still  stands  a  large 
Barrow, 

SUN,    "5«M  she's  hight  'mong  Men,         Eter-ghwing  Jotnar  say. 

Star  among  the  Gods,  Elves  the  Fatr-ditk  call  her, 

Dvalm'i  play-iiatm-  'moug  Dwarfs ;  WorU-Ught  the'  Asar  cry!"  2) 
So  the  Pagan  Fins  and  Laps  called  one  of  their  deities  Behe  or  Beive-Neid, 
the  sun  or  virgin  sun ,  the  Queen  of  Heaven,    See  moon. 

suRTUR,  See  mcspelheim,  ragnaroe. 


1)  Sirong^  p.  5o.  —  »)  Softn.  Udda,  Song  of  AlLWise,  sir.  17. 


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SWORDS.  Spencer  says,  1)  "We  purchased  from  the  natives  and  Ar- 
minian  merchants  at  Bombara,  a  number  of  splendid  sabres  and  poniards 
of  the  very  first  workmanship,  and  evidently  of  great  antiquity;  bat  so 
well  preserved,  that  they  appeared  as  if  they  had  only  yesterday  left  the 
hands  of  the  armourer;  several  of  the  blades  were  engraved  or  inlaid 
with  gold  characters.  There  were  also  full-length  inscriptions  on  some  of 
them,  surmounted  with  the  head  of  our  Saviour  or  a  Saint,  vrliich  gener- 
ally ran  thus ,  —  Parmi  Dey  e  par  my  Rey.  Ne  me  tire  pas  sans  raison , 
et  ne  me  remets  pas  sans  honneur.'*  — ''Some  designations  of  blades  wield-* 
ed  by  celebrated  heroes  of  romance  are  almost  as  formidable  as  the 
weapons  themselves.  Who  can  hear  undaunted  the  very  mention  of  Ex- 
calibar ,  the  magic  sword  of  Arthur ,  that 

"Flam'd  like  burning  brond," 
or  even  of  Mimungr,  the  chef-tC autre  of  Velint,  which  could  cleave  a  cable 
thirty  feet  in  diameter,  wafted  by  the  current  against  its  motionless  edge; 
or  of  the  more  resonant  Eckisax,  with  which  Thidrek  rescued  Sintram 
from  the  jaws  of  a  dragon;  of  Hildebrand's  Nagellring;  of  Gusi's  Drag- 
vendill,  pronounced  to  be  the  best  of  swords;  of  Hraungvithr's  Brynth- 
vari ,  which  never  lost  its  edge ;  of  Hogni's  Sigurliomi ;  of  Rolfs  Risa- 
nautr,  heavy  even  to  his  arm,  but  too  huge  to  be  rfiised  by  any  other; 
or,  to  name  no  more,  of  the  two-edged  glave  of  Hrofr,  the  unpronounce- 
able Hreggvidarnaulr!"  2)  —  We  cannot  help  translating  the  following 
valuable  note:  —  "To  the  Visu  tribe  the  Bulgarians  bring  sabres  from 
the  Mahommedan  countries.  These  sabres  are  not  provided  with  any  hilt 
or  ornament,  —  but  are  simply  blades,  just  as  they  come  from  the  smithy. 
When  one  suspends  them  by  a  tliread,  and  fillips  them  with  the  finger 
—  they  ring  again.  Such  sabres  are  suitable  import-articles  into  the  coun- 
try of  Jura  (Jugrien) ,  whose  inhabitants  pay  a  high  price  for  them."  See 
the  Extracts  from  Arabic  writers  communicated  by  C.  M.  Fra^n,  76m- 
FosuloM  ».  and,  Araher  Berichie,  In  the  oldest  Rassian  Chronicle  (by  Nestor)  we 
are  told  tliat  the  inhabitants  of  Kiew  who,  before  the  foundation  of 
the  Russian  empire  by  the  Varegic  princes,  were  tributaries  under  thp 
Chazarier,  paid  the  same  to  them  in  double-edged  swords.  Indeed,  when 
tlie  Russians  conquered  Fermia  (Biarmaland)  they  found  sabres  of  steel 
among  them.  See  SckUhter,  RuaUche  Ann,  Supposing  that  all  these  sfatp- 
ments  are  correct  —  a  thing  we  have  no  reason  to  doubt,  there  being  no- 
thing improbable  in  the  case  ~  it  must  follow  that  Mussulman  sabre-blades 


l)  Trateh  to  the  Caucasus,  —  2)  Strong,  p.  47* 


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also  belonged  to  the  articles  intrpdnced  into  the  northern  regions  of  Rus- 
sia, in  the  course  of  the  trade  wilh  ihe  tribes  residing  there.  —  Will  not 
lliis,  perhaps,  give  a  hint  towards  the  explanation  of  the  high-floMrn  rela- 
tions 80  often  occurring  in  the  Sagas  respecting  the  costly,  wonderful, 
and  Dwarf-forged  swords?"  1) 

SYasTRAND,  the  residence  ofKingBele  and  his  family,  lies  opposite 
Framnas  to  the  Nortli  of  Sogne-frith  —  here  only  2000  yards  across. 

soLUNDBR-iSLBS.  —  At  the  entrance  of  Sogne-friih,  are  now  called 

YUre-SiUen,  and  IndreSuleH, 

sSquabacr.    See  desgkiption  op  ingsborg's  arm-ring. 


THOR,  (the  mighty),  the  Son  of  Oden  and  the  Earth,  the  Spouse  of 
Sif.  —  *'The  god  and  personification  of  tliunder;  and,  like  the  classic 
Mars,  of  brute  slreuglh.  First-born  of  Oden,  he  is  the  indefatigable  enemy 
of  the  giants  of  the  frost,  at  whom  he  hurls  his  formidable  mace.  In 
Norway,  he  divided  wilh  or  retained  from  Oden  the  principal  reverence, 
and  in  the  personal  and  local  nomenclatures  of  that  portion  of  the  pe- 
ninsula, his  name  occurs  with  peculiar  frequency.  The  two  goals,  ibex, 
harnessed  to  his  chariot,  possessed  the  valuable  property  of  recovering 
life  and  vigour  each  morning,  after  tlieir  roasted  carcasses  had  supplied 
an  evening  meal."  —  '*Three  valuables  also  hath  he.  The  one  of  these 
is  the  Hammer  (Mace)  MisUnur  [the  Bruiser] ,  which  Frost-trolls  and  Mounl- 
ain-Gianls  know,  when  it  is  uplift;  nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at,  for 
the  head  of  many  a  one  of  their  fathers  and  kinsmen  hath  he  broken 
therewith.  The  second  precious  thing  he  has,  is  a  right  excellent  Megin- 
gjard  [Megingiarthar ,  Belt  Or  Girder  of  Strength]  and  when  he  girdelh  him- 
self therewith,  his  Ala-might  is  doubled  to  the  half.  But  a  third  ibjug 
hath  he  which  is  exceeding  precious,  —  his  Iron-Glovet  [jdrngUfar ^  Gaunt- 
lets]; these  he  cannot  miss,  for  to  grasp  the  hammer-shaft  wilhal."  2)  See 
a  most  charming  description  of  the  Hammer  and  its  fabrication,  in  the 
Younger  Edda,  Skalskaparmal,  ch.  35.  —  Creut»er  interprets  the  Bell  or 
Girdle,  Megingjard^  into  a  symbol  of  the  Ecliptic,  and  the  Gauntlets  into 
an  emblem  of  the  security  of  organic  nature  against  wild  organic  fire. 

THORSTKN    (viKiNGSSOiv).    "The   eldest  son    [of  Viking's  nine]   was 

hight  Thorsten The    noblest  of  them  all  was  he   in  every  thing, 

a  stout  and  tall-built  man,  strong,  friend-rich  and  upright,  true-fast  and 
in  all  tilings  to  be  depended  on.  Slow  was  he  bimself  to  attack  auolher, 
but  terrible  was  his  vengeance  when  that   another  fell  upon  liim.    What 


l)  Slrinnhohi,  Svemha  F.  Jiid.    U.  i{fi.    —   2)   Strong,  p.    16.   —   3)  Gylfag.    ch.   21, 


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time  aught  was  done  against  him ,  could  no  one  see  whether  he  took  the 
same  well  or  ill;  but  long  ihereafler  remembered  he  ihe  whole,  even  as 
il  had  only  just  taken  place."  1)  —  "According  to  the  writer  of  Thor- 
slein's  Saga,  or  biography,  he  had  married  the  only  sister  of  king  Bele ; 
and  ihe  account  of  this  alliance  is  duly  embellished  with  a  tinge  of  ilie 
marvellous.  Reluming  from  a  successful  cruise,  Thorsten  encountered  a 
tempest,  raised  by  the  art  of  a  magician,  in  the  train  of  his  implacable 
foe,  Prince  JokuU;  and  having  lost  his  vessel  and  crew,  swam  toward 
the  shore:  but  was  on  the  point  of  perishing,  exhausted  by  the  breakers, 
when  a  tall  female  form,  wading  through  the  surf,  approached.  Her  ap- 
pearance was  unfeminine;  and  addressing  him  by  name,  she  inquired 
whether  he  would  purchase  his  life  by  a  promise  to  grant  whatever  boon 
she  might  subsequently  desire.  This  condition  was  accepted;  and  having 
borne  him  to  land,  she  resuscitated  his  languid  animation  and  dismissed 
him  with  good  wishes,  postponing  the  preference  of  her  petition.  His 
enemy,  however,  ascertaining  his  escape,  did  not  relax  his  persecution; 
.and  on  one  occasion  contrived  to  surprise  Thorsten  when  only  accom- 
panied by  a  single  brother,  and  to  attack  the  two  with  an  armed  band. 
Back  to  back  the  brethren  fought  manfully,  and  slew  most  of  their  assail- 
ants; but  Thorir  at  length  fell,  and  Thorsten,  desperately  wounded  and 
faint,  was  forced  over  the  precipice  to  which  he  had  retreated,  in  order 
lo  secure  his  rear.  Death  seemed  inevitable  ;  and  he  must  soon  have  pe- 
rished, had  he  not  been  roused  from  his  deli quium  by  the  same  deliveress 
who  had  rescued  him  from  a  watery  grave.  She  again  professed  herself 
ready  to  assist  him,  provided  that  he  wonld  now  redeem  his  pledge,  by 
complying  with  her  request.  This  was  no  other  than  an  engagement  to 
csijouse  her;  and,  although  he  demurred  on  account  of  her  unsighlliness, 
his  desperate  situation  and  his  promise  which  the  Northmen  deemed  in- 
violable, induced  him  to  submit;  and  he  only  required  as  a  preliminary, 
that  his  sword,  Angrvathill,  should  be  recovered  from  the  wave.  This  slie 
effected,  and  the  compact  was  made.  She  then  informed  Thorsten,  that 
allliough  she  had  twice  saved  his  life,  and  had,  moreover,  destroyed  his 
most  formidable  foe,  the  magician  —  having  brought  a  preternatural  dark- 
ness over  the  ship  in  which  he  sailed,  and  suspended  him  during  that 
obscurity  to  the  yard-ai-m  —  still  had  he  fully  repaid  her:  for  his  promise 
had  released  her  from  the  spell  under  which  she  was  bound  to  retain  her 
present  shape,  until  some  one  of  generous  birth  C^elborinn  mathr)  should 
consent  to  wed  her.   Henceforth  the  sister  of  Bele  would  be  herself  again; 


l)  Thorsten  Vikingssons  Saga,  cli.  9, 


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and  if  Thovsten  should  persevere  in  Ms  intention,  he  mast  demand  her 
hand  of  her  brother,  whom  she  knew  he  would  shortly  encounter  and 
overcome.  Her  prediction  was  speedily  accomplished,  and  the  confeder- 
acy established  between  the  two  warriors  was  cemented  by  this  cove- 
nanted marriage."  1) 

THRUDVANG,  Or  THRUTH-HEIM  ,   [the  PLAIN  Or  HO  MB   of  the   STRONG,]   the 

realm  of  Thor. 

THRUDVANG's  PORT,  —  BILSRIRNIR,  tlie  chief  Castle  and  Capital  of 
Thrudvang. 

"Five  hundred  floors  (rooms)  Of  all  those  Houses 

And  forty  roundabout  Whose  roofs  I  know, 

So    know    I    arch'd    Bilskirnir  My    [0 den's]    Son's    [TJior's]     is 
boasted;  surely  largest."  2) 

THUNDERING  GOD,   See  THOR. 

TING,  (originally  meaning  Talk,  Conference)  Public  Meeting,  Diet, 
Assize ,  Parliament ,  Wiltenagemol.  "The  practise  of  holding  courts  in 
the  open  air,  which  so  long  prevailed  in  Britain,  was  a  relic  of  Druidism 
which  subsisted  in  most  Europaean  countries.  The  court  of  Areopagus  at 
Athens  sat  in  the  open  air,  and  Pliny  informs  us  that  the  Roman  Senate 
was  first  so  held.  That  circular  inclosures  of  stone  were  used  as  courts 
of  justice  and  places  for  trial  and  combat  is  well  known.  In  Scandinavia 
they  were  long  so  appropriated;  and  in  Shetland  and  Orkney  the  practise 
continued  to  very  late  times.  In  these  last  places  they  were  called  Ting, 
which,  according  to  Dr.  Murray,  originally  signified  to  nnrowtd.  Of- these 
moot-hills  the  most  remarkable  is  the  Tyrwald  in  the  isle  of  Man ,  upon 
which  the  I^uke  of  Atliol,  as  descendant  of  the  ancient  kings,  annually 
presides."  3) 

TING-STONE ,  a  high  Stone-block  on  the  highest  part  of  the  Ting- 
place.  On  this  sate  tlie  Judge,  king,  or  aspirant  to  the  Crown,  that  he 
might  be  the  better  seen  by  the  people.  On  the  Mora-Bione,  near  Upsala, 
many  kings  have  been  elected,  even  late  in  the  Christian  Era. 

TiRFiNG.  —  "This  sword,  fabricated  by  two  skilful  Dwarfs,  as  a 
ransom  for  tlieir  lives,  possessed  several  surpassing  qualities.  Bright  as 
a  sunbeam,  its  hilt  and  guard  were  of  gold;  it  defied  rust  and  fracture; 
would  cleave  iron  or  stone  with  the  same  facility  as  a  garment;  and, 
whether  in  single  or  banded  combat,  conferred  victory  on  tlie  arm  wliich 
wielded  it.    Yet   the    tasked  and  malicious  artificers  had  also  attached  to 


i)  Strong,  p.  29.  —  2)  Sam,  Ed4aj  Grimner's  Spng,  str.  34.  —  3)  Loffan,  Scotisll 
Gael,  I,  208. 


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it  a  malediciion,  that,  whenever  drawn,  it  should  he  the  bane  of  man; 
sliould  prove  fatal  to  its  original  possessor,  himself j  and  the  iuslriiment 
of  three  heinous  enormities.  The  personal  imprecation  was  soon  accom- 
plished;  for  its  owner,  Svafrlami,  having  riven  the  massy  iron-studded 
shield  of  Arngrim,  with  whom  he  was  engaged,  Tyrfing  penetrated  the 
ground,  and  before  it  could  be  withdrawn ,  was  dissevered,  with  a  portion 
of  the  arm  which  grasped  it,  by  a  stroke  from  the  Yiking,  who,  seizing 
the  liberated  blade ,  slew  his  antagonist.  From  the  conqueror  Arngrim , 
it  descended  to  his  son,  .A«igantyr,  and  was  inhumed  with  him  in  a 
mound  at  Samsoe.  The  precaution,  nevertheless,  proved  vain,  for  a 
posthumous  daughter  of  the  Berserk ,  inheriting  his  ferocious  disposition , 
addicted  herself  to  war  and  sorcery;  and  learning  the  history  of  her  sire, 
proceeded  wilh  some  Rovers,  whose  leader  she  became,  toward  the  haunt- 
ed isle.  "With  dijficulty  she  persuaded  her  crew  to  approach  a  place 
where  demons,  they  affirmed,  were  more  formidable  by  day  than  else- 
where by  night;  nor  could  any  prospect  of  gain  induce  one  of  them  to 
land.  Alone ,  therefore ,  and  at  sun-set ,  she  was  abandoned  upon  the 
shore ,  the  sailors  not  venturing  to  observe  their  promise  to  await  her 
return;  and  after  a  conference  with  a  herdsman  ,  who  refused  to  accompany 
her  to  the  tomb ,  she  advanced  to  the  scene  of  terrors.  Fearful  were  the 
ilres  erupted;  yet  undeterred  by  the  danger,  the  rune-versed  maiden 
hastened  to  the  principal  mound,  and  thus  commenced  her  adjuration:  — > 
""Wake,  Angantyr,  wake!  Oifspring  sole  I  stand  , 

Berserk  stern  and  wild,  Forth  thy  tomb  impart, 

Hear  for  Hervor's  sake  Svafrlami*s  brand 

Thine  and  Svafa's  child;  t^orged  by  Dwarfish  art.'* 

A  long  metrical  parley  ensued;  but  since  neither  flames  nor 
ominous  predictions  could  divert  the  heroine  from  her  purpose,  the 
charmed  weapon  was  at  length  cast  into  her  baud.  The  three  predicted 
atrocities  still  remained  to  be  perpetrated;  and  of  these ,  her  own  son, 
Heidrek,  was  subsequently  destined  to  be  the  agent  or  subject.  Banished 
by  his  father  for  misconduct,  he  wa8presentedbyHervor,at  his  departure  , 
with  this  ill-fated  sword;  and  forgetting  the  penally  attached,  drew  it 
with  youthful  inconsiderateness  to  contemplate  its  brilliancy:  his  only 
companion  was  then  his  brotlier,  and  him,  urged  by  the  spell,  he  con- 
sequently slew.  The  next  deed  of  infamy  —  nidingsverk  —  enacted  with 
tliis  bane  of  man ,  was  the  treacherous  murder  of  Heidrek's  benefactor 
and  father-in-law,  with  his  infant  son.  And  the  assassination  of  this 
ruffian  himself,  effected  by  some  captives  wilh  his  own  deadly  blade, 
completed  according  to  tlie  Saga,  the  trio  of  crimes  foretold.  In  the  hand 
of  a  second  Angantyr,  Tyrfing  became,  notwithstanding,  once  more  the 


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organ  of  fraternal  homicide ,  and  we  may  hope ,  was  with  him  entomhed , 
lo  be  disinterred  hy  no  second  Hervor."  --  From  the  Henara  Saga.  1) 


ullerArer  ,  Formerly  a  Fylkc-kingdom ,  independent  District,  in 
the  present  province  of  Yestmanland ,  Sweden. 

UPLAND  comprehended  the  present  amts  of  Christian  and  Hcde- 
mark,  together  with  Ofver-Rommerige. 

UPSAL*S  TEMPLE.  —  "At  the  ancient  Upsala  —  Ynyve  —  Frey,  the 
grandson  of  Oden,  founded  ahout  the  year  220  a  temple,  which  was 
widely  celebrated.  I  will  not,  like  some  curious  historiographers,  apply 
here  all  that  Plato  has  written  respecting  the  capital  of  his  Atlantis  ;  yet 
certain  it  is,  that  the  fabric  was  very  magnificent,  according  to  the  notions 
of  that  age:  of  stone,  cruciform,  extending  sixty  ells  in  length  and  in 
hreadih,  with  a  ring-wall  or  fence  around  it,  nine  hundred  ells  in  cir- 
cumference. This  temple  is  said  to  have  been  resplendent  with  gold , 
both  internally  and  externally,  and  especially  gorgeous  from  a  golden, 
chain  or  cornice ,  which  completely  circuited  it  under  the  extremity  of 
its  roof.  At  the  door  of  the  Fane,  according  to  the  same  authorities, 
stood  a  tree  of  unknown  species ,  and  retaining  its  leaf  throughout  the 
year."  2)  —  See  Note  to  Canto  III,  page  40. 

URDA's  chrystal  wave.  —  "The  fount  of  lime ,  under  that  root  of 
the  ash,  YgdrasU  —  the  Paradisiacal  tree  of  knowledge  —  which  extends 
to  the  jEsir.  Beside  this  fount,  accordingly,  they  collect  daily,  to  hold 
their  tribunal;  that  a  draught  of  the  water  of  experience  may  be  constantly 
within  their  reach.  Near  tliis  well,  too,  stands  the  beautiful  palace  of 
the  NomtTt  fates;  Urda^  Verandi,  Skulda  —  Past,  Present,  Future.  The  water 
is  so  sacred ,  that  everytliing  immersed  tiierein  becomes  white  as  the  lin- 
ing membrane  of  an  egg-shell.  From  two  swans,  tenants  of  this  flood , 
sprang  the  earthly  race  of  these  snow-white  aquatics.  Perchance  tliese 
immortal  birds  chant  the  death-song  of  those  doomed  by  the  Fates,  as 
their  mortal  congeners  are  reported  to  hymn  their  own.  An  appellation, 
wliich  has  much  perplexed  Biblical  commentators ,  may  possibly  derive 
illustration  from  this  page  in  the  sacred  archives  of  Scandinavia;  and 
En-mishpat  (Gen.  XIV.  7),  the  fount  of  judgement,  furnish  a  liitherto  un- 
observed trace  of  Oriental  affinity."3  ) 

UTGARD,  (ouT-TOWN)  the  capital  of  Jotunheim. 


VALA ,  the  name  applied  to  the  Northern  Sibyls ,  who  were  regard- 
ed  as    holy,    and   consulted   on   occasions   of  importance.     The   ancient 


1)  Strong,    p.  290.   —  2)  Dalin,    S?.  R.  Hist.  I.   i85,    cited  by   Strong,    p.  3o6.  — 
3)  Strong  f    p,  n6. 


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Germans  and  Italians  had  similar  prophetesses;  Horace  applies  the  term 
Folia  to  the  latter.  The  Voliispa ,  which  opens  the  Poetic  Edda ,  is  perhaps 
the  most  ancient  Chaunt  ive  hare,  from  the  lips  of  the  inspired  '^Divining- 
"womcn"  of  antiquity. — The  word  Fol,  in  all  the  old  Northern  languages, 
means  Fool  or  Madman;  and  we  know  that  Oriental  tribes  always  regard* 
ed  such  with  veneration,  as  God-gifted  mortals. 

VALASRJALF,    See  ARM-Ri:«G, 

VAL-FADSR,    (FATHER  of  the  SLAIN),  See    ODBN. 

VALHALL  or  VALHALLA,    (Val-hoU),   The   HALL   of  the   SLAm  or  ELECT. 

The  Elysian  Mansion  of  the  North,  where  Oden  receives  and  banquets 
the  warriors  who  fall  in  battle. 

"Oden  scans  the  battle-plain,  "Five  hundred  lofty  Doors,  I  ween, 

Draughts  the  heroes  as  they  fall;     In  Yalhall's  shining  Hall  are  seen. 
Summoned  to  his  board,  the  slain  And  twenty  added  twice  thereto; 

Marvel  at  the  glorious  Hall.  Einheriar  Chiefs,  eight  hundred  men, 

Piles  of  spears  its  columns  rise,        From  each  march  out  together,  when 
HooEng  shields  its  dome  uprear;  To  battle  'gainst  the  "Wolf  they 

E'en  its  thrones  in  warrior-guise  go."  2) 

Glittering  habergeons  bear."  1)  See  einheriar,  oden. 

YALRYRiA,  (CHOOSER  Or  Couductor  of  thc  SLAIN).  This  name  was 
applied  to  the  Battle-Goddesses,  who  led  tlie  fallen  Warrior  to  the  joys 
of  the  Spear-pillared  Valhall.  But  the  Valkyrias  were  also  Shield-Maids, 
who  bore  round  tlie  mead  &c.,  —  at  the  banquets  of  the  Einheriar.  In 
this  sense ,  they  were  Synonymous  with  the  Houria  of  the  Mohammedan 
Paradise.  Misla  and  Sangrida ,  in  Gray's  Ode  of  the  Fatal  Siatert,  were  Val- 
kyrias. Sometimes  a  Heroine,  sometimes  a  Destiny,  thc  Yalkyrias  are 
described  by  the  bards ,  now  with  blue  eyes  and  golden  hair  —  and  anon 
with  disshevelled  locks,  flaming  glances,  and  hands  reeking  with  gor9 
and  plying  the  web  of  death! 

VANADis,  (The  VANA-GODDBSS ,  the  Yeuus  of  the  Don) ,  a  surname  of 
Freja.  —  "In  various  dialects  of  the  Gothic  language,  waen  or  vaen,  signi- 
fies fmleker,  eletfau$,  Ihre  not  Only  deduces  the  name  of  Yenns  from  tliis 
root,  but  observes,  that  Lat.  Ventutmis  synonymous.  Rudbcck  asserts  that 
the  ancient  Goths  called  the  Earth  Fetm-diaf  maru  dea,  and  WenadU,  amoris  deat 
viewing  the  latter  as  formed  from  wen  amor  and  du  dea."  3) 

VAR,  (voR,  the  WARY  Or  the  true).  —  "The  nintli  [Asynja,  Asa- 
Goddess]  is  Yar  (Y5r).    She  listeneth  to  those    oaths  and  promises  wliich 


1)  Stem.    Edday  Grimner's    Song,    str.  8.  9.  translated    by    Strong,    p.  1 2.   —    2) 

Crunner'a  Song,  Str.  23.  —  3)  Jamieton,  Hermes  Scvlli. 

10 


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between  men  and  women  are  exchanged;  such  engagements  are  therefore 
hight,  Yar's  words.  She  ii  is,  also,  who  panisheth  such  as  break  the 
same.  Clever  and  wise  is  Yar,  and  askelh  mnch,  so  that  nothing  can 
be  concealed  from  her.  A  proverb  is  it,  that  a  female  is  Var  (aware, 
acute)  when  that  she  is  wise  about  anything."  1)  She  was  thus  the 
Guardian-Goddess  of  Betrothal-oaths  and  of  Marriage. 

YARG  I  VBDM,  (WOLF  IN  TBB  SANCTUARY),  the  old  Scandinavian  term 
for  Temple-violator,  sacrilegious  criminal,  banned  outlaw  &c. 

VAULUND,  (the  WONDBR-WORRBR) ,  at  oncc  the  Yulcan  and  the  Dae- 
dalus of  the  North.  This  extraordinary  artist  was  of  Finnish  descent,  and 
was  a  king's  son.  In  bodily  appearance  he  resembled  his  countrymen, 
being  small  of  stature  though  strongly  built.  He  shared  with  his  brothers 
many  strange  vicissitudes,  and  at  last  came  to  the  court  of  king  Nidudr, 
who  then  ruled  over  Sweden.  This  king  was  feeble  but  exceeding  covet- 
ous of  gold,  and  accordingly  eagerly  desired  to  obtain  possession  of 
those  precious  and  wonderful  things  of  which  Yauland  was  master.  He 
therefore  imprisoned  liim,  seized  his  jewels,  treated  him  with  great 
severity,  and  obliged  him  to  employ  his  extraordinary  skill  in  producing 
astonishing  specimens  af  hammered  and  smithied  metal.  This  cruel  treat- 
ment, however,  Yaulund  dearly  revenged,  and  he  eventually  succeeded 
to  the  throne  of  his  oppressor.  He  lived  long  and  happily ,  and  received 
after  his  death  divine  honours.  He  was  universally  regarded  in  the 
North  as  the  protector  and  patron  of  Smilhery,  a  kind  of  temporal  Dunstan. 
Many  great  Chiefs,  of  course ,  boasted  of  possessing  specimens  of  his  won- 
derful art;  and  to  several  of  these,  miraculous  powers  were  ascribed. 

"We  read  in  the  Icelandic  Saga:  — "King  Nidungur  reigned  now 
in  Jutland,  and  had  in  his  train  that  excellent  smith,  Yelent,  whom  the 
Vaeringar  (Sea-rangen)  called  Yolund.  He  was  so  celebrated  throughout  the 
northern  world,  that  all  were  unanimous  in  placing  him  at  the  head  of 
his  craft;  and  to  denote  the  superior  excellence  of  any  production  of  the 
furnace,  it  became  usual  to  say  that  the  artist  must  have  been  a  Vobmder 
in  skill.  A  rivalry  having  ensued  between  this  interloper  and  the  monarch's 
former  smith ,  it  was  agreed  that  Yelint  should  fabricate  a  sword ,  and 
his  opponent  a  helm,  which  the  latter  was  also  to  put  on,  and  if  it  were 
found  proof  against  the  edge  of  his  steel,  Yelint's  head  was  to  pay  the 
forfeit.  Accordingly,  at  the  time  appointed,  Amilias,  having  previously 
expressed  his  determination  to  enforce  the  penalty,  sat  down  upon  a  stool, 
defying  Yelint  to  exprt  all  his  strength.  The  latter,  who  stood  behind 
him,  then  raising  his  weapon,  cleft  at  a  single  stroke  the  armour  and  arm- 
ourer down  to  his  girdle;   and  inquiring  what  he  felt,  was  answered  by 

X)  Gylfag.,  ch.  35. 


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Amilias,  that  he  had  an  internal  sensation  as  if  arising  from  cold-ivater. 
'Shake  thyself!'  was  Velint's  reply;  and  this  advice  being  adopted,  the 
moieties  of  his  dissected  frame  separate-d,  and  fell  on  opposite  sides  of 
the  stool."  1) 

VEGTAMSQVIDA,  (The  LAY  of  the  WATPARER) ,  One  of  the  alliterative 
Chaants  of  the  elder  Edda.  —  "Under  the  designation  of  "Wayfarer 
{Vegtam) ,  Oden"  visits  the  realm  of  Hela  in  quest  of  the  departed  Vala, 
{propheiei$) ,  in  Order  to  obtain  some  information  regarding  the  danger  of 
Balder,  who,  to  the  dismay  of  all  the  tenants  of  AsgSrd,  had  been  ren- 
dered dispirited  tlirongh  ominous  dreams.  The  prophetess,  roused  from 
her  slumber  by  his  potent  incantation,  submits  very  ungraciously  to  the 
scrutiny;  and  as  well  through  the  purport  of  her  relations,  as  through 
the  tone  and  temper  in  which  tliey  are  delivered ,  completely  vindicates 
the  simile  of  our  poet,  when  comparing  the  "ill-boding  wail  of  Vala, 
uttered  with  a  voice  of  gloom,"  to  the  murmured  sentence  of  malicious 
Helge.  The  ancient  lay  contains  passages  of  awful  sublimity;  and  that 
poet  had  drunk  copiously  of  the  inspiring  cup  of  Brage ,  who  penned 
an  imitation  of  the  Skaldic  "Descent  of  Oden"  in  this  lyric  phrase:  — 
"Up  rose  the  king  of  men  with  speed. 
And  saddled  straight  his  coal-black  steed , 
Down  the  yawning  steep  he  rode 

That  leads  to  Hela's  drear  abode."  &c 

The  British  bard  paraphrased  very  freely  throughout,  yet  must  it  always 
be  difficult  to  w^ish  a  single  word  obliterated,  written  by  Mr.  Gray."  2) 

"viDAR,  [Vithar,  the  ANTAGONIST],  is  hight  One  [of  the  Chiefs  of 
AsgSrd].  He  is  the  Silent  Asa-God.  A  shoe  thick-welted  hatli  he.  The 
strongest  of  all  he  is,  next  after  Thor,  and  of  him  have  the  Gods  much 
help  in  all  dangerous  troubles."  3)  —  "The  "Wolf  gorges  Oden,  who  thus 
getteth  his  bane;  but  immediately  thereafter  rushes  Yidar  forward,  and 
steppelh  with  one  foot  on  his  lower  jaw.  On  that  foot  hath  he  the  shoe, 
for  which  the  leather  has  been,  from  of  old,  collected  of  all  those  bits 
which  are  cut  off  shoes  for  the  toes  or  heels  thereof.  He,  therefore,  who 
will  come  to  the  help  of  the  Asar,  alway  shall  take  care  to  cast  aside 
these  cuttings.  With  his  other  hand  Vidar  layeth  hold  of  the  "Wolf's 
upper  jaw,  and  rlveth  his  throat  asunder;  and  this  is  the  death  of  the 
"Wolf."  4)  Creuiter  interprets  this  mighty  son  of  Oden,  into  an  emblem  of 
the  silent  lapse  of  time. 

viPELL,  (CLUB).  "Now  it  came  to  pass  one  day,  that  the  Jarls  went 
in  before  tJie  king,   and  Vifell  sued  for  the  hand  of  Eimyria,  but  Vesete 


l)  Strong,   p.  4^  —  2)  Do,  117.  —  3)  Gylfag.  cb.  29.  —  4)  Do,  ch.  5i. 


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for  that  of  El sa.  His  denial  gaTe  the  king  unto  them  both.  Hereupon  became 
they  mighllly  enraged ,  and  shortly  after  carried  they  off  the  maidens  by  force. 
Thereafter  fled  they  from  out  the  country,  and  dared  not  come  before  the 
presence  of  the  king,  for  both  had  he  exiled  from  his  realm,  and  also  caused 
incantations  to  be  used,  so  that  they  should  never  thrive  therein  that  land; 
herewith  ordained  he  also ,  that  their  kinsmen  should  for  ever  be  driven 
from  their  properly.  Yesete  settled  li^self  on  that  island  or  holm  bight 
Borgnnderholm ,  and  became  father  to  Bue  and  to  Sigurd  Kappe.  Vifell 
sailed  out  farilier  to  the  east,  taking  up  his  abode  on  that  island  called 
VifclVs-Isle.  By  his  wife ,  Eimyria ,  had  he  a  son  bight  Viking ;  early 
was  he  of  great  stature ,  and  far  stronger  than  other  men."  1)  Space  will 
not  allow  us  to   translate    farther;  we   refer   to  the   amusing   Saga  itself. 

See  VIKING  YIFELLSSON. 

"vigwd's  —  bight  the  plain  Days-journey'  a  hundred  full 

Where,  battling,  meet  It  stretches  every  way: 

Surlur  and  Gods  so  mild:     *Tis  mark'd  their  field  of  fight."  2) 

VIKING,    C^«*-««y»   BAY-BOY  Or  WAR-BOY),  the  commou  appellation  of 
the  numerous  Northern  bucaniers   who  formerly  ravaged   ''the  Shores  of 
every  sea."    As  in   early   Greece,   Piracy  was  originally  in  Scandinavia  , 
an  honourable  and  glorious  path  for  booty  and  exploits.    See  sea-ring. 

VIKING  (viPELLSSON).  "Viking  went  in  before  the  king,  and  salu- 
ted him.  The  king  asked  him  of  his  name,  and  he  answered  even  as  it 
was.  Hunvor  [the  king's  daughter]  sat  at  Ms  side.  Viking  enquired 
whether  she  had  not  bidden  him  come  thither?  She  said  that  so  it  was. 
Viking  demanded,  on  what  conditions  he  should  fight  the  duel  with 
Harek  [Iron-head].  —  *Thou  shall  have  my  daughter',  said  the  king, 
*and  an  honorable  dowry  tliereunto.'  —  To  this  did  Viking  agree ,  and 
thereupon  was  Hervor  betrothed  unto  him.  Most  men  however  thought 
he  was  but  a  dead  man,  if  he  should  fight  with  Harek  ....  Viking  now 
drew  Angurvadel,  and  the  falchion  sliined,  even  as  a  fire  burned  from 
out  it.  When  Harek  saw  this  he  said,  —  'Never  should  I  have  fought 
with  thee ,  had  I  known  that  tliou  hadst  Angurvadel  in  thy  hands';  .  .  •  • 
and  even  as  he  said  these  words,  Viking  hewed  Harek  across  the  skull 
and  clove  him  down  all  his  length,  so  that  the  sword  went  deep  into 
the  earth,  even  up  to  the  hill  thereof."  3)    See  iron-head. 

VINGOLF,  (the  FLOOR  of  FRIENDS  or  Gourt  of  Friendship),  one  of 
the  Mansions  of  Paradise ,  in  Asg&rd.  —  "Another  Hall  builded  they  [the 
Asarj  thereunto ;  here  were  altars  for  the  Goddesses :  all-fair  it  was ,  and 
this  house  men  call  Vingolf."  4) 


I)  Thoraieu    Vik.    Saga,    eli.  I—    9.)  Seem.    Edda,   Yaftrudner's    Song,  str.    l8.  — 
3)  Thortten  Vik.  Saga,  cli.  3,  4.  —  4)  Gylfa{>.  41. 


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VIRGIN-BOWER.  The  lovers  of  tlie  olden  time  were  often  snfiiciently 
violent  in  their  wooings.  Ravishment,  rohhery,  and  forcible  abduction 
were  not  unfrequently  attempted,  and  often  with  success.  The  Virgin- 
bower  (tAewnta,  Jungfru-bur)  or  separate  apartment  of  the  Maidens,  was 
therefore ,  harem-like ,  guarded  and  fortified  with  great  care.  "We  some- 
times read,  in  the  old  songs  and  sagas,  of  draw-bridges  and  towers,  not 
to  speak  of  magic  fires  &:c. ,  bein^vsed  for  that  purpose. 


WHALE.  —  "In  Skaldic  phraseology,  Trolds  or  TroUs,  i.  e.  demon- 
giants  and  giantesses ,  arc  termed  "whales  of  the  mountains."  The  Saga 
of  Hialmter  and  Oelver  contains  a  very  spirited  description  of  a  contest 
with  a  magic  whale ,  which  terminates  in  its  defeat  and  subsidence."  1) 

WHITE  GOD ,  a  surname  of  Balder ,  who  was  also ,  during  the  chris- 
tianization  of  the  North ,  often  called  The  While  Chrui,    See  balder. 

WOMEN-WAVES ,  "Witch-sent  Storm-waves. 


YEOMAN,  peasant,  bonde  (from  Wa,  to  reside),  was  originally  an  in- 
dependent and  often  very  powerful  landholder,  whose  estate  was  lield 
without  any  condition  of  suit  or  service, 

Y6DRASIL ,  {Yggdratillf  the  HORSE  of  YGCR  Or  Oden ,  from  Oden  having 
been  suspended  tliereto  in  some  magical  or  sacrificial  ceremony,)  the  Tree 
of  Time.  —  "Then  quod  Gangleri ;  *which  is  the  chief  place  and  holiest 
seat  of  the  Gods?'  —  Har  answered;  *it  is  by  the  Ash  Ygdratil;  there  do 
the  Gods  give  doom  each  day.*  Gangleri  then  asked;  'what  is  there  told 
regarding  this  place?'  —  Then  maketh  Jafnhar  [The  equally  lofty  One^  reply: 
'This  Ash  is  of  all  trees  the  chiefest  and  the  best ;  the  branches  thereof 
strike  out  over  the  whole  world,  and  stand  up  above  the  heaven.  Three 
roots  there  are  which  uphold  the  tree,  and  stretch  themselves  far  and 
wide  abroad.  One  goelh  to  the  Asar;  another  to  the  Frost-trolls  where 
formerly  Ginniingagap  stood;  and  the  third  standeth  over  Niflheim,  and 
under  this  root  is  Hvergelmir,  where  Nidhogg  gnaweth  it  down  below* 
Under  that  root  which  reachelh  to  the  Fr ost- trolls,  is Mimer's  well,  where 
wisdom  and  understanding  are  concealed."  2) 

"Ash  know  I  high  standing  —       Thence  'tis  come  the  dew-drops 
*Tis  Ygdrasil  hight  —  That  fall  in  the  dale , 

Its  crown  ever  water'd  It  stands  there  aye  green 

"With  white -flowing  wave ;  Over  Urda's  fount."  3) 

"The  deeper  signification  of  this  Mylhus  presents  Ygdrasil  as  the 
increale,  eternal,  self-sustaining  principle  of  life.  Hence  it  trembles,  it 
is  true,   on  the  day  of  the  mundane  catastrophe,  yet  falls  not,  but  con- 


I)  Stronyy  p.  iS;.  —   a)  Gylfag.  i5.  —   3)  Voluspa,  str.  19. 

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liniies  to  subsist  after  Ragnarok.  According  to  this  view,  its  three  roots 
are  also  symbolical  of  Spirit,  Organisation,  and  Matter,  the  three  funda- 
mental conditions  of  all  risible  existence."  i)  —  "It  need  scarcely  he 
observed;  that  the  great  ash  Yfdraui  is  palpably  the  Zambu  of  the  Indian 
mount  Men,  and  tliey  are  equally  transcripts  of  tlie  Paradisiacal  tree  of 
knowledge.  The  Goths  have  added  to  it,  an  infernal  serpent,  which 
perpetually  gnaws  its  root  from  bela9:  a  curions  part  of  the  tradition 
which  suiEciently  bespeaks  its  own  origin."  2) 

YMBR,   a  monstrous   Giant,  who  existed  in  the  beginning  of  time. 
He   was   slain  by   Oden ,   Veli   and  Ve ,  and  the  world  was  created  from 
his   dismembered  carcase.    This,   of  course,  symbolizes  the  material  ele- 
ments, distributed  and  organized  by  tlie  Divine  energies. 
"From  Ymer's  body  "From  out  his  brows 

The  Earth  was  made ,  The  mild  Gods  shap'd 

And  from  his  blood  the  sea;  Midgard  for  sons  of  men; 

Rocks  from  his  bones;  But  from  his  brain 

Trees  from  his  hair;  Were  all  the  heavy 

And  high  Heav'n  from  his  skull:       Clouds  at  once  created."  3) 

YULE  ,  is  the  old  Northern  word  (Swedish  Jul)  for  Christmas,  and  is 
still  universally  used  in  the  North  of  England.  Both  Yule  and  the  Yule- 
Garousal,  which  coincided  with  the  winter-solstice ,  are  far  more  ancient  than 
t]ie  Christian.  Christmas  and  its  rites,  which  the  monks  engrafted  on  them 
as  a  pious  substitute. 

AGiR ,  the  God  of  the  sea.  He  symbolized  tliis  element  in  its 
greatness  and  mildness.  Of  course  the  word  often  means  simply  the 
Ocean.  We  find  the  term  still  occasionally  used  4)  to  signify  the  bore  or 
tide-wave  of  a  large  river. 

Xgir's  daughters,  Mer- maids  (billows,  waves)  who  are  nine  in 
number:  Haningltefa,  (heavcn-high) ;  l>»/a,  (Douser) ;  BUAughadda,  {Bloody- 
wave);  Hefring,  (Heaving);  Uthr,  (Water);  Hravnn^  (Spoiler);  Bylgja,  (Billow) 
Drafn,  (the  Driving);  and  Ka^a,  (Flood).  5) 


ODER,  See  Freja. 


X)  H.  Jj,  Schley,  quoted  by  Strong,  p.  279.  —  2)  Faber,  Orig.  Pag.  Id.  1.  34l.  — 
3)  Stem.  E4da,  Grimaer's  Song,  str.  40.  4i.  —  4)  Drgden,  Tbren.  Aug.  x3o.  — 
5)  Skaldskarp.  cb.  61. 


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ERRATA: 

"Ut  hominum ,  ita  lihrprum ,  nullus  sine  viliis  editor :  prae 
1  eliquis  tamen  veniam  merentur  iUi  y  qui  et  peregrini  sunt  idiomatis  % 
et  scripturae  tarn  yariae^  cpalis  hie  est." 

Andreaa  Otho  Lecturis  Sal, 
(GloMiriam  laDguarum  Orieotaliom  FraDcoforti  MDCCII.) 


The  following  have  been  observed. 


P.    8  1»  14.  for  ^Heavn'S'         rtad  'Heay'n's' 

—  31  —    8.  „   'Baltics'  „    'Baltic's* 

—  54  -^  15.  „  'Falchion'         „    'Falcon" 

—  119  —    8.  „   'Nigthingales'  „    'Nightingales' 
—134  —    8,  ,j  "Gainst'  „    ''Gainst* 


*  The  reader  will  remember  that  the  printing  of  this  work  in  a 
foreign  Capital ,  has  been  attended  with  great  delays  and  disadvantages. 


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